package DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Base;

use strict;
use warnings;
use base qw/Class::Accessor::Grouped Class::C3::Componentised/;
use MRO::Compat;
use mro 'c3';
use Carp::Clan qw/^DBIx::Class/;
use DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::RelBuilder ();
use Data::Dump 'dump';
use POSIX ();
use File::Spec ();
use Cwd ();
use Digest::MD5 ();
use Lingua::EN::Inflect::Number ();
use Lingua::EN::Inflect::Phrase ();
use String::ToIdentifier::EN ();
use String::ToIdentifier::EN::Unicode ();
use File::Temp ();
use Class::Unload;
use Class::Inspector ();
use Scalar::Util 'looks_like_number';
use DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Column;
use DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Utils qw/split_name dumper_squashed eval_package_without_redefine_warnings class_path slurp_file sigwarn_silencer firstidx uniq/;
use DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Optional::Dependencies ();
use Try::Tiny;
use DBIx::Class ();
use Encode qw/encode decode/;
use List::Util qw/all any none/;
use File::Temp 'tempfile';
use curry;
use namespace::clean;

our $VERSION = '0.07049';

__PACKAGE__->mk_group_ro_accessors('simple', qw/




__PACKAGE__->mk_group_accessors('simple', qw/

my $CURRENT_V = 'v7';

my @CLASS_ARGS = qw(
    schema_components schema_base_class result_base_class
    additional_base_classes left_base_classes additional_classes components

my $CR   = "\x0d";
my $LF   = "\x0a";
my $CRLF = "\x0d\x0a";

=head1 NAME

DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Base - Base DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader Implementation.


See L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader>.


This is the base class for the storage-specific C<DBIx::Class::Schema::*>
classes, and implements the common functionality between them.


These constructor options are the base options for
L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader/loader_options>.  Available constructor options are:

=head2 skip_relationships

Skip setting up relationships.  The default is to attempt the loading
of relationships.

=head2 skip_load_external

Skip loading of other classes in @INC. The default is to merge all other classes
with the same name found in @INC into the schema file we are creating.

=head2 naming

Static schemas (ones dumped to disk) will, by default, use the new-style
relationship names and singularized Results, unless you're overwriting an
existing dump made by an older version of L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader>, in
which case the backward compatible RelBuilder will be activated, and the
appropriate monikerization used.


    naming => 'current'

will disable the backward-compatible RelBuilder and use
the new-style relationship names along with singularized Results, even when
overwriting a dump made with an earlier version.

The option also takes a hashref:

    naming => {
        relationships    => 'v8',
        monikers         => 'v8',
        column_accessors => 'v8',
        force_ascii      => 1,


    naming => { ALL => 'v8', force_ascii => 1 }

The keys are:

=over 4

=item ALL

Set L</relationships>, L</monikers> and L</column_accessors> to the specified

=item relationships

How to name relationship accessors.

=item monikers

How to name Result classes.

=item column_accessors

How to name column accessors in Result classes.

=item force_ascii

For L</v8> mode and later, uses L<String::ToIdentifier::EN> instead of
L<String::ToIdentifier::EN::Unicode> to force monikers and other identifiers to


The values can be:

=over 4

=item current

Latest style, whatever that happens to be.

=item v4

Unsingularlized monikers, C<has_many> only relationships with no _id stripping.

=item v5

Monikers singularized as whole words, C<might_have> relationships for FKs on
C<UNIQUE> constraints, C<_id> stripping for belongs_to relationships.

Some of the C<_id> stripping edge cases in C<0.05003> have been reverted for
the v5 RelBuilder.

=item v6

All monikers and relationships are inflected using
L<Lingua::EN::Inflect::Phrase>, and there is more aggressive C<_id> stripping
from relationship names.

In general, there is very little difference between v5 and v6 schemas.

=item v7

This mode is identical to C<v6> mode, except that monikerization of CamelCase
table names is also done better (but best in v8.)

CamelCase column names in case-preserving mode will also be handled better
for relationship name inflection (but best in v8.) See L</preserve_case>.

In this mode, CamelCase L</column_accessors> are normalized based on case
transition instead of just being lowercased, so C<FooId> becomes C<foo_id>.

=item v8


The default mode is L</v7>, to get L</v8> mode, you have to specify it in
L</naming> explicitly until C<0.08> comes out.

L</monikers> and L</column_accessors> are created using
L<String::ToIdentifier::EN::Unicode> or L<String::ToIdentifier::EN> if
L</force_ascii> is set; this is only significant for names with non-C<\w>
characters such as C<.>.

CamelCase identifiers with words in all caps, e.g. C<VLANValidID> are supported
correctly in this mode.

For relationships, belongs_to accessors are made from column names by stripping
postfixes other than C<_id> as well, for example just C<Id>, C<_?ref>, C<_?cd>,
C<_?code> and C<_?num>, case insensitively.

=item preserve

For L</monikers>, this option does not inflect the table names but makes
monikers based on the actual name. For L</column_accessors> this option does
not normalize CamelCase column names to lowercase column accessors, but makes
accessors that are the same names as the columns (with any non-\w chars
replaced with underscores.)

=item singular

For L</monikers>, singularizes the names using the most current inflector. This
is the same as setting the option to L</current>.

=item plural

For L</monikers>, pluralizes the names, using the most current inflector.


Dynamic schemas will always default to the 0.04XXX relationship names and won't
singularize Results for backward compatibility, to activate the new RelBuilder
and singularization put this in your C<> file:


Or if you prefer to use 0.07XXX features but insure that nothing breaks in the
next major version upgrade:


=head2 quiet

If true, will not print the usual C<Dumping manual schema ... Schema dump
completed.> messages. Does not affect warnings (except for warnings related to

=head2 dry_run

If true, don't actually write out the generated files.  This can only be
used with static schema generation.

=head2 generate_pod

By default POD will be generated for columns and relationships, using database
metadata for the text if available and supported.

Comment metadata can be stored in two ways.

The first is that you can create two tables named C<table_comments> and
C<column_comments> respectively. These tables must exist in the same database
and schema as the tables they describe. They both need to have columns named
C<table_name> and C<comment_text>. The second one needs to have a column named
C<column_name>. Then data stored in these tables will be used as a source of
metadata about tables and comments.

(If you wish you can change the name of these tables with the parameters
L</table_comments_table> and L</column_comments_table>.)

As a fallback you can use built-in commenting mechanisms.  Currently this is
only supported for PostgreSQL, Oracle and MySQL.  To create comments in
PostgreSQL you add statements of the form C<COMMENT ON TABLE some_table IS
'...'>, the same syntax is used in Oracle. To create comments in MySQL you add
C<COMMENT '...'> to the end of the column or table definition.  Note that MySQL
restricts the length of comments, and also does not handle complex Unicode
characters properly.

Set this to C<0> to turn off all POD generation.

=head2 pod_comment_mode

Controls where table comments appear in the generated POD. Smaller table
comments are appended to the C<NAME> section of the documentation, and larger
ones are inserted into C<DESCRIPTION> instead. You can force a C<DESCRIPTION>
section to be generated with the comment always, only use C<NAME>, or choose
the length threshold at which the comment is forced into the description.

=over 4

=item name

Use C<NAME> section only.

=item description

Force C<DESCRIPTION> always.

=item auto

Use C<DESCRIPTION> if length > L</pod_comment_spillover_length>, this is the


=head2 pod_comment_spillover_length

When pod_comment_mode is set to C<auto>, this is the length of the comment at
which it will be forced into a separate description section.

The default is C<60>

=head2 table_comments_table

The table to look for comments about tables in.  By default C<table_comments>.
See L</generate_pod> for details.

This must not be a fully qualified name, the table will be looked for in the
same database and schema as the table whose comment is being retrieved.

=head2 column_comments_table

The table to look for comments about columns in.  By default C<column_comments>.
See L</generate_pod> for details.

This must not be a fully qualified name, the table will be looked for in the
same database and schema as the table/column whose comment is being retrieved.

=head2 relationship_attrs

Hashref of attributes to pass to each generated relationship, listed by type.
Also supports relationship type 'all', containing options to pass to all
generated relationships.  Attributes set for more specific relationship types
override those set in 'all', and any attributes specified by this option
override the introspected attributes of the foreign key if any.

For example:

    relationship_attrs => {
        has_many   => { cascade_delete => 1, cascade_copy => 1 },
        might_have => { cascade_delete => 1, cascade_copy => 1 },

use this to turn L<DBIx::Class> cascades to on on your
L<has_many|DBIx::Class::Relationship/has_many> and
L<might_have|DBIx::Class::Relationship/might_have> relationships, they default
to off.

Can also be a coderef, for more precise control, in which case the coderef gets
this hash of parameters (as a list):

    rel_name        # the name of the relationship
    rel_type        # the type of the relationship: 'belongs_to', 'has_many' or 'might_have'
    local_source    # the DBIx::Class::ResultSource object for the source the rel is *from*
    remote_source   # the DBIx::Class::ResultSource object for the source the rel is *to*
    local_table     # the DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table object for the table of the source the rel is from
    local_cols      # an arrayref of column names of columns used in the rel in the source it is from
    remote_table    # the DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table object for the table of the source the rel is to
    remote_cols     # an arrayref of column names of columns used in the rel in the source it is to
    attrs           # the attributes that would be set

it should return the new hashref of attributes, or nothing for no changes.

For example:

    relationship_attrs => sub {
        my %p = @_;

        say "the relationship name is: $p{rel_name}";
        say "the relationship is a: $p{rel_type}";
        say "the local class is: ",  $p{local_source}->result_class;
        say "the remote class is: ", $p{remote_source}->result_class;
        say "the local table is: ", $p{local_table}->sql_name;
        say "the rel columns in the local table are: ", (join ", ", @{$p{local_cols}});
        say "the remote table is: ", $p{remote_table}->sql_name;
        say "the rel columns in the remote table are: ", (join ", ", @{$p{remote_cols}});

        if ($p{local_table} eq 'dogs' && @{$p{local_cols}} == 1 && $p{local_cols}[0] eq 'name') {
            $p{attrs}{could_be_snoopy} = 1;

            reutrn $p{attrs};

These are the default attributes:

    has_many => {
        cascade_delete => 0,
        cascade_copy   => 0,
    might_have => {
        cascade_delete => 0,
        cascade_copy   => 0,
    belongs_to => {
        on_delete => 'CASCADE',
        on_update => 'CASCADE',
        is_deferrable => 1,

For L<belongs_to|DBIx::Class::Relationship/belongs_to> relationships, these
defaults are overridden by the attributes introspected from the foreign key in
the database, if this information is available (and the driver is capable of
retrieving it.)

This information overrides the defaults mentioned above, and is then itself
overridden by the user's L</relationship_attrs> for C<belongs_to> if any are

In general, for most databases, for a plain foreign key with no rules, the
values for a L<belongs_to|DBIx::Class::Relationship/belongs_to> relationship
will be:

    on_delete     => 'NO ACTION',
    on_update     => 'NO ACTION',
    is_deferrable => 0,

In the cases where an attribute is not supported by the DB, a value matching
the actual behavior is used, for example Oracle does not support C<ON UPDATE>
rules, so C<on_update> is set to C<NO ACTION>. This is done so that the
behavior of the schema is preserved when cross deploying to a different RDBMS
such as SQLite for testing.

In the cases where the DB does not support C<DEFERRABLE> foreign keys, the
value is set to C<1> if L<DBIx::Class> has a working C<<
$storage->with_deferred_fk_checks >>. This is done so that the same
L<DBIx::Class> code can be used, and cross deployed from and to such databases.

=head2 debug

If set to true, each constructive L<DBIx::Class> statement the loader
decides to execute will be C<warn>-ed before execution.

=head2 db_schema

Set the name of the schema to load (schema in the sense that your database
vendor means it).

Can be set to an arrayref of schema names for multiple schemas, or the special
value C<%> for all schemas.

For MSSQL, Sybase ASE, and Informix can be set to a hashref of databases as
keys and arrays of owners as values, set to the value:

    { '%' => '%' }

for all owners in all databases.

Name clashes resulting from the same table name in different databases/schemas
will be resolved automatically by prefixing the moniker with the database
and/or schema.

To prefix/suffix all monikers with the database and/or schema, see

=head2 moniker_parts

The database table names are represented by the
L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table> class in the loader, the
L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table::Sybase> class for Sybase ASE and
L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table::Informix> for Informix.

Monikers are created normally based on just the
L<name|DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::DBObject/name> property, corresponding to
the table name, but can consist of other parts of the fully qualified name of
the table.

The L</moniker_parts> option is an arrayref of methods on the table class
corresponding to parts of the fully qualified table name, defaulting to
C<['name']>, in the order those parts are used to create the moniker name.
The parts are joined together using L</moniker_part_separator>.

The C<'name'> entry B<must> be present.

Below is a table of supported databases and possible L</moniker_parts>.

=over 4

=item * DB2, Firebird, mysql, Oracle, Pg, SQLAnywhere, SQLite, MS Access

C<schema>, C<name>

=item * Informix, MSSQL, Sybase ASE

C<database>, C<schema>, C<name>


=head2 moniker_part_separator

String used to join L</moniker_parts> when creating the moniker.
Defaults to the empty string. Use C<::> to get a separate namespace per
database and/or schema.

=head2 constraint

Only load matching tables.

These can be specified either as a regex (preferably on the C<qr//>
form), or as an arrayref of arrayrefs.  Regexes are matched against
the (unqualified) table name, while arrayrefs are matched according to

For example:

    db_schema => [qw(some_schema other_schema)],
    moniker_parts => [qw(schema name)],
    constraint => [
        [ qr/\Asome_schema\z/ => qr/\A(?:foo|bar)\z/ ],
        [ qr/\Aother_schema\z/ => qr/\Abaz\z/ ],

In this case only the tables C<foo> and C<bar> in C<some_schema> and
C<baz> in C<other_schema> will be dumped.

=head2 exclude

Exclude matching tables.

The tables to exclude are specified in the same way as for the
L</constraint> option.

=head2 moniker_map

Overrides the default table name to moniker translation. Either


=item *

a nested hashref, which will be traversed according to L</moniker_parts>

For example:

    moniker_parts => [qw(schema name)],
    moniker_map => {
        foo => {
            bar  => "FooishBar",

In which case the table C<bar> in the C<foo> schema would get the moniker

=item *

a hashref of unqualified table name keys and moniker values

=item *

a coderef that returns the moniker, which is called with the following


=item *

the L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table> object for the table

=item *

the default moniker that DBIC would ordinarily give this table

=item *

a coderef that can be called with either of the hashref forms to get
the moniker mapped accordingly.  This is useful if you need to handle
some monikers specially, but want to use the hashref form for the



If the hash entry does not exist, or the function returns a false
value, the code falls back to default behavior for that table name.

The default behavior is to split on case transition and non-alphanumeric
boundaries, singularize the resulting phrase, then join the titlecased words
together. Examples:

    Table Name       | Moniker Name
    luser            | Luser
    luser_group      | LuserGroup
    luser-opts       | LuserOpt
    stations_visited | StationVisited
    routeChange      | RouteChange

=head2 moniker_part_map

Map for overriding the monikerization of individual L</moniker_parts>.
The keys are the moniker part to override, the value is either a
hashref or coderef for mapping the corresponding part of the
moniker. If a coderef is used, it gets called with the moniker part
and the hash key the code ref was found under.

For example:

    moniker_part_map => {
        schema => sub { ... },

Given the table C<>, the code ref would be called with the
arguments C<foo> and C<schema>, plus a coderef similar to the one
described in L</moniker_map>.

L</moniker_map> takes precedence over this.

=head2 col_accessor_map

Same as moniker_map, but for column accessor names.  The nested
hashref form is traversed according to L</moniker_parts>, with an
extra level at the bottom for the column name.  If a coderef is
passed, the code is called with the following arguments:


=item *

the L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Column> object for the column

=item *

the default accessor name that DBICSL would ordinarily give this column

=item *

a hashref of this form:

        table_class     => name of the DBIC class we are building,
        table_moniker   => calculated moniker for this table (after moniker_map if present),
        table           => the DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table object for the table,
        full_table_name => schema-qualified name of the database table (RDBMS specific),
        schema_class    => name of the schema class we are building,
        column_info     => hashref of column info (data_type, is_nullable, etc),

=item *

a coderef that can be called with a hashref map


=head2 rel_name_map

Similar in idea to moniker_map, but different in the details.  It can be
a hashref or a code ref.

If it is a hashref, keys can be either the default relationship name, or the
moniker. The keys that are the default relationship name should map to the
name you want to change the relationship to. Keys that are monikers should map
to hashes mapping relationship names to their translation.  You can do both at
once, and the more specific moniker version will be picked up first.  So, for
instance, you could have

        bar => "baz",
        Foo => {
            bar => "blat",

and relationships that would have been named C<bar> will now be named C<baz>
except that in the table whose moniker is C<Foo> it will be named C<blat>.

If it is a coderef, it will be passed a hashref of this form:

        name           => default relationship name,
        type           => the relationship type eg: C<has_many>,
        local_class    => name of the DBIC class we are building,
        local_moniker  => moniker of the DBIC class we are building,
        local_columns  => columns in this table in the relationship,
        remote_class   => name of the DBIC class we are related to,
        remote_moniker => moniker of the DBIC class we are related to,
        remote_columns => columns in the other table in the relationship,
        # for type => "many_to_many" only:
        link_class     => name of the DBIC class for the link table,
        link_moniker   => moniker of the DBIC class for the link table,
        link_rel_name  => name of the relationship to the link table,

In addition it is passed a coderef that can be called with a hashref map.

DBICSL will try to use the value returned as the relationship name.

=head2 inflect_plural

Just like L</moniker_map> above (can be hash/code-ref, falls back to default
if hash key does not exist or coderef returns false), but acts as a map
for pluralizing relationship names.  The default behavior is to utilize

=head2 inflect_singular

As L</inflect_plural> above, but for singularizing relationship names.
Default behavior is to utilize L<Lingua::EN::Inflect::Phrase/to_S>.

=head2 schema_base_class

Base class for your schema classes. Defaults to 'DBIx::Class::Schema'.

=head2 schema_components

List of components to load into the Schema class.

=head2 result_base_class

Base class for your table classes (aka result classes). Defaults to

=head2 additional_base_classes

List of additional base classes all of your table classes will use.

=head2 left_base_classes

List of additional base classes all of your table classes will use
that need to be leftmost.

=head2 additional_classes

List of additional classes which all of your table classes will use.

=head2 components

List of additional components to be loaded into all of your Result
classes.  A good example would be

=head2 result_components_map

A hashref of moniker keys and component values.  Unlike L</components>, which
loads the given components into every Result class, this option allows you to
load certain components for specified Result classes. For example:

    result_components_map => {
        StationVisited => '+YourApp::Schema::Component::StationVisited',
        RouteChange    => [

You may use this in conjunction with L</components>.

=head2 result_roles

List of L<Moose> roles to be applied to all of your Result classes.

=head2 result_roles_map

A hashref of moniker keys and role values.  Unlike L</result_roles>, which
applies the given roles to every Result class, this option allows you to apply
certain roles for specified Result classes. For example:

    result_roles_map => {
        StationVisited => [
        RouteChange    => 'YourApp::Role::TripEvent',

You may use this in conjunction with L</result_roles>.

=head2 use_namespaces

This is now the default, to go back to L<DBIx::Class::Schema/load_classes> pass
a C<0>.

Generate result class names suitable for
L<DBIx::Class::Schema/load_namespaces> and call that instead of
L<DBIx::Class::Schema/load_classes>. When using this option you can also
specify any of the options for C<load_namespaces> (i.e. C<result_namespace>,
C<resultset_namespace>, C<default_resultset_class>), and they will be added
to the call (and the generated result class names adjusted appropriately).

=head2 dump_directory

The value of this option is a perl libdir pathname.  Within
that directory this module will create a baseline manual
L<DBIx::Class::Schema> module set, based on what it creates at runtime.

The created schema class will have the same classname as the one on
which you are setting this option (and the ResultSource classes will be
based on this name as well).

Normally you wouldn't hard-code this setting in your schema class, as it
is meant for one-time manual usage.

See L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader/dump_to_dir> for examples of the
recommended way to access this functionality.

=head2 dump_overwrite

Deprecated.  See L</really_erase_my_files> below, which does *not* mean
the same thing as the old C<dump_overwrite> setting from previous releases.

=head2 really_erase_my_files

Default false.  If true, Loader will unconditionally delete any existing
files before creating the new ones from scratch when dumping a schema to disk.

The default behavior is instead to only replace the top portion of the
file, up to and including the final stanza which contains
leaving any customizations you placed after that as they were.

When C<really_erase_my_files> is not set, if the output file already exists,
but the aforementioned final stanza is not found, or the checksum
contained there does not match the generated contents, Loader will
croak and not touch the file.

You should really be using version control on your schema classes (and all
of the rest of your code for that matter).  Don't blame me if a bug in this
code wipes something out when it shouldn't have, you've been warned.

=head2 overwrite_modifications

Default false.  If false, when updating existing files, Loader will
refuse to modify any Loader-generated code that has been modified
since its last run (as determined by the checksum Loader put in its
comment lines).

If true, Loader will discard any manual modifications that have been
made to Loader-generated code.

Again, you should be using version control on your schema classes.  Be
careful with this option.

=head2 omit_version

Omit the package version from the signature comment.

=head2 omit_timestamp

Omit the creation timestamp from the signature comment.

=head2 custom_column_info

Hook for adding extra attributes to the
L<column_info|DBIx::Class::ResultSource/column_info> for a column.

Must be a coderef that returns a hashref with the extra attributes.

Receives the L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Table> object, column name
and column_info.

For example:

    custom_column_info => sub {
        my ($table, $column_name, $column_info) = @_;

        if ($column_name eq 'dog' && $column_info->{default_value} eq 'snoopy') {
            return { is_snoopy => 1 };

This attribute can also be used to set C<inflate_datetime> on a non-datetime
column so it also receives the L</datetime_timezone> and/or L</datetime_locale>.

=head2 datetime_timezone

Sets the timezone attribute for L<DBIx::Class::InflateColumn::DateTime> for all
columns with the DATE/DATETIME/TIMESTAMP data_types.

=head2 datetime_locale

Sets the locale attribute for L<DBIx::Class::InflateColumn::DateTime> for all
columns with the DATE/DATETIME/TIMESTAMP data_types.

=head2 datetime_undef_if_invalid

Pass a C<0> for this option when using MySQL if you B<DON'T> want C<<
datetime_undef_if_invalid => 1 >> in your column info for DATE, DATETIME and
TIMESTAMP columns.

The default is recommended to deal with data such as C<00/00/00> which
sometimes ends up in such columns in MySQL.

=head2 config_file

File in Perl format, which should return a HASH reference, from which to read
loader options.

=head2 preserve_case

Normally database names are lowercased and split by underscore, use this option
if you have CamelCase database names.

Drivers for case sensitive databases like Sybase ASE or MSSQL with a
case-sensitive collation will turn this option on unconditionally.

B<NOTE:> L</naming> = C<v8> is highly recommended with this option as the
semantics of this mode are much improved for CamelCase database names.

L</naming> = C<v7> or greater is required with this option.

=head2 qualify_objects

Set to true to prepend the L</db_schema> to table names for C<<
__PACKAGE__->table >> calls, and to some other things like Oracle sequences.

This attribute is automatically set to true for multi db_schema configurations,
unless explicitly set to false by the user.

=head2 use_moose

Creates Schema and Result classes that use L<Moose>, L<MooseX::NonMoose> and
L<MooseX::MarkAsMethods> (or L<namespace::autoclean>, see below). The default
content after the md5 sum also makes the classes immutable.

It is safe to upgrade your existing Schema to this option.

=head2 only_autoclean

By default, we use L<MooseX::MarkAsMethods> to remove imported functions from
your generated classes.  It uses L<namespace::autoclean> to do this, after
telling your object's metaclass that any operator L<overload>s in your class
are methods, which will cause namespace::autoclean to spare them from removal.

This prevents the "Hey, where'd my overloads go?!" effect.

If you don't care about operator overloads, enabling this option falls back to
just using L<namespace::autoclean> itself.

If none of the above made any sense, or you don't have some pressing need to
only use L<namespace::autoclean>, leaving this set to the default is

=head2 col_collision_map

This option controls how accessors for column names which collide with perl
methods are named. See L</COLUMN ACCESSOR COLLISIONS> for more information.

This option takes either a single L<sprintf|perlfunc/sprintf> format or a hashref of
strings which are compiled to regular expressions that map to
L<sprintf|perlfunc/sprintf> formats.


    col_collision_map => 'column_%s'

    col_collision_map => { '(.*)' => 'column_%s' }

    col_collision_map => { '(foo).*(bar)' => 'column_%s_%s' }

=head2 rel_collision_map

Works just like L</col_collision_map>, but for relationship names/accessors
rather than column names/accessors.

The default is to just append C<_rel> to the relationship name, see

=head2 uniq_to_primary

Automatically promotes the largest unique constraints with non-nullable columns
on tables to primary keys, assuming there is only one largest unique

=head2 allow_extra_m2m_cols

Generate C<many_to_many> relationship bridges even if the link table has
extra columns other than the foreign keys.  The primary key must still
equal the union of the foreign keys.

=head2 filter_generated_code

An optional hook that lets you filter the generated text for various classes
through a function that change it in any way that you want.  The function will
receive the type of file, C<schema> or C<result>, class and code; and returns
the new code to use instead.  For instance you could add custom comments, or do
anything else that you want.

The option can also be set to a string, which is then used as a filter program,
e.g. C<perltidy>.

If this exists but fails to return text matching C</\bpackage\b/>, no file will
be generated.

    filter_generated_code => sub {
        my ($type, $class, $text) = @_;
        return $new_code;

You can also use this option to set L<perltidy markers|perltidy/Skipping
Selected Sections of Code> in your generated classes.  This will leave
the generated code in the default format, but will allow you to tidy
your classes at any point in future, without worrying about changing the
portions of the file which are checksummed, since C<perltidy> will just
ignore all text between the markers.

    filter_generated_code => sub {
        return "#<<<\n$_[2]\n#>>>";

=head1 METHODS

None of these methods are intended for direct invocation by regular
users of L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader>. Some are proxied via


# ensure that a piece of object data is a valid arrayref, creating
# an empty one or encapsulating whatever's there.
sub _ensure_arrayref {
    my $self = shift;

    foreach (@_) {
        $self->{$_} ||= [];
        $self->{$_} = [ $self->{$_} ]
            unless ref $self->{$_} eq 'ARRAY';

=head2 new

Constructor for L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Base>, used internally
by L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader>.


sub new {
    my ( $class, %args ) = @_;

    if (exists $args{column_accessor_map}) {
        $args{col_accessor_map} = delete $args{column_accessor_map};

    my $self = { %args };

    # don't lose undef options
    for (values %$self) {
        $_ = 0 unless defined $_;

    bless $self => $class;

    if (my $config_file = $self->config_file) {
        my $config_opts = do $config_file;

        croak "Error reading config from $config_file: $@" if $@;

        croak "Config file $config_file must be a hashref" unless ref($config_opts) eq 'HASH';

        while (my ($k, $v) = each %$config_opts) {
            $self->{$k} = $v unless exists $self->{$k};

    if (defined $self->{result_component_map}) {
        if (defined $self->result_components_map) {
            croak "Specify only one of result_components_map or result_component_map";

    if (defined $self->{result_role_map}) {
        if (defined $self->result_roles_map) {
            croak "Specify only one of result_roles_map or result_role_map";

    croak "the result_roles and result_roles_map options may only be used in conjunction with use_moose=1"
        if ((not defined $self->use_moose) || (not $self->use_moose))
            && ((defined $self->result_roles) || (defined $self->result_roles_map));



    croak "result_components_map must be a hash"
        if defined $self->result_components_map
            && ref $self->result_components_map ne 'HASH';

    if ($self->result_components_map) {
        my %rc_map = %{ $self->result_components_map };
        foreach my $moniker (keys %rc_map) {
            $rc_map{$moniker} = [ $rc_map{$moniker} ] unless ref $rc_map{$moniker};
    else {

    croak "result_roles_map must be a hash"
        if defined $self->result_roles_map
            && ref $self->result_roles_map ne 'HASH';

    if ($self->result_roles_map) {
        my %rr_map = %{ $self->result_roles_map };
        foreach my $moniker (keys %rr_map) {
            $rr_map{$moniker} = [ $rr_map{$moniker} ] unless ref $rr_map{$moniker};
    } else {

    if ($self->use_moose) {
        if (not DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Optional::Dependencies->req_ok_for('use_moose')) {
            die sprintf "You must install the following CPAN modules to enable the use_moose option: %s.\n",

    $self->{_tables} = {};
    $self->{monikers} = {};
    $self->{moniker_to_table} = {};
    $self->{class_to_table} = {};
    $self->{classes}  = {};
    $self->{_upgrading_classes} = {};
    $self->{generated_classes} = [];

    $self->{schema_class} ||= ( ref $self->{schema} || $self->{schema} );
    $self->{schema} ||= $self->{schema_class};
    $self->{table_comments_table} ||= 'table_comments';
    $self->{column_comments_table} ||= 'column_comments';

    croak "dump_overwrite is deprecated.  Please read the"
        . " DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Base documentation"
            if $self->{dump_overwrite};

    $self->{dynamic} = ! $self->{dump_directory};

    croak "dry_run can only be used with static schema generation"
        if $self->dynamic and $self->dry_run;

    $self->{temp_directory} ||= File::Temp::tempdir( 'dbicXXXX',
                                                     TMPDIR  => 1,
                                                     CLEANUP => 1,

    $self->{dump_directory} ||= $self->{temp_directory};



    if (not defined $self->naming) {
    else {

    if ((not ref $self->naming) && defined $self->naming) {
        my $naming_ver = $self->naming;
        $self->{naming} = {
            relationships => $naming_ver,
            monikers => $naming_ver,
            column_accessors => $naming_ver,
    elsif (ref $self->naming eq 'HASH' && exists $self->naming->{ALL}) {
        my $val = delete $self->naming->{ALL};

        $self->naming->{$_} = $val
            foreach qw/relationships monikers column_accessors/;

    if ($self->naming) {
        foreach my $key (qw/relationships monikers column_accessors/) {
            $self->naming->{$key} = $CURRENT_V if ($self->naming->{$key}||'') eq 'current';
    $self->{naming} ||= {};

    if ($self->custom_column_info && ref $self->custom_column_info ne 'CODE') {
        croak 'custom_column_info must be a CODE ref';


    $self->use_namespaces(1) unless defined $self->use_namespaces;
    $self->generate_pod(1)   unless defined $self->generate_pod;
    $self->pod_comment_mode('auto')         unless defined $self->pod_comment_mode;
    $self->pod_comment_spillover_length(60) unless defined $self->pod_comment_spillover_length;

    if (my $col_collision_map = $self->col_collision_map) {
        if (my $reftype = ref $col_collision_map) {
            if ($reftype ne 'HASH') {
                croak "Invalid type $reftype for option 'col_collision_map'";
        else {
            $self->col_collision_map({ '(.*)' => $col_collision_map });

    if (my $rel_collision_map = $self->rel_collision_map) {
        if (my $reftype = ref $rel_collision_map) {
            if ($reftype ne 'HASH') {
                croak "Invalid type $reftype for option 'rel_collision_map'";
        else {
            $self->rel_collision_map({ '(.*)' => $rel_collision_map });

    if (defined(my $rel_name_map = $self->rel_name_map)) {
        my $reftype = ref $rel_name_map;
        if ($reftype ne 'HASH' && $reftype ne 'CODE') {
            croak "Invalid type $reftype for option 'rel_name_map', must be HASH or CODE";

    if (defined(my $filter = $self->filter_generated_code)) {
        my $reftype = ref $filter;
        if ($reftype && $reftype ne 'CODE') {
            croak "Invalid type $reftype for option 'filter_generated_code, must be a scalar or a CODE reference";

    if (defined $self->db_schema) {
        if (ref $self->db_schema eq 'ARRAY') {
            if (@{ $self->db_schema } > 1 && not defined $self->{qualify_objects}) {
                $self->{qualify_objects} = 1;
            elsif (@{ $self->db_schema } == 0) {
                $self->{db_schema} = undef;
        elsif (not ref $self->db_schema) {
            if ($self->db_schema eq '%' && not defined $self->{qualify_objects}) {
                $self->{qualify_objects} = 1;

            $self->{db_schema} = [ $self->db_schema ];

    if (not $self->moniker_parts) {
    else {
        if (not ref $self->moniker_parts) {
            $self->moniker_parts([ $self->moniker_parts ]);
        if (ref $self->moniker_parts ne 'ARRAY') {
            croak 'moniker_parts must be an arrayref';
        if (none { $_ eq 'name' } @{ $self->moniker_parts }) {
            croak "moniker_parts option *must* contain 'name'";

    if (not defined $self->moniker_part_separator) {
    if (not defined $self->moniker_part_map) {

    return $self;

sub _check_back_compat {
    my ($self) = @_;

# dynamic schemas will always be in 0.04006 mode, unless overridden
    if ($self->dynamic) {
# just in case, though no one is likely to dump a dynamic schema

        if (not $self->naming_set) {
            warn <<EOF unless $ENV{SCHEMA_LOADER_BACKCOMPAT};

Dynamic schema detected, will run in 0.04006 mode.

Set the 'naming' attribute or the SCHEMA_LOADER_BACKCOMPAT environment variable
to disable this warning.

See perldoc DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Manual::UpgradingFromV4 for more
        else {

        if ((not defined $self->use_namespaces) && ($self->naming_set)) {

        $self->naming->{relationships} ||= 'v4';
        $self->naming->{monikers}      ||= 'v4';

        if ($self->use_namespaces) {
        else {


# otherwise check if we need backcompat mode for a static schema
    my $filename = $self->get_dump_filename($self->schema_class);
    return unless -e $filename;

    my ($old_gen, $old_md5, $old_ver, $old_ts, $old_custom) =

    return unless $old_ver;

    # determine if the existing schema was dumped with use_moose => 1
    if (! defined $self->use_moose) {
        $self->{use_moose} = 1 if $old_gen =~ /^ (?!\s*\#) use \s+ Moose/xm;

    my $load_classes = ($old_gen =~ /^__PACKAGE__->load_classes;/m) ? 1 : 0;

    my $result_namespace = do { ($old_gen =~ /result_namespace => (.+)/) ? $1 : '' };
    my $ds = eval $result_namespace;
    die <<"EOF" if $@;
Could not eval expression '$result_namespace' for result_namespace from
$filename: $@
    $result_namespace = $ds || '';

    if ($load_classes && (not defined $self->use_namespaces)) {
        warn <<"EOF"  unless $ENV{SCHEMA_LOADER_BACKCOMPAT};

'load_classes;' static schema detected, turning off 'use_namespaces'.

Set the 'use_namespaces' attribute or the SCHEMA_LOADER_BACKCOMPAT environment
variable to disable this warning.

See perldoc DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Manual::UpgradingFromV4 for more
    elsif ($load_classes && $self->use_namespaces) {
    elsif ((not $load_classes) && defined $self->use_namespaces && ! $self->use_namespaces) {
            $result_namespace || 'Result'
    elsif ((not defined $self->use_namespaces) || $self->use_namespaces) {
        if (not $self->result_namespace) {
            $self->result_namespace($result_namespace || 'Result');
        elsif ($result_namespace ne $self->result_namespace) {
                $result_namespace || 'Result'

    # XXX when we go past .0 this will need fixing
    my ($v) = $old_ver =~ /([1-9])/;
    $v = "v$v";

    return if ($v eq $CURRENT_V || $old_ver =~ /^0\.\d\d999/);

    if (not %{ $self->naming }) {
        warn <<"EOF" unless $ENV{SCHEMA_LOADER_BACKCOMPAT};

Version $old_ver static schema detected, turning on backcompat mode.

Set the 'naming' attribute or the SCHEMA_LOADER_BACKCOMPAT environment variable
to disable this warning.

See: 'naming' in perldoc DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Base .

See perldoc DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Manual::UpgradingFromV4 if upgrading
from version 0.04006.

        $self->naming->{relationships}    ||= $v;
        $self->naming->{monikers}         ||= $v;
        $self->naming->{column_accessors} ||= $v;

    else {

sub _validate_class_args {
    my $self = shift;

    foreach my $k (@CLASS_ARGS) {
        next unless $self->$k;

        my @classes = ref $self->$k eq 'ARRAY' ? @{ $self->$k } : $self->$k;
        $self->_validate_classes($k, \@classes);

sub _validate_result_components_map {
    my $self = shift;

    foreach my $classes (values %{ $self->result_components_map }) {
        $self->_validate_classes('result_components_map', $classes);

sub _validate_result_roles_map {
    my $self = shift;

    foreach my $classes (values %{ $self->result_roles_map }) {
        $self->_validate_classes('result_roles_map', $classes);

sub _validate_classes {
    my $self = shift;
    my $key  = shift;
    my $classes = shift;

    # make a copy to not destroy original
    my @classes = @$classes;

    foreach my $c (@classes) {
        # components default to being under the DBIx::Class namespace unless they
        # are preceded with a '+'
        if ( $key =~ m/component/ && $c !~ s/^\+// ) {
            $c = 'DBIx::Class::' . $c;

        # 1 == installed, 0 == not installed, undef == invalid classname
        my $installed = Class::Inspector->installed($c);
        if ( defined($installed) ) {
            if ( $installed == 0 ) {
                croak qq/$c, as specified in the loader option "$key", is not installed/;
        } else {
            croak qq/$c, as specified in the loader option "$key", is an invalid class name/;

sub _find_file_in_inc {
    my ($self, $file) = @_;

    foreach my $prefix (@INC) {
        my $fullpath = File::Spec->catfile($prefix, $file);
        # abs_path pure-perl fallback warns for non-existent files
        local $SIG{__WARN__} = sigwarn_silencer(qr/^stat\(.*\Q$file\E\)/);
        return $fullpath if -f $fullpath
            # abs_path throws on Windows for nonexistent files
            and (try { Cwd::abs_path($fullpath) }) ne
               ((try { Cwd::abs_path(File::Spec->catfile($self->dump_directory, $file)) }) || '');


sub _find_class_in_inc {
    my ($self, $class) = @_;

    return $self->_find_file_in_inc(class_path($class));

sub _rewriting {
    my $self = shift;

    return $self->_upgrading_from
        || $self->_upgrading_from_load_classes
        || $self->_downgrading_to_load_classes
        || $self->_rewriting_result_namespace

sub _rewrite_old_classnames {
    my ($self, $code) = @_;

    return $code unless $self->_rewriting;

    my %old_classes = reverse %{ $self->_upgrading_classes };

    my $re = join '|', keys %old_classes;
    $re = qr/\b($re)\b/;

    $code =~ s/$re/$old_classes{$1} || $1/eg;

    return $code;

sub _load_external {
    my ($self, $class) = @_;

    return if $self->{skip_load_external};

    # so that we don't load our own classes, under any circumstances
    local *INC = [ grep $_ ne $self->dump_directory, @INC ];

    my $real_inc_path = $self->_find_class_in_inc($class);

    my $old_class = $self->_upgrading_classes->{$class}
        if $self->_rewriting;

    my $old_real_inc_path = $self->_find_class_in_inc($old_class)
        if $old_class && $old_class ne $class;

    return unless $real_inc_path || $old_real_inc_path;

    if ($real_inc_path) {
        # If we make it to here, we loaded an external definition
        warn qq/# Loaded external class definition for '$class'\n/
            if $self->debug;

        my $code = $self->_rewrite_old_classnames(slurp_file $real_inc_path);

        if ($self->dynamic) { # load the class too
            eval_package_without_redefine_warnings($class, $code);

            qq|# These lines were loaded from '$real_inc_path' found in \@INC.\n|
           .qq|# They are now part of the custom portion of this file\n|
           .qq|# for you to hand-edit.  If you do not either delete\n|
           .qq|# this section or remove that file from \@INC, this section\n|
           .qq|# will be repeated redundantly when you re-create this\n|
           .qq|# file again via Loader!  See skip_load_external to disable\n|
           .qq|# this feature.\n|
        chomp $code;
        $self->_ext_stmt($class, $code);
            qq|# End of lines loaded from '$real_inc_path'|

    if ($old_real_inc_path) {
        my $code = slurp_file $old_real_inc_path;

        $self->_ext_stmt($class, <<"EOF");

# These lines were loaded from '$old_real_inc_path',
# based on the Result class name that would have been created by an older
# version of the Loader. For a static schema, this happens only once during
# upgrade. See skip_load_external to disable this feature.

        $code = $self->_rewrite_old_classnames($code);

        if ($self->dynamic) {
            warn <<"EOF";

Detected external content in '$old_real_inc_path', a class name that would have
been used by an older version of the Loader.

* PLEASE RENAME THIS CLASS: from '$old_class' to '$class', as that is the
new name of the Result.
            eval_package_without_redefine_warnings($class, $code);

        chomp $code;
        $self->_ext_stmt($class, $code);
            qq|# End of lines loaded from '$old_real_inc_path'|

=head2 load

Does the actual schema-construction work.


sub load {
    my $self = shift;


=head2 rescan

Arguments: schema

Rescan the database for changes. Returns a list of the newly added table

The schema argument should be the schema class or object to be affected.  It
should probably be derived from the original schema_class used during L</load>.


sub rescan {
    my ($self, $schema) = @_;

    $self->{schema} = $schema;
    $self->_relbuilder->{schema} = $schema;

    my @created;
    my @current = $self->_tables_list;

    foreach my $table (@current) {
        if(!exists $self->_tables->{$table->sql_name}) {
            push(@created, $table);

    my %current;
    @current{map $_->sql_name, @current} = ();
    foreach my $table (values %{ $self->_tables }) {
        if (not exists $current{$table->sql_name}) {

    delete @$self{qw/_dump_storage _relations_started _uniqs_started/};

    my $loaded = $self->_load_tables(@current);

    foreach my $table (@created) {
        $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name} = $self->_table2moniker($table);

    return map { $self->monikers->{$_->sql_name} } @created;

sub _relbuilder {
    my ($self) = @_;

    return if $self->{skip_relationships};

    return $self->{relbuilder} ||= do {
        my $relbuilder_suff =
                v4  ::Compat::v0_040
                v5  ::Compat::v0_05
                v6  ::Compat::v0_06
                v7  ::Compat::v0_07
            ->{$self->naming->{relationships}||$CURRENT_V} || '';

        my $relbuilder_class = 'DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::RelBuilder'.$relbuilder_suff;

sub _load_tables {
    my ($self, @tables) = @_;

    # Save the new tables to the tables list and compute monikers
    foreach (@tables) {
        $self->_tables->{$_->sql_name}  = $_;
        $self->monikers->{$_->sql_name} = $self->_table2moniker($_);

    # check for moniker clashes
    my $inverse_moniker_idx;
    foreach my $imtable (values %{ $self->_tables }) {
        push @{ $inverse_moniker_idx->{$self->monikers->{$imtable->sql_name}} }, $imtable;

    my @clashes;
    foreach my $moniker (keys %$inverse_moniker_idx) {
        my $imtables = $inverse_moniker_idx->{$moniker};
        if (@$imtables > 1) {
            my $different_databases =
                $imtables->[0]->can('database') && (uniq map $_->database||'', @$imtables) > 1;

            my $different_schemas =
                (uniq map $_->schema||'', @$imtables) > 1;

            if ($different_databases || $different_schemas) {
                my ($use_schema, $use_database) = (1, 0);

                if ($different_databases) {
                    $use_database = 1;

                    # If any monikers are in the same database, we have to distinguish by
                    # both schema and database.
                    my %db_counts;
                    $db_counts{$_}++ for map $_->database, @$imtables;
                    $use_schema = any { $_ > 1 } values %db_counts;

                foreach my $tbl (@$imtables) { delete $self->monikers->{$tbl->sql_name}; }

                my $moniker_parts = [ @{ $self->moniker_parts } ];

                my $have_schema   = any { $_ eq 'schema'   } @{ $self->moniker_parts };
                my $have_database = any { $_ eq 'database' } @{ $self->moniker_parts };

                unshift @$moniker_parts, 'schema'   if $use_schema   && !$have_schema;
                unshift @$moniker_parts, 'database' if $use_database && !$have_database;

                local $self->{moniker_parts} = $moniker_parts;

                my %new_monikers;

                foreach my $tbl  (@$imtables)                   { $new_monikers{$tbl->sql_name} = $self->_table2moniker($tbl); }
                foreach my $name (map $_->sql_name, @$imtables) { $self->monikers->{$name} = $new_monikers{$name}; }

                # check if there are still clashes
                my %by_moniker;

                while (my ($t, $m) = each %new_monikers) {
                    push @{ $by_moniker{$m} }, $t;

                foreach my $m (grep @{ $by_moniker{$_} } > 1, keys %by_moniker) {
                    push @clashes, sprintf ("tried disambiguating by moniker_parts, but tables %s still reduced to the same source moniker '%s'",
                        join (', ', @{ $by_moniker{$m} }),
            else {
                push @clashes, sprintf ("tables %s reduced to the same source moniker '%s'",
                    join (', ', map $_->sql_name, @$imtables),

    if (@clashes) {
        die 'Unable to load schema - chosen moniker/class naming style results in moniker clashes. '
        . 'Change the naming style, or supply an explicit moniker_map: '
        . join ('; ', @clashes)
        . "\n"

    foreach my $tbl (@tables) { $self->_make_src_class($tbl); }
    foreach my $tbl (@tables) { $self->_setup_src_meta($tbl); }

    if(!$self->skip_relationships) {
        # The relationship loader needs a working schema
        local $self->{quiet} = 1;
        local $self->{dump_directory} = $self->{temp_directory};
        local $self->{generated_classes} = [];
        local $self->{dry_run} = 0;

        # Remove that temp dir from INC so it doesn't get reloaded
        @INC = grep $_ ne $self->dump_directory, @INC;

    foreach my $tbl                                        (@tables) { $self->_load_roles($tbl); }
    foreach my $tbl (map { $self->classes->{$_->sql_name} } @tables) { $self->_load_external($tbl); }

    # Reload without unloading first to preserve any symbols from external
    # packages.
    $self->_reload_classes(\@tables, { unload => 0 });

    # Drop temporary cache
    delete $self->{_cache};

    return \@tables;

sub _reload_classes {
    my ($self, $tables, $opts) = @_;

    my @tables = @$tables;

    my $unload = $opts->{unload};
    $unload = 1 unless defined $unload;

    # so that we don't repeat custom sections
    @INC = grep $_ ne $self->dump_directory, @INC;

    $self->_dump_to_dir(map { $self->classes->{$_->sql_name} } @tables);

    unshift @INC, $self->dump_directory;

    return if $self->dry_run;

    my @to_register;
    my %have_source = map { $_ => $self->schema->source($_) }

    for my $table (@tables) {
        my $moniker = $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name};
        my $class = $self->classes->{$table->sql_name};

            no warnings 'redefine';
            local *Class::C3::reinitialize = sub {};  # to speed things up, reinitialized below
            use warnings;

            if (my $mc = $self->_moose_metaclass($class)) {
            Class::Unload->unload($class) if $unload;
            my ($source, $resultset_class);
            if (
                ($source = $have_source{$moniker})
                && ($resultset_class = $source->resultset_class)
                && ($resultset_class ne 'DBIx::Class::ResultSet')
            ) {
                my $has_file = Class::Inspector->loaded_filename($resultset_class);
                if (my $mc = $self->_moose_metaclass($resultset_class)) {
                Class::Unload->unload($resultset_class) if $unload;
                $self->_reload_class($resultset_class) if $has_file;
        push @to_register, [$moniker, $class];

    for (@to_register) {

sub _moose_metaclass {
    return undef unless $INC{'Class/'}; # if CMOP is not loaded the class could not have loaded in the 1st place

    my $class = $_[1];

    my $mc = try { Class::MOP::class_of($class) }
        or return undef;

    return $mc->isa('Moose::Meta::Class') ? $mc : undef;

# We use this instead of ensure_class_loaded when there are package symbols we
# want to preserve.
sub _reload_class {
    my ($self, $class) = @_;

    delete $INC{ +class_path($class) };

    try {
        eval_package_without_redefine_warnings ($class, "require $class");
    catch {
        my $source = slurp_file $self->_get_dump_filename($class);
        die "Failed to reload class $class: $_.\n\nCLASS SOURCE:\n\n$source";

sub _get_dump_filename {
    my ($self, $class) = (@_);

    $class =~ s{::}{/}g;
    return $self->dump_directory . q{/} . $class . q{.pm};

=head2 get_dump_filename

Arguments: class

Returns the full path to the file for a class that the class has been or will
be dumped to. This is a file in a temp dir for a dynamic schema.


sub get_dump_filename {
    my ($self, $class) = (@_);

    local $self->{dump_directory} = $self->real_dump_directory;

    return $self->_get_dump_filename($class);

sub _ensure_dump_subdirs {
    my ($self, $class) = (@_);

    return if $self->dry_run;

    my @name_parts = split(/::/, $class);
    pop @name_parts; # we don't care about the very last element,
                     # which is a filename

    my $dir = $self->dump_directory;
    while (1) {
        if(!-d $dir) {
            mkdir($dir) or croak "mkdir('$dir') failed: $!";
        last if !@name_parts;
        $dir = File::Spec->catdir($dir, shift @name_parts);

sub _dump_to_dir {
    my ($self, @classes) = @_;

    my $schema_class = $self->schema_class;
    my $schema_base_class = $self->schema_base_class || 'DBIx::Class::Schema';

    my $target_dir = $self->dump_directory;
    warn "Dumping manual schema for $schema_class to directory $target_dir ...\n"
        unless $self->dynamic or $self->quiet;

    my $schema_text =
          qq|use utf8;\n|
        . qq|package $schema_class;\n\n|
        . qq|# Created by DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader\n|

    my $autoclean
        = $self->only_autoclean
        ? 'namespace::autoclean'
        : 'MooseX::MarkAsMethods autoclean => 1'

    if ($self->use_moose) {

        $schema_text.= qq|use Moose;\nuse $autoclean;\nextends '$schema_base_class';\n\n|;
    else {
        $schema_text .= qq|use strict;\nuse warnings;\n\nuse base '$schema_base_class';\n\n|;

    my @schema_components = @{ $self->schema_components || [] };

    if (@schema_components) {
        my $schema_components = dump @schema_components;
        $schema_components = "($schema_components)" if @schema_components == 1;

        $schema_text .= "__PACKAGE__->load_components${schema_components};\n\n";

    if ($self->use_namespaces) {
        $schema_text .= qq|__PACKAGE__->load_namespaces|;
        my $namespace_options;

        my @attr = qw/resultset_namespace default_resultset_class/;

        unshift @attr, 'result_namespace'
            if $self->result_namespace && $self->result_namespace ne 'Result';

        for my $attr (@attr) {
            if ($self->$attr) {
                my $code = dumper_squashed $self->$attr;
                $namespace_options .= qq|    $attr => $code,\n|
        $schema_text .= qq|(\n$namespace_options)| if $namespace_options;
        $schema_text .= qq|;\n|;
    else {
        $schema_text .= qq|__PACKAGE__->load_classes;\n|;

        local $self->{version_to_dump} = $self->schema_version_to_dump;
        $self->_write_classfile($schema_class, $schema_text, 1);

    my $result_base_class = $self->result_base_class || 'DBIx::Class::Core';

    foreach my $src_class (@classes) {
        my $src_text =
              qq|use utf8;\n|
            . qq|package $src_class;\n\n|
            . qq|# Created by DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader\n|
            . qq|# DO NOT MODIFY THE FIRST PART OF THIS FILE\n\n|;

        $src_text .= $self->_make_pod_heading($src_class);

        $src_text .= qq|use strict;\nuse warnings;\n\n|;

        $src_text .= $self->_base_class_pod($result_base_class)
            unless $result_base_class eq 'DBIx::Class::Core';

        if ($self->use_moose) {
            $src_text.= qq|use Moose;\nuse MooseX::NonMoose;\nuse $autoclean;|;

            # these options 'use base' which is compile time
            if (@{ $self->left_base_classes } || @{ $self->additional_base_classes }) {
                $src_text .= qq|\nBEGIN { extends '$result_base_class' }\n|;
            else {
                $src_text .= qq|\nextends '$result_base_class';\n|;
        else {
            $src_text .= qq|use base '$result_base_class';\n|;

        $self->_write_classfile($src_class, $src_text);

    # remove Result dir if downgrading from use_namespaces, and there are no
    # files left.
    if (my $result_ns = $self->_downgrading_to_load_classes
                        || $self->_rewriting_result_namespace) {
        my $result_namespace = $self->_result_namespace(

        (my $result_dir = $result_namespace) =~ s{::}{/}g;
        $result_dir = $self->dump_directory . '/' . $result_dir;

        unless (my @files = glob "$result_dir/*") {
            rmdir $result_dir;

    warn "Schema dump completed.\n" unless $self->dynamic or $self->quiet;

sub _sig_comment {
    my ($self, $version, $ts) = @_;
    return qq|\n\n# Created by DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader|
         . (defined($version) ? q| v| . $version : '')
         . (defined($ts) ? q| @ | . $ts : '')
         . qq|\n# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE! md5sum:|;

sub _write_classfile {
    my ($self, $class, $text, $is_schema) = @_;

    my $filename = $self->_get_dump_filename($class);

    if (-f $filename && $self->really_erase_my_files && !$self->dry_run) {
        warn "Deleting existing file '$filename' due to "
            . "'really_erase_my_files' setting\n" unless $self->quiet;

    my ($old_gen, $old_md5, $old_ver, $old_ts, $old_custom)
        = $self->_parse_generated_file($filename);

    if (! $old_gen && -f $filename) {
        croak "Cannot overwrite '$filename' without 'really_erase_my_files',"
            . " it does not appear to have been generated by Loader"

    my $custom_content = $old_custom || '';

    # Use custom content from a renamed class, the class names in it are
    # rewritten below.
    if (my $renamed_class = $self->_upgrading_classes->{$class}) {
        my $old_filename = $self->_get_dump_filename($renamed_class);

        if (-f $old_filename) {
            $custom_content = ($self->_parse_generated_file ($old_filename))[4];

            unlink $old_filename unless $self->dry_run;

    $custom_content ||= $self->_default_custom_content($is_schema);

    # If upgrading to use_moose=1 replace default custom content with default Moose custom content.
    # If there is already custom content, which does not have the Moose content, add it.
    if ($self->use_moose) {

        my $non_moose_custom_content = do {
            local $self->{use_moose} = 0;

        if ($custom_content eq $non_moose_custom_content) {
            $custom_content = $self->_default_custom_content($is_schema);
        elsif ($custom_content !~ /\Q@{[$self->_default_moose_custom_content($is_schema)]}\E/) {
            $custom_content .= $self->_default_custom_content($is_schema);
    elsif (defined $self->use_moose && $old_gen) {
        croak 'It is not possible to "downgrade" a schema that was loaded with use_moose => 1 to use_moose => 0, due to differing custom content'
            if $old_gen =~ /use \s+ MooseX?\b/x;

    $custom_content = $self->_rewrite_old_classnames($custom_content);

    $text .= qq|$_\n|
        for @{$self->{_dump_storage}->{$class} || []};

    if ($self->filter_generated_code) {
        my $filter = $self->filter_generated_code;

        if (ref $filter eq 'CODE') {
            $text = $filter->(
                ($is_schema ? 'schema' : 'result'),
        else {
            my ($fh, $temp_file) = tempfile();

            binmode $fh, ':encoding(UTF-8)';
            print $fh $text;
            close $fh;

            open my $out, qq{$filter < "$temp_file"|}
                or croak "Could not open pipe to $filter: $!";

            $text = decode('UTF-8', do { local $/; <$out> });

            $text =~ s/$CR?$LF/\n/g;

            close $out;

            my $exit_code = $? >> 8;

            unlink $temp_file
                or croak "Could not remove temporary file '$temp_file': $!";

            if ($exit_code != 0) {
                croak "filter '$filter' exited non-zero: $exit_code";
        if (not $text or not $text =~ /\bpackage\b/) {
            warn("$class skipped due to filter") if $self->debug;

    # Check and see if the dump is in fact different

    my $compare_to;
    if ($old_md5) {
        $compare_to = $text . $self->_sig_comment($old_ver, $old_ts);
        if (Digest::MD5::md5_base64(encode 'UTF-8', $compare_to) eq $old_md5) {
            return unless $self->_upgrading_from && $is_schema;

    push @{$self->generated_classes}, $class;

    return if $self->dry_run;

    $text .= $self->_sig_comment(
        $self->omit_version ? undef : $self->version_to_dump,
        $self->omit_timestamp ? undef : POSIX::strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', localtime)

    open(my $fh, '>:raw:encoding(UTF-8)', $filename)
        or croak "Cannot open '$filename' for writing: $!";

    # Write the top half and its MD5 sum
    print $fh $text . Digest::MD5::md5_base64(encode 'UTF-8', $text) . "\n";

    # Write out anything loaded via external partial class file in @INC
    print $fh qq|$_\n|
        for @{$self->{_ext_storage}->{$class} || []};

    # Write out any custom content the user has added
    print $fh $custom_content;

        or croak "Error closing '$filename': $!";

sub _default_moose_custom_content {
    my ($self, $is_schema) = @_;

    if (not $is_schema) {
        return qq|\n__PACKAGE__->meta->make_immutable;|;

    return qq|\n__PACKAGE__->meta->make_immutable(inline_constructor => 0);|;

sub _default_custom_content {
    my ($self, $is_schema) = @_;
    my $default = qq|\n\n# You can replace this text with custom|
         . qq| code or comments, and it will be preserved on regeneration|;
    if ($self->use_moose) {
        $default .= $self->_default_moose_custom_content($is_schema);
    $default .= qq|\n1;\n|;
    return $default;

sub _parse_generated_file {
    my ($self, $fn) = @_;

    return unless -f $fn;

    open(my $fh, '<:encoding(UTF-8)', $fn)
        or croak "Cannot open '$fn' for reading: $!";

    my $mark_re =
        qr{^(# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE! md5sum:)([A-Za-z0-9/+]{22})\r?\n};

    my ($real_md5, $ts, $ver, $gen);
    local $_;
    while(<$fh>) {
        if(/$mark_re/) {
            my $pre_md5 = $1;
            my $mark_md5 = $2;

            # Pull out the version and timestamp from the line above
            ($ver, $ts) = $gen =~ m/^# Created by DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader( v[\d._]+)?( @ [\d-]+ [\d:]+)?\r?\Z/m;
            $ver =~ s/^ v// if $ver;
            $ts =~ s/^ @ // if $ts;

            $gen .= $pre_md5;
            $real_md5 = Digest::MD5::md5_base64(encode 'UTF-8', $gen);
            if ($real_md5 ne $mark_md5) {
                if ($self->overwrite_modifications) {
                    # Setting this to something that is not a valid MD5 forces
                    # the file to be rewritten.
                    $real_md5 = 'not an MD5';
                else {
                    croak "Checksum mismatch in '$fn', the auto-generated part of the file has been modified outside of this loader.  Aborting.\nIf you want to overwrite these modifications, set the 'overwrite_modifications' loader option.\n";
        else {
            $gen .= $_;

    my $custom = do { local $/; <$fh> }
        if $real_md5;

    $custom ||= '';
    $custom =~ s/$CRLF|$LF/\n/g;

    close $fh;

    return ($gen, $real_md5, $ver, $ts, $custom);

sub _use {
    my $self = shift;
    my $target = shift;

    foreach (@_) {
        warn "$target: use $_;" if $self->debug;
        $self->_raw_stmt($target, "use $_;");

sub _inject {
    my $self = shift;
    my $target = shift;

    my $blist = join(q{ }, @_);

    return unless $blist;

    warn "$target: use base qw/$blist/;" if $self->debug;
    $self->_raw_stmt($target, "use base qw/$blist/;");

sub _with {
    my $self = shift;
    my $target = shift;

    my $rlist = join(q{, }, map { qq{'$_'} } @_);

    return unless $rlist;

    warn "$target: with $rlist;" if $self->debug;
    $self->_raw_stmt($target, "\nwith $rlist;");

sub _result_namespace {
    my ($self, $schema_class, $ns) = @_;
    my @result_namespace;

    $ns = $ns->[0] if ref $ns;

    if ($ns =~ /^\+(.*)/) {
        # Fully qualified namespace
        @result_namespace = ($1)
    else {
        # Relative namespace
        @result_namespace = ($schema_class, $ns);

    return wantarray ? @result_namespace : join '::', @result_namespace;

# Create class with applicable bases, setup monikers, etc
sub _make_src_class {
    my ($self, $table) = @_;

    my $schema       = $self->schema;
    my $schema_class = $self->schema_class;

    my $table_moniker = $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name};
    my @result_namespace = ($schema_class);
    if ($self->use_namespaces) {
        my $result_namespace = $self->result_namespace || 'Result';
        @result_namespace = $self->_result_namespace(
    my $table_class = join(q{::}, @result_namespace, $table_moniker);

    if ((my $upgrading_v = $self->_upgrading_from)
            || $self->_rewriting) {
        local $self->naming->{monikers} = $upgrading_v
            if $upgrading_v;

        my @result_namespace = @result_namespace;
        if ($self->_upgrading_from_load_classes) {
            @result_namespace = ($schema_class);
        elsif (my $ns = $self->_downgrading_to_load_classes) {
            @result_namespace = $self->_result_namespace(
        elsif ($ns = $self->_rewriting_result_namespace) {
            @result_namespace = $self->_result_namespace(

        my $old_table_moniker = do {
            local $self->naming->{monikers} = $upgrading_v;

        my $old_class = join(q{::}, @result_namespace, $old_table_moniker);

        $self->_upgrading_classes->{$table_class} = $old_class
            unless $table_class eq $old_class;

    $self->classes->{$table->sql_name}  = $table_class;
    $self->moniker_to_table->{$table_moniker} = $table;
    $self->class_to_table->{$table_class} = $table;

    $self->_pod_class_list($table_class, 'ADDITIONAL CLASSES USED', @{$self->additional_classes});

    $self->_use   ($table_class, @{$self->additional_classes});

    $self->_pod_class_list($table_class, 'LEFT BASE CLASSES', @{$self->left_base_classes});

    $self->_inject($table_class, @{$self->left_base_classes});

    my @components = @{ $self->components || [] };

    push @components, @{ $self->result_components_map->{$table_moniker} }
        if exists $self->result_components_map->{$table_moniker};

    my @fq_components = @components;
    foreach my $component (@fq_components) {
        if ($component !~ s/^\+//) {
            $component = "DBIx::Class::$component";

    $self->_pod_class_list($table_class, 'COMPONENTS LOADED', @fq_components);

    $self->_dbic_stmt($table_class, 'load_components', @components) if @components;

    $self->_pod_class_list($table_class, 'ADDITIONAL BASE CLASSES', @{$self->additional_base_classes});

    $self->_inject($table_class, @{$self->additional_base_classes});

sub _is_result_class_method {
    my ($self, $name, $table) = @_;

    my $table_moniker = $table ? $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name} : '';

        if not defined $self->_result_class_methods;

    if (not exists $self->_result_class_methods->{$table_moniker}) {
        my (@methods, %methods);
        my $base       = $self->result_base_class || 'DBIx::Class::Core';

        my @components = @{ $self->components || [] };

        push @components, @{ $self->result_components_map->{$table_moniker} }
            if exists $self->result_components_map->{$table_moniker};

        for my $c (@components) {
            $c = $c =~ /^\+/ ? substr($c,1) : "DBIx::Class::$c";

        my @roles = @{ $self->result_roles || [] };

        push @roles, @{ $self->result_roles_map->{$table_moniker} }
            if exists $self->result_roles_map->{$table_moniker};

        for my $class (
            $base, @components, @roles,
            ($self->use_moose ? 'Moose::Object' : ()),
        ) {

            push @methods, @{ Class::Inspector->methods($class) || [] };

        push @methods, @{ Class::Inspector->methods('UNIVERSAL') };

        @methods{@methods} = ();

        $self->_result_class_methods->{$table_moniker} = \%methods;
    my $result_methods = $self->_result_class_methods->{$table_moniker};

    return exists $result_methods->{$name};

sub _resolve_col_accessor_collisions {
    my ($self, $table, $col_info) = @_;

    while (my ($col, $info) = each %$col_info) {
        my $accessor = $info->{accessor} || $col;

        next if $accessor eq 'id'; # special case (very common column)

        if ($self->_is_result_class_method($accessor, $table)) {
            my $mapped = 0;

            if (my $map = $self->col_collision_map) {
                for my $re (keys %$map) {
                    if (my @matches = $col =~ /$re/) {
                        $info->{accessor} = sprintf $map->{$re}, @matches;
                        $mapped = 1;

            if (not $mapped) {
                warn <<"EOF";
Column '$col' in table '$table' collides with an inherited method.
See "COLUMN ACCESSOR COLLISIONS" in perldoc DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Base .
                $info->{accessor} = undef;

# use the same logic to run moniker_map, col_accessor_map
sub _run_user_map {
    my ( $self, $map, $default_code, $ident, @extra ) = @_;

    my $default_ident = $default_code->( $ident, @extra );
    my $new_ident;
    if( $map && ref $map eq 'HASH' ) {
        if (my @parts = try { @{ $ident } }) {
            my $part_map = $map;
            while (@parts) {
                my $part = shift @parts;
                last unless exists $part_map->{ $part };
                if ( !ref $part_map->{ $part } && !@parts ) {
                    $new_ident = $part_map->{ $part };
                elsif ( ref $part_map->{ $part } eq 'HASH' ) {
                    $part_map = $part_map->{ $part };
        if( !$new_ident && !ref $map->{ $ident } ) {
            $new_ident = $map->{ $ident };
    elsif( $map && ref $map eq 'CODE' ) {
        my $cb = sub {
            my ($cb_map) = @_;
            croak "reentered map must be a hashref"
                unless 'HASH' eq ref($cb_map);
            return $self->_run_user_map($cb_map, $default_code, $ident, @extra);
        $new_ident = $map->( $ident, $default_ident, @extra, $cb );

    $new_ident ||= $default_ident;

    return $new_ident;

sub _default_column_accessor_name {
    my ( $self, $column_name ) = @_;

    my $preserve = ($self->naming->{column_accessors}||'') eq 'preserve';

    my $v = $self->_get_naming_v('column_accessors');

    my $accessor_name = $preserve ?
        $self->_to_identifier('column_accessors', $column_name) # assume CamelCase
        $self->_to_identifier('column_accessors', $column_name, '_');

    $accessor_name =~ s/\W+/_/g; # only if naming < v8, otherwise to_identifier
                                 # takes care of it

    if ($preserve) {
        return $accessor_name;
    elsif ($v < 7 || (not $self->preserve_case)) {
        # older naming just lc'd the col accessor and that's all.
        return lc $accessor_name;

    return join '_', map lc, split_name $column_name, $v;

sub _make_column_accessor_name {
    my ($self, $column_name, $column_context_info ) = @_;

    my $accessor = $self->_run_user_map(

    return $accessor;

sub _table_is_view {
    #my ($self, $table) = @_;
    return 0;

sub _view_definition { undef }

# Set up metadata (cols, pks, etc)
sub _setup_src_meta {
    my ($self, $table) = @_;

    my $schema       = $self->schema;
    my $schema_class = $self->schema_class;

    my $table_class   = $self->classes->{$table->sql_name};
    my $table_moniker = $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name};

    # Must come before ->table
    $self->_dbic_stmt($table_class, 'table_class', 'DBIx::Class::ResultSource::View')
        if my $is_view = $self->_table_is_view($table);

    $self->_dbic_stmt($table_class, 'table', $table->dbic_name);

    # Must come after ->table
    if ($is_view and my $view_def = $self->_view_definition($table)) {
        $self->_dbic_stmt($table_class, 'result_source_instance->view_definition', $view_def);

    my $cols     = $self->_table_columns($table);
    my $col_info = $self->__columns_info_for($table);

    ### generate all the column accessor names
    while (my ($col, $info) = each %$col_info) {
        # hashref of other info that could be used by
        # user-defined accessor map functions
        my $context = {
            table_class     => $table_class,
            table_moniker   => $table_moniker,
            table_name      => $table, # bugwards compatibility, RT#84050
            table           => $table,
            full_table_name => $table->dbic_name,
            schema_class    => $schema_class,
            column_info     => $info,
        my $col_obj = DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader::Column->new(
            table => $table,
            name  => $col,

        $info->{accessor} = $self->_make_column_accessor_name( $col_obj, $context );

    $self->_resolve_col_accessor_collisions($table, $col_info);

    # prune any redundant accessor names
    while (my ($col, $info) = each %$col_info) {
        no warnings 'uninitialized';
        delete $info->{accessor} if $info->{accessor} eq $col;

    my $fks = $self->_table_fk_info($table);

    foreach my $fkdef (@$fks) {
        for my $col (@{ $fkdef->{local_columns} }) {
            $col_info->{$col}{is_foreign_key} = 1;

    my $pks = $self->_table_pk_info($table) || [];

    my %uniq_tag; # used to eliminate duplicate uniqs

    $uniq_tag{ join("\0", @$pks) }++ if @$pks; # pk is a uniq

    my $uniqs = $self->_table_uniq_info($table) || [];
    my @uniqs;

    foreach my $uniq (@$uniqs) {
        my ($name, $cols) = @$uniq;
        next if $uniq_tag{ join("\0", @$cols) }++; # skip duplicates
        push @uniqs, [$name, $cols];

    my @non_nullable_uniqs = grep {
        all { $col_info->{$_}{is_nullable} == 0 } @{ $_->[1] }
    } @uniqs;

    if ($self->uniq_to_primary && (not @$pks) && @non_nullable_uniqs) {
        my @by_colnum = sort { $b->[0] <=> $a->[0] }
            map [ scalar @{ $_->[1] }, $_ ], @non_nullable_uniqs;

        if (not (@by_colnum > 1 && $by_colnum[0][0] == $by_colnum[1][0])) {
            my @keys = map $_->[1], @by_colnum;

            my $pk = $keys[0];

            # remove the uniq from list
            @uniqs = grep { $_->[0] ne $pk->[0] } @uniqs;

            $pks = $pk->[1];

    foreach my $pkcol (@$pks) {
        $col_info->{$pkcol}{is_nullable} = 0;

        map { $_, ($col_info->{$_}||{}) } @$cols

    $self->_dbic_stmt($table_class, 'set_primary_key', @$pks)
        if @$pks;

    # Sort unique constraints by constraint name for repeatable results (rels
    # are sorted as well elsewhere.)
    @uniqs = sort { $a->[0] cmp $b->[0] } @uniqs;

    foreach my $uniq (@uniqs) {
        my ($name, $cols) = @$uniq;
        $self->_dbic_stmt($table_class,'add_unique_constraint', $name, $cols);

sub __columns_info_for {
    my ($self, $table) = @_;

    my $result = $self->_columns_info_for($table);

    while (my ($col, $info) = each %$result) {
        $info = { %$info, %{ $self->_custom_column_info  ($table, $col, $info) } };
        $info = { %$info, %{ $self->_datetime_column_info($table, $col, $info) } };

        $result->{$col} = $info;

    return $result;

=head2 tables

Returns a sorted list of loaded tables, using the original database table


sub tables {
    my $self = shift;

    return values %{$self->_tables};

sub _get_naming_v {
    my ($self, $naming_key) = @_;

    my $v;

    if (($self->naming->{$naming_key}||'') =~ /^v(\d+)\z/) {
        $v = $1;
    else {
        ($v) = $CURRENT_V =~ /^v(\d+)\z/;

    return $v;

sub _to_identifier {
    my ($self, $naming_key, $name, $sep_char, $force) = @_;

    my $v = $self->_get_naming_v($naming_key);

    my $to_identifier = $self->naming->{force_ascii} ?
        : \&String::ToIdentifier::EN::Unicode::to_identifier;

    return $v >= 8 || $force ? $to_identifier->($name, $sep_char) : $name;

# Make a moniker from a table
sub _default_table2moniker {
    my ($self, $table) = @_;

    my $v = $self->_get_naming_v('monikers');

    my @moniker_parts = @{ $self->moniker_parts };
    my @name_parts = map $table->$_, @moniker_parts;

    my $name_idx = firstidx { $_ eq 'name' } @{ $self->moniker_parts };

    my @all_parts;

    foreach my $i (0 .. $#name_parts) {
        my $part = $name_parts[$i];

        my $moniker_part = $self->_run_user_map(
            sub { '' },
            $part, $moniker_parts[$i],
        if (length $moniker_part) {
            push @all_parts, $moniker_part;

        if ($i != $name_idx || $v >= 8) {
            $part = $self->_to_identifier('monikers', $part, '_', 1);

        if ($i == $name_idx && $v == 5) {
            $part = Lingua::EN::Inflect::Number::to_S($part);

        my @part_parts = map lc, $v > 6 ?
            # use v8 semantics for all moniker parts except name
            ($i == $name_idx ? split_name $part, $v : split_name $part)
            : split /[\W_]+/, $part;

        if ($i == $name_idx && $v >= 6) {
            my $as_phrase = join ' ', @part_parts;

            my $inflected = ($self->naming->{monikers}||'') eq 'plural' ?
                ($self->naming->{monikers}||'') eq 'preserve' ?

            @part_parts = split /\s+/, $inflected;

        push @all_parts, join '', map ucfirst, @part_parts;

    return join $self->moniker_part_separator, @all_parts;

sub _table2moniker {
    my ( $self, $table ) = @_;


sub _load_relationships {
    my ($self, $tables) = @_;

    my @tables;

    foreach my $table (@$tables) {
        my $local_moniker = $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name};

        my $tbl_fk_info = $self->_table_fk_info($table);

        foreach my $fkdef (@$tbl_fk_info) {
            $fkdef->{local_table}   = $table;
            $fkdef->{local_moniker} = $local_moniker;
            $fkdef->{remote_source} =
        my $tbl_uniq_info = $self->_table_uniq_info($table);

        push @tables, [ $local_moniker, $tbl_fk_info, $tbl_uniq_info ];

    my $rel_stmts = $self->_relbuilder->generate_code(\@tables);

    foreach my $src_class (sort keys %$rel_stmts) {
        # sort by rel name
        my @src_stmts = map $_->[2],
            sort {
                $a->[0] <=> $b->[0]
                $a->[1] cmp $b->[1]
            } map [
                ($_->{method} eq 'many_to_many' ? 1 : 0),
            ], @{ $rel_stmts->{$src_class} };

        foreach my $stmt (@src_stmts) {
            $self->_dbic_stmt($src_class,$stmt->{method}, @{$stmt->{args}});

sub _load_roles {
    my ($self, $table) = @_;

    my $table_moniker = $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name};
    my $table_class   = $self->classes->{$table->sql_name};

    my @roles = @{ $self->result_roles || [] };
    push @roles, @{ $self->result_roles_map->{$table_moniker} }
        if exists $self->result_roles_map->{$table_moniker};

    if (@roles) {
        $self->_pod_class_list($table_class, 'L<Moose> ROLES APPLIED', @roles);

        $self->_with($table_class, @roles);

# Overload these in driver class:

# Returns an arrayref of column names
sub _table_columns { croak "ABSTRACT METHOD" }

# Returns arrayref of pk col names
sub _table_pk_info { croak "ABSTRACT METHOD" }

# Returns an arrayref of uniqs [ [ foo => [ col1, col2 ] ], [ bar => [ ... ] ] ]
sub _table_uniq_info { croak "ABSTRACT METHOD" }

# Returns an arrayref of foreign key constraints, each
#   being a hashref with 3 keys:
#   local_columns (arrayref), remote_columns (arrayref), remote_table
sub _table_fk_info { croak "ABSTRACT METHOD" }

# Returns an array of lower case table names
sub _tables_list { croak "ABSTRACT METHOD" }

# Execute a constructive DBIC class method, with debug/dump_to_dir hooks.
sub _dbic_stmt {
    my $self   = shift;
    my $class  = shift;
    my $method = shift;

    # generate the pod for this statement, storing it with $self->_pod
    $self->_make_pod( $class, $method, @_ ) if $self->generate_pod;

    my $args = dump(@_);
    $args = '(' . $args . ')' if @_ < 2;
    my $stmt = $method . $args . q{;};

    warn qq|$class\->$stmt\n| if $self->debug;
    $self->_raw_stmt($class, '__PACKAGE__->' . $stmt);

sub _make_pod_heading {
    my ($self, $class) = @_;

    return '' if not $self->generate_pod;

    my $table = $self->class_to_table->{$class};
    my $pod;

    my $pcm = $self->pod_comment_mode;
    my ($comment, $comment_overflows, $comment_in_name, $comment_in_desc);
    $comment = $self->__table_comment($table);
    $comment_overflows = ($comment and length $comment > $self->pod_comment_spillover_length);
    $comment_in_name   = ($pcm eq 'name' or ($pcm eq 'auto' and !$comment_overflows));
    $comment_in_desc   = ($pcm eq 'description' or ($pcm eq 'auto' and $comment_overflows));

    $pod .= "=head1 NAME\n\n";

    my $table_descr = $class;
    $table_descr .= " - " . $comment if $comment and $comment_in_name;

    $pod .= "$table_descr\n\n";

    if ($comment and $comment_in_desc) {
        $pod .= "=head1 DESCRIPTION\n\n${comment}\n\n";
    $pod .= "=cut\n\n";

    return $pod;

# generates the accompanying pod for a DBIC class method statement,
# storing it with $self->_pod
sub _make_pod {
    my $self   = shift;
    my $class  = shift;
    my $method = shift;

    if ($method eq 'table') {
        my $table = $_[0];
        $table = $$table if ref $table eq 'SCALAR';
        $self->_pod($class, "=head1 TABLE: C<$table>");
    elsif ( $method eq 'add_columns' ) {
        $self->_pod( $class, "=head1 ACCESSORS" );
        my $col_counter = 0;
        my @cols = @_;
        while( my ($name,$attrs) = splice @cols,0,2 ) {
            $self->_pod( $class, '=head2 ' . $name  );
            $self->_pod( $class,
                join "\n", map {
                    my $s = $attrs->{$_};
                    $s = !defined $s          ? 'undef'             :
                        length($s) == 0       ? '(empty string)'    :
                        ref($s) eq 'SCALAR'   ? $$s                 :
                        ref($s)               ? dumper_squashed $s  :
                        looks_like_number($s) ? $s                  : qq{'$s'};

                    "  $_: $s"
                } sort keys %$attrs,
            if (my $comment = $self->__column_comment($self->class_to_table->{$class}, $col_counter, $name)) {
                $self->_pod( $class, $comment );
        $self->_pod_cut( $class );
    } elsif ( $method =~ /^(?:belongs_to|has_many|might_have)\z/ ) {
        $self->_pod( $class, "=head1 RELATIONS" ) unless $self->{_relations_started} { $class } ;
        my ( $accessor, $rel_class ) = @_;
        $self->_pod( $class, "=head2 $accessor" );
        $self->_pod( $class, 'Type: ' . $method );
        $self->_pod( $class, "Related object: L<$rel_class>" );
        $self->_pod_cut( $class );
        $self->{_relations_started} { $class } = 1;
    } elsif ( $method eq 'many_to_many' ) {
        $self->_pod( $class, "=head1 RELATIONS" ) unless $self->{_relations_started} { $class } ;
        my ( $accessor, $rel1, $rel2 ) = @_;
        $self->_pod( $class, "=head2 $accessor" );
        $self->_pod( $class, 'Type: many_to_many' );
        $self->_pod( $class, "Composing rels: L</$rel1> -> $rel2" );
        $self->_pod_cut( $class );
        $self->{_relations_started} { $class } = 1;
    elsif ($method eq 'add_unique_constraint') {
        $self->_pod($class, '=head1 UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS')
            unless $self->{_uniqs_started}{$class};

        my ($name, $cols) = @_;

        $self->_pod($class, "=head2 C<$name>");
        $self->_pod($class, '=over 4');

        foreach my $col (@$cols) {
            $self->_pod($class, "=item \* L</$col>");

        $self->_pod($class, '=back');

        $self->{_uniqs_started}{$class} = 1;
    elsif ($method eq 'set_primary_key') {
        $self->_pod($class, "=head1 PRIMARY KEY");
        $self->_pod($class, '=over 4');

        foreach my $col (@_) {
            $self->_pod($class, "=item \* L</$col>");

        $self->_pod($class, '=back');

sub _pod_class_list {
    my ($self, $class, $title, @classes) = @_;

    return unless @classes && $self->generate_pod;

    $self->_pod($class, "=head1 $title");
    $self->_pod($class, '=over 4');

    foreach my $link (@classes) {
        $self->_pod($class, "=item * L<$link>");

    $self->_pod($class, '=back');

sub _base_class_pod {
    my ($self, $base_class) = @_;

    return '' unless $self->generate_pod;

    return "\n=head1 BASE CLASS: L<$base_class>\n\n=cut\n\n";

sub _filter_comment {
    my ($self, $txt) = @_;

    $txt = '' if not defined $txt;

    $txt =~ s/(?:\015?\012|\015\012?)/\n/g;

    return $txt;

sub __table_comment {
    my $self = shift;

    if (my $code = $self->can('_table_comment')) {
        return $self->_filter_comment($self->$code(@_));

    return '';

sub __column_comment {
    my $self = shift;

    if (my $code = $self->can('_column_comment')) {
        return $self->_filter_comment($self->$code(@_));

    return '';

# Stores a POD documentation
sub _pod {
    my ($self, $class, $stmt) = @_;
    $self->_raw_stmt( $class, "\n" . $stmt  );

sub _pod_cut {
    my ($self, $class ) = @_;
    $self->_raw_stmt( $class, "\n=cut\n" );

# Store a raw source line for a class (for dumping purposes)
sub _raw_stmt {
    my ($self, $class, $stmt) = @_;
    push(@{$self->{_dump_storage}->{$class}}, $stmt);

# Like above, but separately for the externally loaded stuff
sub _ext_stmt {
    my ($self, $class, $stmt) = @_;
    push(@{$self->{_ext_storage}->{$class}}, $stmt);

sub _custom_column_info {
    my ( $self, $table_name, $column_name, $column_info ) = @_;

    if (my $code = $self->custom_column_info) {
        return $code->($table_name, $column_name, $column_info) || {};
    return {};

sub _datetime_column_info {
    my ( $self, $table_name, $column_name, $column_info ) = @_;
    my $result = {};
    my $type = $column_info->{data_type} || '';
    if ((grep $_, @{ $column_info }{map "inflate_$_", qw/date datetime timestamp/})
            or ($type =~ /date|timestamp/i)) {
        $result->{timezone} = $self->datetime_timezone if $self->datetime_timezone;
        $result->{locale}   = $self->datetime_locale   if $self->datetime_locale;
    return $result;

sub _lc {
    my ($self, $name) = @_;

    return $self->preserve_case ? $name : lc($name);

sub _uc {
    my ($self, $name) = @_;

    return $self->preserve_case ? $name : uc($name);

sub _remove_table {
    my ($self, $table) = @_;

    try {
        my $schema = $self->schema;
        # in older DBIC it's a private method
        my $unregister = $schema->can('unregister_source') || $schema->can('_unregister_source');
        $schema->$unregister(delete $self->monikers->{$table->sql_name});
        delete $self->_upgrading_classes->{delete $self->classes->{$table->sql_name}};
        delete $self->_tables->{$table->sql_name};

# remove the dump dir from @INC on destruction
    my $self = shift;

    @INC = grep $_ ne $self->dump_directory, @INC;

=head2 monikers

Returns a hashref of loaded table to moniker mappings.  There will
be two entries for each table, the original name and the "normalized"
name, in the case that the two are different (such as databases
that like uppercase table names, or preserve your original mixed-case
definitions, or what-have-you).

=head2 classes

Returns a hashref of table to class mappings.  In some cases it will
contain multiple entries per table for the original and normalized table
names, as above in L</monikers>.

=head2 generated_classes

Returns an arrayref of classes that were actually generated (i.e. not
skipped because there were no changes).


If you use the loader on a database with table and column names in a language
other than English, you will want to turn off the English language specific

To do so, use something like this in your loader options:

    naming           => { monikers => 'v4' },
    inflect_singular => sub { "$_[0]_rel" },
    inflect_plural   => sub { "$_[0]_rel" },


Occasionally you may have a column name that collides with a perl method, such
as C<can>. In such cases, the default action is to set the C<accessor> of the
column spec to C<undef>.

You can then name the accessor yourself by placing code such as the following
below the md5:

    __PACKAGE__->add_column('+can' => { accessor => 'my_can' });

Another option is to use the L</col_collision_map> option.


In very rare cases, you may get a collision between a generated relationship
name and a method in your Result class, for example if you have a foreign key
called C<belongs_to>.

This is a problem because relationship names are also relationship accessor
methods in L<DBIx::Class>.

The default behavior is to append C<_rel> to the relationship name and print
out a warning that refers to this text.

You can also control the renaming with the L</rel_collision_map> option.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader>, L<dbicdump>

=head1 AUTHORS

See L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader/AUTHORS>.

=head1 LICENSE

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself.


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