# -*- perl -*-
#
#   HTML::EP	- A Perl based HTML extension.
#
#
#   Copyright (C) 1998    Jochen Wiedmann
#                         Am Eisteich 9
#                         72555 Metzingen
#                         Germany
#
#                         Phone: +49 7123 14887
#                         Email: joe@ispsoft.de
#
#   All rights reserved.
#
#   You may distribute this module under the terms of either
#   the GNU General Public License or the Artistic License, as
#   specified in the Perl README file.
#
############################################################################


=head1 NAME

    HTML::EP - a system for embedding Perl into HTML

=head1 SYNOPSIS

    <html><head><title>CGI-Env</title></head>
    <ep-comment>
	This is an HTML document. You see. Perhaps you wonder about
	the unknown HTML tags like ep-comment above? They are part
	of the EP system. For example, this comment section will
	be removed and you won't see it in your browser.
    </ep-comment>
    <ep-perl>
	# This is an example of embedding Perl into the page.
	# We create a variable called time, containing the current
        # time. This variable will be used below.
        my $self = $_;
	$self->{'time'} = localtime(time());
	''; # Return an empty string; result becomes embedded into the
            # HTML page
    </ep-perl>
    <body><h1>The current time</h1>
        Your HTML::EP system is up and running: The current time is $time$.
    </body>
    </html>


=head1 NEWS

HTML::EP does now have a homepage, a CVS repository and a bug tracking
system. Try

	http://html-ep.sourceforge.net/


=head1 DESCRIPTION

Have you ever written a CGI binary? Easy thing, isn't it? Was just fun!

Have you written two CGI binaries? Even easier, but not so much fun.

How about the third, fourth or fifth tool? Sometimes you notice that
you are always doing the same:

=over 4

=item

Reading and parsing variables

=item

Formatting output, in particular building tables

=item

Sending mail out from the page

=item

Building a database connection, passing CGI input to the database and
vice versa

=item

Talking to HTML designers about realizing their wishes

=back

You see, it's soon to become a pain. Of course there are little helpers
around, for example the CGI module, the mod_perl suite and lots of it
more. Using them make live a lot easier, but not so much as you like.
L<CGI(3)>. L<mod_perl(3)>.

On the other hand, there are tools like PHP or WebHTML. Incredibly
easy to use, but not as powerfull as Perl. Why not get the best from
both worlds? This is what EP wants to give you, similar to ePerl or
HTML::EmbPerl. I personally believe that EP is simpler and better
extendible than the latter two. L<ePerl(1)>. L<HTML::EmbPerl(3)>.

In short, it's a single, but extensible program, that scans an HTML
document for certain special HTML tags. These tags are replaced by
appropriate output generated by the EP. What remains is passed to the
browser. Its just like writing HTML for an enhanced browser!


=head2 Prerequisites

As far as I know EP depends on no system dependent features. However,
it relies on some other Perl modules:

=over 12

=item CGI

The CGI module should be a part of your Perl core's installation. If
not, you should definitely upgrade to Perl 5.004. :-) My thanks to
Lincoln D. Stein <lstein@genome.wi.mit.edu>. Note, you need a late
version, including the CGI::Cookie module.

=item HTML::Parser

This module is used for parsing the HTML templates. My thanks to Gisle
Aas <aas@sn.no>.

=item libwww

The LWP library contains a lot of utility functions, for example HTML
and URL encoding and decoding. Again, my thanks to Gisle Aas <aas@sn.no>. :-)

=item Mail::Internet

Graham Barr <gbarr@pobox.com> wrote the MailTools package. Some parts
of it, in particular the Mail::Internet module is used for sending mail
from within the HTML page. Thank very much, Graham!

=item Storable

Raphael Manfredi's <Raphael_Manfredi@grenoble.hp.com> excellent Storable
module is used for storing sessions. I owe him much, as Storable is
usefull in a lot of other modules.

=back

Perl itself and the above modules are available from any CPAN mirror,
for example

       ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/modules/by-module

Note that you don't need to install these manually, the CPAN module will
help you. See the L<"Automatic Installation"> below.


=head2 Automatic Installation

Installing this module (and the prerequisites from above) is quite simple,
if you have the CPAN module available and network access, you might
try an automatic installation:

    perl -MCPAN -e shell

If the CPAN prompt appears, asking you for commands, enter

    install Bundle::HTML::EP

Automatic installation typically doesn't work on Windows, due to a
missing C development environment. However, you might try

    ppm install http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/J/JW/JWIED/HTML-EP.ppd


=head2 Manual Installation

If automatic installation doesn't work, you just fetch the archive, extract
it with

    gzip -cd HTML-EP-0.1125.tar.gz | tar xf -

(this is for Unix users, Windows users would prefer WinZip or something
similar) and then enter the following:

    cd HTML-EP-0.1125
    perl Makefile.PL
    make
    make test

If any tests fail, let me know. Otherwise go on with

    make install

This will put the required Perl modules into a destination where
Perl finds it by default. Additionally it will install a single CGI
binary, called C<ep.cgi>.

The docs are available online with

    perldoc HTML::EP

If you prefer an HTML version of the docs, try

    pod2html lib/HTML/EP.pm

in the source directory.


=head2 Using the CGI binary

You have different options for integrating EP into your WWW server,
depending on which server you are using and the permissions you have.
The simplest possibility is running an external CGI binary. Another
option is to use mod_perl with Apache, see L<"Using mod_perl"> below.

I suggest that you choose an extension and configure your WWW server for
feeding files with this extension into C<ep.cgi>. For example, with
Apache, you can add the following lines to your C<srm.conf>:

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ep.cgi	/usr/bin/ep.cgi
    AddType x-ep-script .ep
    Action x-ep-script /cgi-bin/ep.cgi

This tells Apache that files with extension ep.cgi are handled by the
CGI binary C</usr/bin/ep.cgi>.  On Windows, you should replace ep.cgi
with ep.cgi.bat. Make sure, that the ScriptAlias line is
entered *before* any other ScriptAlias instruction! In particular,
the following would be wrong:

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /home/httpd/cgi-bin/
    ...
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ep.cgi /usr/bin/ep.cgi

The first rule would be applied before our rule, so that it could
never match.

From now on your server will never return files with extension .ep
directly! Verify your installation by creating the following file:

    <html><head><title>Local time</title></head>
    <body>
    The current time is:
    <ep-perl>scalar(localtime(time))</ep-perl>
    </body>

(Note that this is a much shorter version of the example in the synopsis.)
Store it as C</test.ep> on your web server and retrieve the file via
your Web server. If you see the time displayed, you are up and running.


=head2 Using mod_perl

The EP package can be integrated into mod_perl, for example by using
the following commands in C<srm.conf>:

    PerlModule Apache::EP
    <Files *.ep>
      SetHandler perl-script
      PerlHandler Apache::EP->handler
      Options ExecCGI
    </Files>

Keep in mind, that mod_perl differs in many details from programming CGI
binaries. In particular you might need to restart Apache for loading
changes in modules.


=head2 Using the Internet Information Server

I am sure there is a better way of installation, in the sense of mod_perl,
however, I am no IIS expert. I can only recommend using Perl as an external
binary, in the sense of CGI.

The idea is to advice the IIS, that files with extension .ep have to
be executed by running

	C:\Perl\bin\perl.exe c:\Perl\bin\ep.cgi %s%s

with %s%s being the path to the EP document. (Of course the paths have to
be adjusted to your local Perl.) This can be done by creating a new
extension in the window "Base directory/Configure". (Window name translated
from the german IIS, it´s "Basisverzeichnis / Konfigurieren" here and might
be different in english.)


=head2 Available methods

All EP tags are starting with the prefix I<ep->. Some available tags are:


=over 4

=item ep-comment

This is a multi-line tag for embedding comments into your HTML page. But
why use this tag, instead of the usual HTML comment, C<E<lt>!-->? The
difference is, that the user will never see the former.

Example:

    <html>
        <!-- This is a comment. I like comments. --!>
        <ep-comment>
	    This is another comment, but you won't see it
	    in your browser. The HTML editor will show it
	    to you, however!
	</ep-comment>
    </html>

Do not try to embed EP instructions into the comment section! They
won't produce output, but they might be executed anyways.


=item ep-perl

This is for embedding Perl into your script. There are two versions of
it: A multiline version is for embedding the Perl code immediately into
your script. Example:

    <html>
	<head><title>The Date</title></head>
        <body>
	    <h1>The Date</h1>
	    <p>Hello, today its the</p>
	    <p align=center>
	    <ep-perl>
		# This little piece of Perl code will be executed
		# while scanning the page.
		#
		# Let's calculate the date!
		#
		my($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year)
                    = localtime(time);
		# Leave a string with the date as result. Will be
                # inserted into the HTML stream:
		sprintf("%02d.%02d.%04d", $mday, $mon+1, $year+1900);
	    </ep-perl>
	    </p>
        </body>
    </html>

If you don't like to embed Perl code, you may store it into a different
file. That's what the single-line version of ep-perl is for:

    <html>
	<head><title>The Date</title></head>
        <body>
	    <h1>The Date</h1>
	    <p>Hello, today its the</p>
	    <p align=center>
	    <ep-perl src="date.pl">
	    </p>
        </body>
    </html>


You have noticed, that the little script's result was inserted into the
HTML page, did you? It did return a date, in other words a string consisting
of letters, digits and dots. There's no problem with inserting such a string
into an HTML stream.

But that's not always the case! Say you have a string like

    Use </html> for terminating the HTML page.

This cannot be inserted as a raw string, for obvious reasons. Thus the
ep-perl command has an attribute I<output>. Use it like this:

    <ep-perl output=html>
        'Use </html> for terminating the HTML page.';
    </ep-perl>

Possible values of the I<output> attribute are C<raw> (default), C<html>
(HTML encoded) and C<url> (URL encoded).

It's a common mistake, to use the Perl command C<return> in embedded Perl.
Never do that! If you need return (there are of course situations where
returning can help), do it like this:

    <ep-perl>
	sub eval_me {
	    if ($this) {
		return 'foo';
	    } elsif ($that) {
		return 'bar';
	    }
	    '';
	}
	eval_me();
    </ep-perl>

See L<"Variables"> below for interactions between Perl variables and
EP variables.

For security reasons, you might set an attribute I<safe>, as in

    <ep-perl safe=1>...</ep-perl>

This will create a B<Safe> compartment for you and run the embedded script
in the compartment. Using this attribute is highly recommended!


=item ep-mail

This command will send an e-mail. The attributes will be used for creating
the email header, in particular the C<subject>, C<from> and C<to> attribute
should be used. Example:

    <ep-mail subject="Howdy!" from="joe@ispsoft.de"
             reply-to="joe@ispsoft.de" to="bill@whitehouse.gov">
	Hello, Bill, old chap. How are you?

	Yours sincerely,
	Jochen
    </ep-mail>

You can still use EP variables in the E-mail body, for example the
following works:

    <ep-mail subject="Test" reply-to="$cgi->email$" to="joe@ispsoft.de"
             from="webmaster@www.mydomain.com">
        Hello, Joe,
        this e-mail was sent to you by $@cgi->name$.
    </ep-mail>

But note that we suppress conversion into HTML format in the mail body!
See L<"Variables"> below for details.

Recent sendmail versions are quite picky about validity of email addresses.
Thus it is highly recommended that you use valid addresses for the
I<to> and I<from> fields. If you want to customize the sender, you'd
better choose a fixed I<from> field and modify the I<reply-to> field
only, as in the example above.


=item ep-errhandler

This command advices EP, what to do in case of errors. See L<"Error handling">
below. Example:

    <ep-comment>
	Set the template being used for system errors.
    </ep-comment>
    <ep-errhandler type=system src=/templates/syserr.html>
    <ep-comment>
	Likewise, set the template for user errors.
    </ep-comment>
    <ep-errhandler type=user src=/templates/usererr.html>

If an error occurs, the given scripts are loaded and used as templates
instead of the current one. You don't need external files! Instead
you can use

    <ep-errhandler type=user>
        <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>User error</TITLE></HEAD>
        <BODY><H1>User error</H1>
        <P>Replace user and continue. :-)</P>
        <P>To be serious, the following problem happened:</P>
        <PRE>$errmsg$</PRE>
        <P>Please return to the calling page, fix the problem
        and retry.</P>
        </BODY></HTML>
    </ep-errhandler>

However, you might prefer to use a single error template and of course
it's faster to use external error templates than parsing builtin
templates. (At least, if no error occurs. :-)


=item ep-error

This command forces an error message. See L<"Error handling"> below.
You can trigger user or system errors by setting the I<type> attribute
to the values C<system> (default) or C<user>. The I<msg> attribute is
for setting the error message.

Example:

    <ep-comment>
	If no email address was entered, force a user error.
    </ep-comment>
    <ep-if eval="$cgi->email$">
        Email address is ok.
    <ep-else>
	<ep-error msg="Missing email address" type=user>
    </ep-if>


=item ep-database

This command connects to a database. Its attributes are C<dsn>, C<user>
and C<password> corresponding to the same attributes of the DBI connect
method. See L<DBI(3)> for details on DBI.

Example:

    <ep-database dsn="DBI:mysql:test" user="joe"
	         password="Authorized?Me?">

You can use different database connections by using the I<dbh> attribute:

    <ep-database dbh="dbh2" dsn="DBI:mSQL:test">

The I<dbh> attribute advices EP to store the DBI handle in the given
variable. (Default: C<dbh>) See L<"Variables"> below.


=item ep-query

This command executes an SQL statement. The C<query> attribute will
be used for passing the SQL statement. Of course a multiline version
is available, thus

    <ep-query statement="INSERT INTO foo VALUES (1, 'bar')">

is the same as

    <ep-query>
	INSERT INTO foo VALUES (1, 'bar')
    </ep-query>

If your query retrieves a result, use the C<result> attribute to store it
in a variable, for example like this:

    <ep-query statement="SELECT * FROM employees" result="employees"
              resulttype="hash" startat=0 limit=-1>

This will create a variable C<employees>, an array ref of hash refs.
You can use the ep-list command for displaying the output. See
L<"Variables"> below.

When using multiple database connections, use the I<dbh> attribute for
choosing the connection. (See the I<ep-database> method above.)

If you have big result tables, you might prefer DBI's I<fetchrow_arrayref>
method over creating hash refs, because arrays are created faster than
hash refs. This is achieved by setting the attribute I<resulttype> to
B<array>. The default is B<hash>. Other resulttypes are I<single_hash>
and I<single_array>: If your query will return at most a single element,
then the result variable will contain the first row (or an undefined
value) and not an array.

Sometimes you don't want to retrieve the complete result table. In that
case you can use the attributes I<startat> and I<limit>. For example,
to retrieve rows 0-19, use B<startat=0> and I<limit=20>. Likewise you
would use B<startat=20> and B<limit=20> for rows 20-39.

When using the I<MySQL> engine, the I<startat> and I<limit> attributes
are directly mapped to MySQL's I<LIMIT> clause.



=item ep-list

This command is used to display an array of refs. Lets assume, that
the variable C<employees> contains a an array ref of refs with the attributes
I<name> and I<department>. Then you could create a table of employees as
follows:

    <table><tr><th>Nr.</th><th>Name</th><th>Department</th>
    <ep-list items="employees" item="e">
	   <tr><td>$i$</td><td>$e->name$</td><td>$e->department$</td>
    </ep-list>
    </table>

This will be processed as follows: For any item in the array,
retrieved from the variable C<employees>, create a variable C<e> and
display the text between ep-list and /ep-list for it by replacing
the patterns $e->name$ and $e->department$ with the corresponding
values.

The variable I<i> is initially set to 0 and incremented by one
with any element.

As an alternative to the I<items> attribute, you may prefer the
I<range> attribute: For example

  <ep-list range="1..12" item=month><OPTION>$month$</ep-list>

will create the options array of a select box for you, where the
user can select a month. If your prefer month names, you may better
choose

  <ep-list range="jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,aug,sep,oct,nov,dec"
   item=month><OPTION>$month$</ep-list>

It is even possible to mix both versions, as in

  <ep-list range="1..3,6..7,10" item=m><OPTION>$m$</ep-list>

See the I<ep-select> command below for another example of the
I<range> attribute.

It is possible to nest multiple ep-list statements, as in

  <ep-list range="1..3" item="i"><ep-list range="4..6"
    item="j">$i$$j$ </ep-list></ep-list>

This will create the output "14 15 16 24 25 26 34 35 36".


=item ep-select

This is similar to ep-list, but it is specifically designed for creating
SELECT boxes and similar things. We explain it by example:

    <ep-select name="year" range="1991..1995" item="y"
               selected="$cgi->year$">
        <OPTION $selected$>$y$</ep-select>

If you supply a I<selected> attribute, then a variable I<selected> will
be created for any item. The value will be either an empty string or
the word C<SELECTED> (configurable via the attribute I<selected-text>),
depending on whether the item matches the I<selected> value or not.


=item ep-input

This is usefull for reading an objects data out of CGI variables.
Say you have a form with input fields describing an address, the
field names being address_t_name, address_t_street, address_n_zip and
address_t_city. By using the command

    <ep-input prefix="address_" dest="address">

the EP program will create a variable "address" for you which is an
hash ref as follows:

    $cgi = $_->{cgi};
    $_->{address} = {
	name =>   { col => 'name',
		    val => $cgi->param("address_name"),
		    type => 't',
		  },
	street => { col => 'street',
		    val => $cgi->param("address_street"),
		    type => 't',
		  },
	zip =>    { col => 'zip',
		    val => $cgi->param("address_zip"),
		    type => 'n',
		  },
	city =>   { col => 'city',
		    val => $cgi->param("address_city"),
		    type => 't'
		    }
    };

In general column names beginning with I<address> will be splitted into
C<prefix_type_suffix>, the type being one of

=over 8

=item t

Text columns (CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, or whatever), that will be quoted
using the $self->{'dbh'}->quote() method.

=item n

Numeric columns (INTEGER, REAL, ...) that will be left untouched

=item dd

=item dm

=item dy

Day, month and year of a date. The combined fields will be quoted as
'yyyy-mm-dd'.

=item s

Set columns as created using MultiSelect boxes; the selected values
will be used for creating a comma separated string.

=back

The idea is generating SQL queries automatically out of the
C<address> variable. This task is supported by the I<sqlquery> attribute:

    <ep-database dsn="DBI:mysql:test">
    <ep-input prefix="address_" dest="a" sqlquery=1>
    <ep-comment>Create a new record, if no ID is given</ep-comment>
    <ep-if eval="$cgi->id$">
    <ep-query
     statement="INSERT INTO addresses ($@a->names$) VALUES ($@a->values$)">
    <ep-else>
    <ep-query
     statement="UPDATE addresses SET $@a->update$ WHERE id = $@id$">

The I<sqlquery> creates attributes I<names>, I<values> and I<update> for
you, that may be used in INSERT or UPDATE queries. Note that the I<ep-input>
must be preceeded by an I<ep-database> call, because it is using DBI's
I<quote> method. L<DBI(3)>.


There are situations where you want to fetch not only a single object,
but a list of objects. Suggest an order form of articles. Then you
might have input fields I<art_0_t_name>, I<art_0_n_count>, I<art_0_n_price>,
I<art_1_t_name>, ...

In that case you can give the I<ep-input> command an attribute list, like
this:

    <ep-input prefix="art_" dest="art" list=1>

The module will read an array ref of objects to the variable C<dest>.
Any object will have an additional scalar variable C<i> referring to
the items number, beginning with 0. In other words, you can process the
order form as follows:

    <ep-input prefix="art_" dest="art" list=1>
    <ep-perl>
      my $self = $_;
      my $sum = 0.0;
      for (my $i = 0;  defined($self->{cgi}->param("art_$i_n_count"));
	   $i++) {
	  $sum += $self->{cgi}->param("art_$i_n_count") *
                  $self->{cgi}->param("art_$i_n_price")
      }
      ''
    </ep-perl>
    <ep-mail from="$cgi->email$" to="order@mydomain"
             subject="Order form">
      The following items have been ordered:

        Nr.    Price   Article

      <ep-list>
        $art->count->val$  $art->price->val$  $art->name->val$
      </ep-list>

      Total sum: $sum$
    </ep-mail>


=item ep-input-sql-query

    <ep-input-sql-query dest=art>

This method is internally called by ep-input and implements the
creation of the I<names>, I<values> and I<updates> attributes.

It takes as input the hash ref given by the variable I<dest>,
usually created by ep-input. The hash ref consists of column
names as keys and hash refs with the attributes I<type> and
I<val>.

The main reason for putting this into a separate method is
subclassing: It is quite usual, that you want ep-input to read
the data, then do some verification and/or modification on the
data (for example, canonicalizing dates) and finally create
the SQL query. This can be done quite easily by subclassing
the I<_ep_input_sql_query> method: Within the method you
verify and/or modify data entered by the user and then call
the super class.

For example, a typical subclass implementation could look like
this:

  sub _ep_input_sql_query {
    my $self = shift;  my $attr = shift;
    # If the user left the MYCOL column empty, set it to NULL.
    my $dest = $attr->{'dest'};
    $self->{$dest}->{'MYCOL'} = undef
	if $self->{$dest}->{'MYCOL'} eq '';
    $self->SUPER::_ep_input_sql_query($attr);
  }


=item ep-include

Sometimes you want to source external files. This can be done
by using

    <ep-include file="myfile">

If a file with the given name doesn't exist, the file name is treated as
being relative to your WWW servers I<DOCUMENT_ROOT> directory.

=item ep-exit

This directive terminates processing of the current HTML page.

=item ep-set

This instruction is setting an EP variable. Suggest the following
example:

  <ep-set var=myvar val=value>

From now on you can use

  $myvar$

as an alias for "value". There's also a multiline version:

  <ep-set var=myvar>value</ep-set>

The main difference between the single and the multiline version is that
the multiline version allows supressing variable interpretation by setting
the I<noparse> attribute:

  <ep-set var=myvar noparse=1>my $value$</ep-set>

The above example is indeed setting myvar to "my $value$" *without*
escaping $value$!

=back


=head2 Conditional HTML

It is possible to blank out parts of the HTML document. See the following
example:

    <html><head><title>Conditional HTML</title></head>
    <body>
      <h1>Conditional HTML</h1>
      <ep-if eval="$_->{cgi}->param('i') < 0">
        You have entered a negative number for i!
      <ep-else eval="$_->{cgi}->param('i') == 0">
        You have entered zero for i!
      <ep-else>
        <ep-if eval="$_->{cgi}->param('j') < 0">
          You have entered a negative number for j!
        <ep-else eval="$_->{cgi}->param('h') == 0">
          You have entered zero for j!
        <ep-else>
          Ok, both numbers are positive.
        </ep-else>
      </ep-else>
    </body>
    </html>

The example is of course somewhat unnatural, because you'd better use
a single ep-perl in that case, but it shows that we can use
arbitrary complex structures of conditional HTML.

The I<eval> attribute is simply treated as a truth value, as in Perl.
Thus empty strings or numeric zeros are FALSE, everything else is TRUE.
This is reversed, if you replace I<eval> with I<neval>:

    <ep-if neval="$a$">
      a is not set
    <ep-else>
      a is set
    </ep-if>

If you'd like to compare numeric values, use the I<cnd> attribute, as in

    <ep-if cnd="$a$<$b$">
      a is lower than b
    <ep-else>
      a is greater than or equal to b
    </ep-if>

You may choose either of ==, !=, <, >, <= or >= for the condition. And
finally you may compare string values like this:

    <ep-if cnd="'$a$' eq '$b$'">
      a is equal to b
    </ep-if>

Note the use of the single quotes, which is really required here.
Available conditions are eq and ne.

As with ep-list, you may nest multiple ep-if's or combine them with
ep-list. The following is invalid, though:

  <ep-list range="1..3" item="i">
    <ep-if cnd="$i$<3">ok</ep-list></ep-if>

As the ep-if starts within the ep-list, it must also be terminated
before the corresponding /ep-list.


=head2 Localization

Localization is available via the HTML::EP::Locale module. Currently
it only offers methods for localizing strings.

To access the module, let's assume you prefer your visitors reading
the german (de) version of your page, but it is also available in
english (en). Then start your HTML page with

    <ep-package name="HTML::EP::Locale" accept-language="de,en">


When the package is loaded, it tries to guess your documents language.
The default language is I<de> (german) or whatever you choose when
installing the package. Another language can be specified by

=over 8

=item *

By setting the CGI variable I<language>, for example by making
a link to F<mypage.ep?language=en>.

=item *

By setting the environment variable I<HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE>; most
browsers do this for you. For example with Netscape, this variable
is configurable via Edit/Preferences/Navigator/Languages.

=back

Two possibilities are available for localizing strings. For short strings
like titles, headers or Link refs you might prefer this version:

    <ep-language de="Titel" en="Title">

Obviously this is not appropriate for longer strings and it must not
contain HTML patterns. Thus another version is available:

    <ep-language language=de>
      <p>Dies ist ein Absatz.</p>
      <p>Dies ist der zweite Absatz.</p>
    <ep-language language=en>
      <p>This is one paragraph.</p>
      <p>This is another paragraph.</p>
    </ep-language>

Note you need not use a /ep-language for terminating the german
part, similar to the ep-if, ep-elseif, ..., ep-else, /ep-if
structure.

A special problem with localization is the choice of a character
set. You can fix a certain character set with something like

  <META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-type"
        CONTENT="text/html; CHARSET: iso-8859-2">


=head2 Error handling

Error handling with EP is quite simple: All you do in case of errors is
throwing a Perl exception. For example, DBI handles are created with
the RaiseError attribute set to 1, so that SQL errors trigger a Perl
exception. You never care for errors!

However, what happens in case of errors? In that case, EP will use the
template that you have set with ep-errhandler and treat it like an
ordinary EP document, by setting the variables C<errmsg> and C<admin>.

If you don't set an error handler, the following template will be used,
which is well suited for creating an own error template:

    <html><head><title>Internal error</title></head>
    <body><h1>Internal error</h1>
    <p>An internal error occurred. The server has not been able to
    fullfill your request. The error message is:</p>
    <pre>
	$errmsg$
    </pre>
    <p>Please contact the Webmaster,
    <a href="mailto:$admin$">$admin$</a>,
    tell him the URL, the time and error message.
    </p>
    <p>We apologize for any inconvenience, please try again later!</p>
    <br><br><br><p>Yours sincerely,</p><p>The Webmaster</p>
    </body>
    </html>


=head2 Variables

It is important to understand, how EP variables work, in particular when
working with ep-perl.

You always have an object $_, which is an instance of the HTML::EP
class (a subclass of HTML::Parser). This object has certain attributes,
in particular C<$_-E<gt>{cgi}>, a CGI object and C<$_-E<gt>{dbh}>, the DBI
handle. (Of course valid after C<ep-database> only.) If you want to set
or modify a variable, you have to set C<$_-E<gt>{varname}>. If you want to
retrieve the value, use the same. Note that you cannot use C<$_> for
a long time, as it will be changed by Perl loops and the like, thus
your Perl code typically starts with

    $_ = $self;

But how do you access the variable from within EP documents? You just
write

	$varname$

This will be replaced automatically by the parser with the value of
C<$_-E<gt>{varname}>. Even more, the value will be converted
into HTML source!

If C<varname> is a structured variable, for example a hash or array ref,
you may as well use

	$varname->attrname$
or

	$varname->0$

to access C<$_-E<gt>{varname}-E<gt>{attrname}> or
C<$_-E<gt>{varname}-E<gt>[0]>, respectively. A special
value of I<varname> is C<cgi>: This will access the CGI variable of
the same name, thus the following are equivalent:

	$cgi->email$

and

	$_->{cgi}->param('email');

But what, if you don't want your variable to be HTML encoded? You
may as well use

	$@varname$	(Raw)
	$#varname$	(URL encoded)
	$~varname$	(SQL encoded)

The latter uses the $_->{dbh}->quote() method. In particular this
implies that you have to be connected to a database, before using
this tag!

You can even use these symbols in attributes of EP commands. For
example, the following will be usefull when sending a mail:

    <ep-mail subject="Howdy!" from="$@cgi->email$"
	     to="bill@whitehouse.gov">

Attributes may include EP variables, just like ordinary HTML code.
Even more, they may contain Perl code which is evaluated just like
code between C<E<lt>ep-perlE<gt>> and C<E<lt>/ep-perlE<gt>>. However,
you need to use the variable C<$_> in the code, because the package
otherwise doesn't detect what you want it to do.

See L<"Custom variable formatting"> for setting up your own formats.


Of course you can set EP variables from within an ep-perl section. But
sometimes it is desirable to set them from within HTML. In such cases
you can do something like

  <ep-set var="a" val="b">

Now, if you do a

  Variable a has the value $a$.

the value B<b> will be emitted. It is also possible to set multiline
variables:

  <ep-set var="a">
    This is a template, extending a single line.
  </ep-set>


=head2 Custom variable formatting

Sometimes the builtin formatting methods of HTML::EP are not sufficient.
A good example are currencies. These can be handled with format methods.
For example, see the following method for german currency values:

    <ep-package name="MyPackage">
    <ep-perl>
        package MyPackage;
        sub _format_DM {
	    my($self, $val) = @_;
	    sprintf("%.2f DM", $val);
	    $val =~ s/\./,/;
	    $val;
        };
        ''
    </ep-perl>

This can be used as follows, suggest we have the following variables:

    a = 1
    b = 2.4
    c = 34.47

then we can use

    a = $&DM->a$	       	=>  1,00 DM
    b = $&DM->b$	       	=>  2,40 DM
    c = $&DM->c$	       	=> 34,47 DM

In other words: Use the special marker B<&>, followed by the custom
formats method name, the dereferencing operator and finally the variable
name.

The above method is already predefined by the HTML::EP::Locale module.

As you have seen, the pattern $&METHODNAME->var$ triggers the call
of

    $self->_format_METHODNAME($self->{'var'});

It is not always usefull to fix a method name. In such cases you may
instead store a code ref in



=head2 Modifying the CGI headers

The attribute $self->{'_ep_heaaders'} is containing arguments that you
want to pass to CGI->header(). Use it like this:

    <ep-perl>
      $_->{'_ep_headers'} = { '-status' => '402 Payment required',
			      '-expires' => '+3d'
			     }
    </ep-perl>


=head2 Doing a redirect

A redirect is moving the browser to another page without actually
displaying the current page. You can do it like this:

    <ep-redirect target="http://other.server/other/page">


=head2 Producing Non-HTML

Say you want a CGI binary that creates a gif and not an HTML document.
(See the C<ifgif.ep> file from the SNMP::Monitor distribution for an
example.) Two problems are arising here: First of all you have to
create your own headers. Next you *must* prevent that EP is emitting
any output, because this might trash your images validity. Here's
what to do:

    <ep-perl>
        my $self = $_;
        my $cgi = $self->{'cgi'};
        $self->_ep_database({'dsn' => 'DBI:mysql:test',
			     'user' => 'joe',
			     'password' => 'joe'});
        $self->_ep_query({'statement' => "SELECT image FROM images WHERE"
			      . " id = " . $cgi->param('id'),
			  'result' => 'im',
			  'resultype' => 'single_hash'});
        $self->print($cgi->header('-type' => 'image/gif'),
                     $self->{im}->{'image'});
        $self->Stop();
    </ep-perl>

Note the use of $self->Stop()!


=head2 NPH Scripts

The Apache server and other WWW servers have a nice feature that allows
you to return HTML pages line by line: If your script is called something like
nph-myscript then the server is passing the scripts output to the browser
immediately. This is usefull, for example, if you display the output of
a traceroute command: You'd like to see any line immediately, but it may take
some time untill the next line arrives.

Unfortunately NPH scripts are not well suited for HTML::EP: One of EP's
major targets is that you need not care for errors: They may occur at
any point but are still catched and handled by creating an error message.
However, there's no other way to guarantee this without buffering
output until the script ends.

If you really need to use NPH, do it like this:

    <ep-perl>
      my $self = $_;
      local $| = 1; # make sure that Perl isn't buffering
      $self->print($self->{'cgi'}->header('-type' => 'text/html',
					  '-nph' => 1));
      for (my $i = 0;  $i < 20;  $i++) {
	$self->print("This is line $i. Waiting one second ...\n")
	sleep 1;
      }
      $self->Stop();
    </ep-perl>

Note, that *no* more output will be produced by EP after calling
$self->Stop()!


=head1 DEBUGGING

Debugging CGI applications is always a problem. The EP module does its
best to support you.

Whenever you supply a CGI variable I<debug>, then the module will enter
debugging mode. For example if your document is C</mypage.ep>, then
tell your browser to fetch C</mypage.ep?debug=1>. You won't see the
usual HTML page, but a plain text page with lots of debugging messages
and the created HTML source.

You may extend the debugging code with sequences like

    <ep-perl>
        my $self = $_;
        $self->print("I'm here!\n") if $self->{debug};
    </ep-perl>

Note that you should not call the I<print> function directly, but the
I<print> method! The former works well in CGI environments, but EP
should work even in other environments as well.

But sometimes this is not sufficient: What's inserting debugging
messages compared to using the Perl debugger? In that case you
can emulate a CGI environment as follows:

    export DOCUMENT_ROOT=/usr/local/www/htdocs
    export PATH_TRANSLATED=$DOCUMENT_ROOT/mypage.ep
    export REQUEST_METHOD=GET
    export QUERY_STRING="var1=val1&var2=val2"
    perl -d /usr/bin/ep.cgi

This allows you single-stepping through your program, displaying variable
values and the like.

However, the debug variable is obviously a security problem. For that
reason the I<debughosts> variable is present in HTML::EP::Config: You
should set it to a regular expression matching the IP numbers of hosts
that are allowed to enable debugging mode. The Makefile.PL should query
for appropriate settings automatically while running.


=head1 EXAMPLES

The program comes with a set of examples incorporated. These are:

  - A simple Unix user administration in examples/admin.

  - A generic frontend for editing DBI tables in examples/edit.ep

  - A POP3 client for the web in examples/pop3.

Other examples are:

  - The SNMP monitor, a utility for watching, logging and displaying
    interface utilization and status of network interfaces via WWW.
    See the directory authors/id/JWIED on any CPAN mirror, for example
    ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN.

  - The EP Explorer, an application I wrote for managing printer queues
    on a Unix hosts. The user can select a file for printing it, much
    like he did within the Windows explorer. Likewise, he can watch
    the printer status.

  - The HTML::EP::Glimpse package, a simple search engine based on
    Glimpse. (In other words, some flavour of WebGlimpse, which is
    much simpler to install and maintain and allows a free design.)


=head1 EXTENSIONS

It is quite easy to write own methods.


=head2 Single line extensions

For example, suggest you want a method for setting EP variables:

    <ep-set var="e" value=1>

Once the variable is created, you can access it via

   $e$

This can be done like this:

    <ep-perl package="HTML::EP">
      # Write a handler for ep-env:
      sub _ep_set ($$) {
          my($self, $attr) = @_;
	  my $var = $attr->{'var'};
	  my $val = $attr->{'value'};
	  $self->{$var} = $val;
	  '';
      }

      # Return an empty string:
      '';
    </ep-perl>

Note that we used the name B<_ep_set>: By default the EP module takes
the method name (B<ep-env> in out case) translates all hyphens to
underscores and adds a leading underscore. We'll see in the next
section how you can override this behaviour.


=head2 Multi line extensions

But how to write methods, that use a C<E<lt>tagE<gt>> .. C<E<lt>/tagE<gt>>
syntax? As an example, we write a method for creating external files.
The method receives two attributes, a I<file> attribute for the files
name and a I<contents> attribute for the files contents. The method
can be used in two ways:

    <ep-file file="test.dat" contents="Hi!">

or like this, in multiline mode:

    <ep-file file="test.dat">
        Hi!
    </ep-file>

Here it is:

    <ep-perl package="HTML::EP">
    # Write a handler for ep-file:
    sub _ep_file {
        my $self = shift; my $attr = shift;
	my $contents = $self->AttrVal($attr->{'contents'}, @_);
        my $file = $attr->{'file'};
	require Symbol;
	my $fh = Symbol::gensym();
	(open($fh, ">$file)  &&  (print $fh $contents)  &&
            close($fh)) or die "Error while creating $file: $!";
	'';
    }
    # Return an empty string:
    '';
    </ep-perl>

The main difference to the previous example is that our method is
that a special attribute (I<contents>) is defined, that may be
passed as part of the ep-file statement. However, if you don't
define it as part of the statement, the I<AttrVal> method reads
more text from the document untill it finds a matching /ep-file.

Note the use of the I<Symbol> package when accessing files: *Never* use
global handles like

    open(FILE, ...)

as this might break future multithreading code!

The above example works well, if you don't need to nest your
statement. If this should be the case, you need to deal with
EP's token streams. See the ep-if and ep-list methods for
examples.


=head2 External extensions

So far we have discussed only minor extensions that we did install as
part of HTML::EP. However, this is somewhat dangerous with mod_perl:
Suggest you have multiple virtual hosts. It might happen, that virtual
host www.foo.com defines a method ep-file, but www.bar.net defines
another. We'd have an immediate name space clash.

To prevent such a namespace pollution, EP supports external extensions
with an inheritage model that is borrowed from Perl. Suggest we write
a Shop extension. Of course this extension borrows from HTML::EP::Session.
Thus we have the following class design:

    Shop  ---isa--->  HTML::EP::Session  ---isa--->  HTML::EP

We start writing our Shop extension like any other Perl package:

    package Shop;
    @Shop::ISA = qw(HTML::EP::Session); # HTML::EP::Session inherits
                                        # from HTML::EP

    sub _ep_shop_session {
        my($self, $attr) = @_;
	# Initialize the session
	...
	'';
    }

    sub init {
	my $self = shift;
	if (!$self->{'_ep_shop_initialized'}) {
	    $self->{'_ep_shop_initialized'} = 1;
	    $self->SUPER::init();
	    # Do something here
	    ...
	}
    }

In the HTML page we load this package as follows:

    <ep-package name="Shop">
    <ep-shop-session>

This will do a B<require Shop>, bless the object B<$self> into the
class I<Shop> and call B<$self->init()>. Note that we allow the init
method to be called more than once, this is important for stacking
packages.

By default packages are loaded from Perl's system directories. You
can use the attribute I<lib> to add private directories to the library
search path. This can be relative to the servers document root, as in

    <ep-package name="Shop" lib="/perl-lib">


=head2 Inheriting from multiple extensions

You may use multiple ep-package statements, as in

    <ep-package name="HTML::EP::Locale">
    <ep-package name="HTML::EP::Session">

Your object will be blessed into a new class, that inherits from
both. However, note that the order is reversed: In the above
example, your object will be an instance of class HTML::EP::PACK2
and HTML::EP::PACK2::ISA will be set to

    qw(HTML::EP::Session HTML::EP::Locale)


=head1 CHANGES

This section describes user visible changes against previous versions.
For details and other modifications see the C<ChangeLog> file, that is
part of the distribution.

=over 8

=item epparse

=item epperl

In previous versions it was not possible to include EP variables or
Perl code in attributes of EP commands, unless using a prefix
C<epparse-> or C<epperl->, as in

    <ep-mail to=joe epparse-from="$cgi->mail$" subject=Hello>

This is no longer the case, because the package now autodetects whether
you are using such constructs. (At least it should. :-) The obvious
disadvantage is an incompatibility, but the new version is much better
readable and surprisingly even (much!) faster, because only hash values
are modified and not hash structures.

=back


=head1 TODO

=over 8

=item

Create an EP server that is accessible via a small C wrapper

=item

Add a preprocessor, that creates Perl code as output.

=back


=head1 AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

This module is

    Copyright (C) 1998-1999	Jochen Wiedmann
                          	Am Eisteich 9
                          	72555 Metzingen
                          	Germany

                          	Phone: +49 7123 14887
                          	Email: joe@ispsoft.de

All rights reserved.

You may distribute this module under the terms of either
the GNU General Public License or the Artistic License, as
specified in the Perl README file.


=head1 SEE ALSO

L<DBI(3)>, L<CGI(3)>, L<HTML::Parser(3)>

=cut