use XBase::Memo;

=head1 NAME

XBase - Perl module for reading and writing the dbf files

=cut

# ############
package XBase;

use 5.010;
use strict;
use XBase::Base;		# will give us general methods

# ##############
# General things

use vars qw( $VERSION $errstr $CLEARNULLS @ISA );

@ISA = qw( XBase::Base );
$VERSION = '1.08';
$CLEARNULLS = 1;		# Cut off white spaces from ends of char fields

*errstr = \$XBase::Base::errstr;


# #########################################
# Open, read_header, init_memo_field, close

# Open the specified file or try to append the .dbf suffix.
sub open {
	my ($self) = shift;
	my %options;
	if (scalar(@_) % 2) { $options{'name'} = shift; }	
	$self->{'openoptions'} = { %options, @_ };

	my %locoptions;
	@locoptions{ qw( name readonly ignorememo fh ) }
		= @{$self->{'openoptions'}}{ qw( name readonly ignorememo fh ) };
	my $filename = $locoptions{'name'};
	if ($filename eq '-') {
		return $self->SUPER::open(%locoptions);
	}
	for my $ext ('', '.dbf', '.DBF') {
		if (-f $filename.$ext) {
			$locoptions{'name'} = $filename.$ext;
			$self->NullError();
			return $self->SUPER::open(%locoptions);
		}
	}
	$locoptions{'name'} = $filename;	
	return $self->SUPER::open(%locoptions);	# for nice error message
}

# We have to provide way to fill up the object upon open
sub read_header {
	my $self = shift;
	my $fh = $self->{'fh'};

	my $header;				# read the header
	$self->read($header, 32) == 32 or do {
		__PACKAGE__->Error("Error reading header of $self->{'filename'}: $!\n");
		return;
		};

	@{$self}{ qw( version last_update num_rec
		header_len record_len encrypted ) }
		= unpack 'Ca3Vvv@15a1', $header;	# parse the data

###	if (0 and $self->{'encrypted'} ne "\000")
###			{ __PACKAGE__->Error("We don't support encrypted files, sorry.\n"); return; };

	my $header_len = $self->{'header_len'};

	my ($names, $types, $lengths, $decimals) = ( [], [], [], [] );
	my ($unpacks, $readproc, $writeproc) = ( [], [], [] );
	my $lastoffset = 1;

	while ($self->tell() < $header_len - 1)	{ # read the field desc's
		my $field_def;
		$self->read($field_def, 1);
		last if $field_def eq "\r";	# we have found the terminator
		my $read = $self->read($field_def, 31, 1);
		if ($read != 31) {
			__PACKAGE__->Error("Error reading field description: $!\n");
			return;
		}

		my ($name, $type, $length, $decimal)
			= unpack 'A11a1 @16CC', $field_def;
		my ($rproc, $wproc);

		if ($type eq 'C') {		# char
			# fixup for char length > 256
			if ($decimal and not $self->{'openoptions'}{'nolongchars'}) {
				$length += 256 * $decimal; $decimal = 0;
			}
			$rproc = sub { my $value = $_[0];
				if ($self->{'ChopBlanks'}) {
					$value =~ s/\s+$//;
				}
				return $value;
				( $value eq '' ? undef : $value );
				};
			$wproc = sub { my $value = shift;
				sprintf '%-*.*s', $length, $length,
					(defined $value ? $value : '');
				};
		}
		elsif ($type eq 'L') {		# logical (boolean)
			$rproc = sub { my $value = shift;
				if ($value =~ /^[YyTt]$/) { return 1; }
				if ($value =~ /^[NnFf]$/) { return 0; }
				undef;
				};
			$wproc = sub { my $value = shift;
				sprintf '%-*.*s', $length, $length,
					(defined $value ? ( $value ? 'T' : 'F') : '?');
				};
		}
		elsif ($type =~ /^[NFD]$/) {	# numbers, dates
			$rproc = sub { my $value = shift;
				($value =~ /\d/) ? $value + 0 : undef;
				};
			$wproc = sub { my $value = shift;
				if (defined $value) {
					substr(sprintf('%*.*f', $length, $decimal, ($value + 0)), -$length);
				} else {
					' ' x $length;
				}
				};
		}
		elsif ($type eq 'I') {		# Fox integer
			$rproc = sub { unpack 'V', shift; };
			$wproc = sub { pack 'V', shift; };
		}
		elsif ($type eq 'B' and $length == 8) {		# Fox double
			if (pack("L", 1) eq pack("V", 1)) {
				$rproc = sub { unpack 'd', scalar shift; };
				$wproc = sub { scalar pack 'd', shift; };
			} else {
				$rproc = sub { unpack 'd', reverse scalar shift; };
				$wproc = sub { reverse scalar pack 'd', shift; };
			}
		}
		elsif ($type =~ /^[WMGPB]$/) {	# memo fields
			my $memo = $self->{'memo'};
			if (not defined $memo and not $self->{'openoptions'}{'ignorememo'}) {
				$memo = $self->{'memo'} = $self->init_memo_field() or return;
			}
			if (defined $memo and $length == 10) {
				if (ref $memo eq 'XBase::Memo::Apollo') {
					$rproc = sub { $memo->read_record(shift); };
					$wproc = sub { $memo->write_record(shift); };
				} else {
					$rproc = sub {
						my $value = shift;
						return if not $value =~ /\d/ or $value < 0;
						$memo->read_record($value - 1) if defined $memo;
						};
					$wproc = sub {
						my $value = $memo->write_record(-1, $type, $_[0]) if defined $memo and defined $_[0] and $_[0] ne '';
						sprintf '%*.*s', $length, $length,
							(defined $value ? $value + 1: ''); };
				}
			}
			elsif (defined $memo and $length == 4) {
				$rproc = sub {
					my $val = unpack('V', $_[0]) - 1;
					return if $val < 0;
					$memo->read_record($val) if defined $memo;
					};
				$wproc = sub {
					my $value = $memo->write_record(-1, $type, shift) if defined $memo;
					pack 'V', (defined $value ? $value + 1: 0); };
			} else {
				$rproc = sub { undef; };
				$wproc = sub { ' ' x $length; };
			}
		}
		elsif ($type eq 'T') {	# time fields
			# datetime is stored internally as two
			# four-byte numbers; the first is the day under
			# the Julian Day System (JDS) and the second is
			# the number of milliseconds since midnight
			$rproc = sub {
				my ($day, $time) = unpack 'VV', $_[0];


				my $localday = $day - 2440588;
				my $localtime = $localday * 24 * 3600;
				$localtime += $time / 1000;
### print STDERR "day,time: ($day,$time -> $localtime)\n";
				return $localtime;

				my $localdata = "[$localday] $localtime: @{[localtime($localtime)]}";

				my $usec = $time % 1000;
				my $hour = int($time / 3600000);
				my $min = int(($time % 3600000) / 60000);
				my $sec = int(($time % 60000) / 1000);
				return "$day($localdata)-$hour:$min:$sec.$usec";
				};
			$wproc = sub {
				my $localtime = shift;
				my $day = int($localtime / (24 * 3600)) + 2440588;
				my $time = int(($localtime % (3600 * 24)) * 1000);

### print STDERR "day,time: ($localtime -> $day,$time)\n";

				return pack 'VV', $day, $time;	
				}
		}
		elsif ($type eq '0') {    # SNa : field "_NULLFLAGS"
			$rproc = $wproc = sub { '' };
		} elsif ($type eq 'Y') {	# Fox money
			$rproc = sub {
				my ($x, $y) = unpack 'VV', scalar shift;
				if ($y & 0x80000000) {
					- ($y ^ 0xffffffff) * (2**32 / 10**$decimal) - (($x - 1) ^ 0xffffffff) / 10**$decimal;
				} else {
					$y * (2**32 / 10**$decimal) + $x / 10**$decimal;
				}
			};
			$wproc = sub {
				my $value = shift;
				if ($value < 0) {
					pack 'VV',
						(-$value * 10**$decimal + 1) ^ 0xffffffff,
						(-$value * 10**$decimal / 2**32) ^ 0xffffffff;
				} else {
					pack 'VV',
						($value * 10**$decimal) % 2**32,
						(($value * 10**$decimal) >> 32);
				}
			};
		}


		$name =~ s/[\000 ].*$//s;
		$name = uc $name;		# no locale yet
		push @$names, $name;
		push @$types, $type;
		push @$lengths, $length;
		push @$decimals, $decimal;
		push @$unpacks, '@' . $lastoffset . 'a' .  $length;
		push @$readproc, $rproc;
		push @$writeproc, $wproc;
		$lastoffset += $length;
	}

	if ($lastoffset > $self->{'record_len'}
		and not defined $self->{'openoptions'}{'nolongchars'}) {
		$self->seek_to(0);
		$self->{'openoptions'}{'nolongchars'} = 1;
		return $self->read_header;
	}

	if ($lastoffset != $self->{'record_len'}
		and not defined $self->{'openoptions'}{'ignorebadheader'}) {
		__PACKAGE__->Error("Missmatch in header of $self->{'filename'}: record_len $self->{'record_len'} but offset $lastoffset\n");
		return;
	}
	if ($self->{'openoptions'}{'recompute_lastrecno'}) {
		$self->{num_rec} = int(((-s $self->{'fh'}) - $self->{header_len})
			/ $self->{record_len});
	}

	my $hashnames = {};		# create name-to-num_of_field hash
	@{$hashnames}{ reverse @$names } = reverse ( 0 .. $#$names );

			# now it's the time to store the values to the object
	@{$self}{ qw( field_names field_types field_lengths field_decimals
		hash_names last_field field_unpacks
		field_rproc field_wproc ChopBlanks) } =
			( $names, $types, $lengths, $decimals,
			$hashnames, $#$names, $unpacks,
			$readproc, $writeproc, $CLEARNULLS );


	1;	# return true since everything went fine
}

# When there is a memo field in dbf, try to open the memo file
sub init_memo_field {
	my $self = shift;
	return $self->{'memo'} if defined $self->{'memo'};
	require XBase::Memo;
	my %options = ( 'dbf_version' => $self->{'version'},
		'memosep' => $self->{'openoptions'}{'memosep'} );
	
	if (defined $self->{'openoptions'}{'memofile'}) {
		return XBase::Memo->new($self->{'openoptions'}{'memofile'}, %options);
	}
	
	for (qw( dbt DBT fpt FPT smt SMT dbt )) {
		my $memo;
		my $memoname = $self->{'filename'};
		($memoname =~ s/\.dbf$/.$_/i or $memoname =~ s/(\.dbf)?$/.$_/i)
			and $memo = XBase::Memo->new($memoname, %options)
			and return $memo;
	}
	return;
}

# Close the file (and memo)
sub close {
	my $self = shift;
	if (defined $self->{'memo'}) {
		$self->{'memo'}->close(); delete $self->{'memo'};
	}
	$self->SUPER::close();
}

# ###############
# Little decoding
sub version		{ shift->{'version'}; }
sub last_record		{ shift->{'num_rec'} - 1; }
sub last_field		{ shift->{'last_field'}; }

# List of field names, types, lengths and decimals
sub field_names		{ @{shift->{'field_names'}}; }
sub field_types		{ @{shift->{'field_types'}}; }
sub field_lengths	{ @{shift->{'field_lengths'}}; }
sub field_decimals	{ @{shift->{'field_decimals'}}; }

# Return field number for field name
sub field_name_to_num {
	my ($self, $name) = @_; $self->{'hash_names'}{uc $name};
}
sub field_type {
	my ($self, $name) = @_;
	defined (my $num = $self->field_name_to_num($name)) or return;
	($self->field_types)[$num];
}
sub field_length {
	my ($self, $name) = @_;
	defined (my $num = $self->field_name_to_num($name)) or return;
	($self->field_lengths)[$num];
}
sub field_decimal {
	my ($self, $name) = @_;
	defined (my $num = $self->field_name_to_num($name)) or return;
	($self->field_decimals)[$num];
}


# #############################
# Header, field and record info

# Returns (not prints!) the info about the header of the object
*header_info = \&get_header_info;
sub get_header_info {
	my $self = shift;
	my $hexversion = sprintf '0x%02x', $self->version;
	my $longversion = $self->get_version_info()->{'string'};
	my $printdate = $self->get_last_change;
	my $numfields = $self->last_field() + 1;
	my $result = sprintf <<"EOF";
Filename:	$self->{'filename'}
Version:	$hexversion ($longversion)
Num of records:	$self->{'num_rec'}
Header length:	$self->{'header_len'}
Record length:	$self->{'record_len'}
Last change:	$printdate
Num fields:	$numfields
Field info:
Num	Name		Type	Len	Decimal
EOF
	return join '', $result, map { $self->get_field_info($_) }
					(0 .. $self->last_field);
}
# Return info about field in dbf file
sub get_field_info {
	my ($self, $num) = @_;
	sprintf "%d.\t%-16.16s%-8.8s%-8.8s%s\n", $num + 1,
		map { $self->{$_}[$num] }
			qw( field_names field_types field_lengths field_decimals );
}
# Return last_change item as printable string
sub get_last_change {
	my $self = shift;
	my $date = $self;
	if (ref $self) { $date = $self->{'last_update'}; }
	my ($year, $mon, $day) = unpack 'C3', $date;
	$year += ($year >= 70) ? 1900 : 2000;
	return "$year/$mon/$day";
}
# Return text description of the version value
sub get_version_info {
	my $version = shift;
	$version = $version->version() if ref $version;
	my $result = {};
	$result->{'vbits'} = $version & 0x07;
	if ($version == 0x30 or $version == 0xf5) {
		$result->{'vbits'} = 5; $result->{'foxpro'} = 1;
	} elsif ($version & 0x08) {
		$result->{'vbits'} = 4; $result->{'memo'} = 1;
	} elsif ($version & 0x80) {
		$result->{'dbt'} = 1;
	}

	my $string = "ver. $result->{'vbits'}";
	if (exists $result->{'foxpro'}) {
		$string .= " (FoxPro)";
	}
	if (exists $result->{'memo'}) {
		$string .= " with memo file";
	} elsif (exists $result->{'dbt'}) {
		$string .= " with DBT file";
	}
	$result->{'string'} = $string;

	$result;
}


# Print the records as colon separated fields
sub dump_records {
	my $self = shift;
	my %options = ( 'rs' => "\n", 'fs' => ':', 'undef' => '' );
	my %inoptions = @_;
	for my $key (keys %inoptions) {
		my $value = $inoptions{$key};
		my $outkey = lc $key;
		$outkey =~ s/[^a-z]//g;
		$options{$outkey} = $value;
	}
	my ($rs, $fs, $undef, $fields, $table)
				= @options{ qw( rs fs undef fields table ) };
	if (defined $table) {
		eval 'use Data::ShowTable';
		if ($@) {
			warn "You requested table output format but the module Data::ShowTable doesn't\nseem to be installed correctly. Falling back to standard\n";
			$table = undef;
		} else {
			delete $options{'rs'};
			delete $options{'fs'};
		}
	}

	my @fields = ();
	my @unknown_fields;
	if (defined $fields) {
		if (ref $fields eq 'ARRAY') {
			@fields = @$fields;
		} else {
			@fields = split /\s*,\s*/, $fields;
			my $i = 0;
			while ($i < @fields) {
				if (defined $self->field_name_to_num($fields[$i])) {
					$i++;
				} elsif ($fields[$i] =~ /^(.*)-(.*)/) {
					local $^W = 0;
					my @allfields = $self->field_names;
					my ($start, $end) = ($1, $2);
					if ($start eq '') {
						$start = $allfields[0];
					}
					if ($end eq '') {
						$end = $allfields[$#allfields];
					}
					my $start_num = $self->field_name_to_num($start);
					my $end_num = $self->field_name_to_num($end);
					if ($start ne '' and not defined $start_num) {
						push @unknown_fields, $start;
					}
					if ($end ne '' and not defined $end_num) {
						push @unknown_fields, $end;
					}
					unless (defined $start and defined $end) {
						$start = 0; $end = -1;
					}
					
					splice @fields, $i, 1, @allfields[$start_num .. $end_num];
				} else {
					push @unknown_fields, $fields[$i];
					$i++;
				}
			}
		}
	}

	if (@unknown_fields) {
		$self->Error("There have been unknown fields `@unknown_fields' specified.\n");
		return 0;
	}
	my $cursor = $self->prepare_select(@fields);
	my @record;
	if (defined $table) {
		local $^W = 0;
		&ShowBoxTable( $cursor->names(), [], [],
			sub {
				if ($_[0]) { $cursor->rewind(); }
				else { $cursor->fetch() }
				});
	} else {
		while (@record = $cursor->fetch) {
			print join($fs, map { defined $_ ? $_ : $undef } @record), $rs;
		}
	}
	1;
}


# ###################
# Reading the records

# Returns fields of the specified record; parameters and number of the
# record (starting from 0) and optionally names of the required
# fields. If no names are specified, all fields are returned. The
# first value in the returned list if always 1/0 deleted flag. Returns
# empty list on error.

sub get_record {
	my ($self, $num) = (shift, shift);
	$self->NullError();
	$self->get_record_nf( $num, map { $self->field_name_to_num($_); } @_);
}
*get_record_as_hash = \&get_record_hash;
sub get_record_hash {
	my ($self, $num) = @_;
	my @list = $self->get_record($num) or return;
	my $hash = {};
	@{$hash}{ '_DELETED', $self->field_names() } = @list;
	return %$hash if wantarray;
	$hash;
}
sub get_record_nf {
	my ($self, $num, @fieldnums) = @_;
	my $data = $self->read_record($num) or return;
	if (not @fieldnums) {
		@fieldnums = ( 0 .. $self->last_field );
	}
	my $unpack = join ' ', '@0a1',
		map { my $e;
			defined $_ and $e = $self->{'field_unpacks'}[$_];
			defined $e ? $e : '@0a0'; } @fieldnums;
	
	my $rproc = $self->{'field_rproc'};
	my @fns = (\&_read_deleted, map { (defined $_ and defined $rproc->[$_]) ? $rproc->[$_] : sub { undef; }; } @fieldnums);

	my @out = unpack $unpack, $data;
### 	if ($self->{'encrypted'} ne "\000") {
### 		for my $data (@out) {
### 			for (my $i = 0; $i < length($data); $i++) {
### 				## my $num = unpack 'C', substr($data, $i, 1);
### 				## substr($data, $i, 1) = 	pack 'C', (($num >> 3) | ($num << 5) ^ 020);
### 				my $num = unpack 'C', substr($data, $i, 1);
### 				substr($data, $i, 1) = 	pack 'C', (($num >> 1) | ($num << 7) ^ 052);
### 				}
### 			}
### 		}

	for (@out) { $_ = &{ shift @fns }($_); }

	@out;
}

# Processing on read
sub _read_deleted {
	my $value = shift;
	if ($value eq '*') { return 1; } elsif ($value eq ' ') { return 0; }
	undef;
}

sub get_all_records {
	my $self = shift;
	my $cursor = $self->prepare_select(@_);

	my $result = [];
	my @record;
	while (@record = $cursor->fetch())
		{ push @$result, [ @record ]; }
	$result;
}

# #############
# Write records

# Write record, values of the fields are in the argument list.
# Record is always undeleted
sub set_record {
	my ($self, $num, @data) = @_;
	$self->NullError();
	my $wproc = $self->{'field_wproc'};

	if (defined $self->{'attached_index_columns'}) {
		my @nfs = keys %{$self->{'attached_index_columns'}};
		my ($del, @old_data) = $self->get_record_nf($num, @nfs);

		local $^W = 0;
		for my $nf (@nfs) {
			if ($old_data[$nf] ne $data[$nf]) {
				for my $idx (@{$self->{'attached_index_columns'}{$nf}}) {
					$idx->delete($old_data[$nf], $num + 1);
					$idx->insert($data[$nf], $num + 1);
				}
			}
		}
	}

	for (my $i = 0; $i <= $#$wproc; $i++) {
		$data[$i] = &{ $wproc->[$i] }($data[$i]);
	}
	unshift @data, ' ';

### 	if ($self->{'encrypted'} ne "\000") {
### 		for my $data (@data) {
### 			for (my $i = 0; $i < length($data); $i++) {
### 				my $num = unpack 'C', substr($data, $i, 1);
### 				substr($data, $i, 1) = 	pack 'C', (($num << 3) | ($num >> 5) ^ 020);
### 				}
### 			}
### 		}

	$self->write_record($num, @data);
}

# Write record, fields are specified as hash, unspecified are set to
# undef/empty
sub set_record_hash {
	my ($self, $num, %data) = @_;
	$self->NullError();
	$self->set_record($num, map { $data{$_} } $self->field_names );
}

# Write record, fields specified as hash, unspecified will be
# unchanged
sub update_record_hash {
	my ($self, $num) = ( shift, shift );
	$self->NullError();

	my %olddata = $self->get_record_hash($num);
	return unless %olddata;
	$self->set_record_hash($num, %olddata, @_);
}

# Actually write the data (calling XBase::Base::write_record) and keep
# the overall structure of the file correct;
sub write_record {
	my ($self, $num) = (shift, shift);
	my $ret = $self->SUPER::write_record($num, @_) or return;

	if ($num > $self->last_record) {
		$self->SUPER::write_record($num + 1, "\x1a");	# add EOF
		$self->update_last_record($num) or return;
	}
	$self->update_last_change or return;
	$ret;
}

# Delete and undelete record
sub delete_record {
	my ($self, $num) = @_;
	$self->NullError();
	$self->write_record($num, "*");
}
sub undelete_record {
	my ($self, $num) = @_;
	$self->NullError();
	$self->write_record($num, " ");
}

# Update the last change date
sub update_last_change {
	my $self = shift;
	return 1 if defined $self->{'updated_today'};
	my ($y, $m, $d) = (localtime)[5, 4, 3]; $m++; $y -= 100 if $y >= 100;
	$self->write_to(1, pack "C3", ($y, $m, $d)) or return;
	$self->{'updated_today'} = 1;
}
# Update the number of records
sub update_last_record {
	my ($self, $last) = @_;
	$last++;
	$self->write_to(4, pack "V", $last);
	$self->{'num_rec'} = $last;
}

# Creating new dbf file
sub create {
	XBase->NullError();
	my $class = shift;
	my %options = @_;
	if (ref $class) {
		%options = ( %$class, %options ); $class = ref $class;
	}

	my $version = $options{'version'};
	if (not defined $version) {
		if (defined $options{'memofile'}
			and $options{'memofile'} =~ /\.fpt$/i) {
			$version = 0xf5;
		} else {
			$version = 3;
		}
	}

	my $key;
	for $key ( qw( field_names field_types field_lengths field_decimals ) ) {
		if (not defined $options{$key}) {
			__PACKAGE__->Error("Tag $key must be specified when creating new table\n");
			return;
		}
	}

	my $needmemo = 0;

	my $fieldspack = '';
	my $record_len = 1;
	my $i;
	for $i (0 .. $#{$options{'field_names'}}) {
		my $name = uc $options{'field_names'}[$i];
		$name = "FIELD$i" unless defined $name;
		$name .= "\0";
		my $type = $options{'field_types'}[$i];
		$type = 'C' unless defined $type;

		my $length = $options{'field_lengths'}[$i];
		my $decimal = $options{'field_decimals'}[$i];

		if (not defined $length) {		# defaults
			if ($type eq 'C')		{ $length = 64; }
			elsif ($type =~ /^[TD]$/)	{ $length = 8; }
			elsif ($type =~ /^[NF]$/)	{ $length = 8; }
		}
						# force correct lengths
		if ($type =~ /^[MBGP]$/)	{ $length = 10; $decimal = 0; }
		elsif ($type eq 'L')	{ $length = 1; $decimal = 0; }
		elsif ($type eq 'Y')	{ $length = 8; $decimal = 4; }

		if (not defined $decimal) {
			$decimal = 0;
		}
		
		$record_len += $length;
		my $offset = $record_len;
		if ($type eq 'C') {
			$decimal = int($length / 256);
			$length %= 256;
		}
		$fieldspack .= pack 'a11a1VCCvCvCa7C', $name, $type, $offset,
				$length, $decimal, 0, 0, 0, 0, '', 0;
		if ($type eq 'M') {
			$needmemo = 1;
			if ($version != 0x30) {
				$version |= 0x80;
			}
		}
	}
	$fieldspack .= "\x0d";

	{
		local $^W = 0;
		$options{'codepage'} += 0;
	}
	my $header = pack 'C CCC V vvv CC a12 CC v',
		$version,
		0, 0, 0,
		0,
		(32 + length $fieldspack), $record_len, 0,
		0, 0,
		'',
		0, $options{'codepage'},
		0;
	$header .= $fieldspack;
	$header .= "\x1a";

	my $tmp = $class->new();
	my $basename = $options{'name'};
	$basename =~ s/\.dbf$//i;
	my $newname = $options{'name'};
	if (defined $newname and not $newname =~ /\.dbf$/) {
		$newname .= '.dbf';
	}
	$tmp->create_file($newname, 0700) or return;
	$tmp->write_to(0, $header) or return;
	$tmp->update_last_change();
	$tmp->close();

	if ($needmemo) {
		require XBase::Memo;
		my $dbtname = $options{'memofile'};
		if (not defined $dbtname) {
			$dbtname = $options{'name'};
			if ($version == 0x30 or $version == 0xf5) {
				$dbtname =~ s/\.DBF$/.FPT/ or $dbtname =~ s/(\.dbf)?$/.fpt/;
			} else {
				$dbtname =~ s/\.DBF$/.DBT/ or $dbtname =~ s/(\.dbf)?$/.dbt/;
			}
		}
		my $dbttmp = XBase::Memo->new();
		my $memoversion = ($version & 15);
		$memoversion = 5 if $version == 0x30;
		$dbttmp->create('name' => $dbtname,
			'version' => $memoversion,
			'dbf_filename' => $basename) or return;
	}

	return $class->new($options{'name'});
}
# Drop the table
sub drop {
	my $self = shift;
	my $filename = $self;
	if (ref $self) {
		if (defined $self->{'memo'}) {
			$self->{'memo'}->drop();
			delete $self->{'memo'};
		}
		return $self->SUPER::drop();
	}
	XBase::Base::drop($filename);
}
# Lock and unlock
sub locksh {
	my $self = shift;
	my $ret = $self->SUPER::locksh or return;
	if (defined $self->{'memo'}) {
		unless ($self->{'memo'}->locksh()) {
			$self->SUPER::unlock;
			return;
			}
		}
	$ret;
}
sub lockex {
	my $self = shift;
	my $ret = $self->SUPER::lockex or return;
	if (defined $self->{'memo'}) {
		unless ($self->{'memo'}->lockex()) {
			$self->SUPER::unlock;
			return;
			}
		}
	$ret;
}
sub unlock {
	my $self = shift;
	$self->{'memo'}->unlock() if defined $self->{'memo'};
	$self->SUPER::unlock;
}

#
# Attaching index file
#

sub attach_index {
	my ($self, $indexfile) = @_;
	require XBase::Index;

	my $index = $self->XBase::Index::new($indexfile) or do {
		print STDERR XBase->errstr, "\n";
		$self->Error(XBase->errstr);
		return;
		};
print "Got index $index\n" if $XBase::Index::VERBOSE;
	my @tags = $index->tags;
	my @indexes;
	if (@tags) {
		for my $tag (@tags) {
			my $index = $self->XBase::Index::new($indexfile,
					'tag' => $tag)
				or do {
					print STDERR XBase->errstr, "\n";
					$self->Error(XBase->errstr);
					return;
					};
			push @indexes, $index;	
		}
	} else {
		@indexes = ( $index );
	}
	for my $idx (@indexes) {
		my $key = $idx->{'key_string'};
		my $num = $self->field_name_to_num($key);

		print "Got key string $key -> $num\n" if $XBase::Index::VERBOSE;
		
		$self->{'attached_index'} = []
				unless defined $self->{'attached_index'};
		push @{$self->{'attached_index'}}, $idx;
		push @{$self->{'attached_index_columns'}{$num}}, $idx;
	}
	1;
}

#
# Cursory select
#

sub prepare_select {
	my $self = shift;
	my $fieldnames = [ @_ ];
	if (not @_) { $fieldnames = [ $self->field_names ] };
	my $fieldnums = [ map { $self->field_name_to_num($_); } @$fieldnames ];
	return bless [ $self, undef, $fieldnums, $fieldnames ], 'XBase::Cursor';
		# object, recno, field numbers, field names
}

sub prepare_select_nf {
	my $self = shift;
	my @fieldnames = $self->field_names;
	if (@_) { @fieldnames = @fieldnames[ @_ ] }
	return $self->prepare_select(@fieldnames);
}

sub prepare_select_with_index {
	my ($self, $file) = ( shift, shift );
	my @tagopts = ();
	if (ref $file eq 'ARRAY') {		### this is suboptimal
				### interface but should suffice for the moment
		@tagopts = ('tag' => $file->[1]);
		if (defined $file->[2]) {
			push @tagopts, ('type' => $file->[2]);
		}
		$file = $file->[0];
	}
	my $fieldnames = [ @_ ];
	if (not @_) { $fieldnames = [ $self->field_names ] };
	my $fieldnums = [ map { $self->field_name_to_num($_); } @$fieldnames ];
	require XBase::Index;
	my $index = new XBase::Index $file, 'dbf' => $self, @tagopts or
		do { $self->Error(XBase->errstr); return; };
	$index->prepare_select or
		do { $self->Error($index->errstr); return; };
	return bless [ $self, undef, $fieldnums, $fieldnames, $index ],
							'XBase::IndexCursor';
		# object, recno, field numbers, field names, index file
}

package XBase::Cursor;
use vars qw( @ISA );
@ISA = qw( XBase::Base );

sub fetch {
	my $self = shift;
	my ($xbase, $recno, $fieldnums, $fieldnames) = @$self;
	if (defined $recno) { $recno++; }
	else { $recno = 0; }
	my $lastrec = $xbase->last_record;
	while ($recno <= $lastrec) {
		my ($del, @result) = $xbase->get_record_nf($recno, @$fieldnums);
		if (@result and not $del) {
			$self->[1] = $recno;
			return @result;
		}
		$recno++;
	}
	return;
}
sub fetch_hashref {
	my $self = shift;
	my @data = $self->fetch;
	my $hashref = {};
	if (@data) {
		@{$hashref}{ @{$self->[3]} } = @data;
		return $hashref;
	}
	return;
}
sub last_fetched {
	shift->[1];
}
sub table {
	shift->[0];
}
sub names {
	shift->[3];
}
sub rewind {
	shift->[1] = undef; '0E0';
}

sub attach_index {
	my $self = shift;
	require XBase::Index;

}

package XBase::IndexCursor;
use vars qw( @ISA );
@ISA = qw( XBase::Cursor );

sub find_eq {
	my $self = shift;
	$self->[4]->prepare_select_eq(shift);
}
sub fetch {
	my $self = shift;
	my ($xbase, $recno, $fieldnums, $fieldnames, $index) = @$self;
	my ($key, $val);
	while (($key, $val) = $index->fetch) {
		my ($del, @result) = $xbase->get_record_nf($val - 1, @$fieldnums);
		unless ($del) {
			$self->[1] = $val;
			return @result;
		}
	}
	return;
}

# Indexed number the records starting from one, not zero.
sub last_fetched {
	shift->[1] - 1;
}

1;

__END__

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  use XBase;
  my $table = new XBase "dbase.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
  for (0 .. $table->last_record) {
	my ($deleted, $id, $msg)
		= $table->get_record($_, "ID", "MSG");
	print "$id:\t$msg\n" unless $deleted;
  }

=head1 DESCRIPTION

This module can read and write XBase database files, known as dbf in
dBase and FoxPro world. It also reads memo fields from the dbt and fpt
files, if needed. An alpha code of reading index support for ndx, ntx,
mdx, idx and cdx is available for testing -- see the DBD::Index(3) man
page. Module XBase provides simple native interface to XBase files.
For DBI compliant database access, see the DBD::XBase and DBI modules
and their man pages.

The following methods are supported by XBase module:

=head2 General methods

=over 4

=item new

Creates the XBase object, loads the info about the table form the dbf
file. The first parameter should be the name of existing dbf file
(table, in fact) to read. A suffix .dbf will be appended if needed.
This method creates and initializes new object, will also check for
memo file, if needed.

The parameters can also be specified in the form of hash: value of
B<name> is then the name of the table, other flags supported are:

B<memofile> specifies non standard name for the associated memo file.
By default it's the name of the dbf file, with extension dbt or fpt.

B<ignorememo> ignore memo file at all. This is usefull if you've lost
the dbt file and you do not need it. Default is false.

B<memosep> separator of memo records in the dBase III dbt files. The
standard says it should be C<"\x1a\x1a">. There are however
implamentations that only put in one C<"\x1a">. XBase.pm tries to
guess which is valid for your dbt but if it fails, you can tell it
yourself.

B<nolongchars> prevents XBase to treat the decimal value of character
fields as high byte of the length -- there are some broken products
around producing character fields with decimal values set.

    my $table = new XBase "table.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
	
    my $table = new XBase "name" => "table.dbf",
					"ignorememo" => 1;

B<recompute_lastrecno> forces XBase.pm to disbelieve the information
about the number of records in the header of the dbf file and
recompute the number of records. Use this only if you know that
some other software of yours produces incorrect headers.

=item close

Closes the object/file, no arguments.

=item create

Creates new database file on disk and initializes it with 0 records.
A dbt (memo) file will be also created if the table contains some memo
fields. Parameters to create are passed as hash.

You can call this method as method of another XBase object and then
you only need to pass B<name> value of the hash; the structure
(fields) of the new file will be the same as of the original object.

If you call B<create> using class name (XBase), you have to (besides
B<name>) also specify another four values, each being a reference
to list: B<field_names>, B<field_types>, B<field_lengths> and
B<field_decimals>. The field types are specified by one letter
strings (C, N, L, D, ...). If you set some value as undefined, create
will make it into some reasonable default.

    my $newtable = $table->create("name" => "copy.dbf");
	
    my $newtable = XBase->create("name" => "copy.dbf",
		"field_names" => [ "ID", "MSG" ],
		"field_types" => [ "N", "C" ],
		"field_lengths" => [ 6, 40 ],
		"field_decimals" => [ 0, undef ]);

Other attributes are B<memofile> for non standard memo file location,
B<codepage> to set the codepage flag in the dbf header (it does not
affect how XBase.pm reads or writes the data though, just to make
FoxPro happy), and B<version> to force different version of the dbt
(dbt) file. The default is the version of the object from which you
create the new one, or 3 if you call this as class method (XBase->create).

The new file mustn't exist yet -- XBase will not allow you to
overwrite existing table. Use B<drop> (or unlink) to delete it first.

=item drop

This method closes the table and deletes it on disk (including
associated memo file, if there is any).

=item last_record

Returns number of the last record in the file. The lines deleted but
present in the file are included in this number.

=item last_field

Returns number of the last field in the file, number of fields minus 1.

=item field_names, field_types, field_lengths, field_decimals

Return list of field names and so on for the dbf file.

=item field_type, field_length, field_decimal

For a field name, returns the appropriate value. Returns undef if the
field doesn't exist in the table.

=back

=head2 Reading the data one by one

When dealing with the records one by one, reading or writing (the
following six methods), you have to specify the number of the record
in the file as the first argument. The range is
C<0 .. $table-E<gt>last_record>.

=over 4

=item get_record

Returns a list of data (field values) from the specified record (line
of the table). The first parameter in the call is the number of the
record. If you do not specify any other parameters, all fields are
returned in the same order as they appear in the file. You can also
put list of field names after the record number and then only those
will be returned. The first value of the returned list is always the
1/0 C<_DELETED> value saying whether the record is deleted or not, so
on success, B<get_record> never returns empty list.

=item get_record_nf

Instead if the names of the fields, you can pass list of numbers of
the fields to read.

=item get_record_as_hash

Returns hash (in list context) or reference to hash (in scalar
context) containing field values indexed by field names. The name of
the deleted flag is C<_DELETED>. The only parameter in the call is
the record number. The field names are returned as uppercase.

=back

=head2 Writing the data

All three writing methods always undelete the record. On success they
return true -- the record number actually written.

=over 4

=item set_record

As parameters, takes the number of the record and the list of values
of the fields. It writes the record to the file. Unspecified fields
(if you pass less than you should) are set to undef/empty.

=item set_record_hash

Takes number of the record and hash as parameters, sets the fields,
unspecified are undefed/emptied.

=item update_record_hash

Like B<set_record_hash> but fields that do not have value specified
in the hash retain their value.

=back

To explicitely delete/undelete a record, use methods B<delete_record>
or B<undelete_record> with record number as a parameter.

Assorted examples of reading and writing:

    my @data = $table->get_record(3, "jezek", "krtek");
    my $hashref = $table->get_record_as_hash(38);
    $table->set_record_hash(8, "jezek" => "jezecek",
					"krtek" => 5);
    $table->undelete_record(4);

This is a code to update field MSG in record where ID is 123.

    use XBase;
    my $table = new XBase "test.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
    for (0 .. $table->last_record) {
    	my ($deleted, $id) = $table->get_record($_, "ID")
    	die $table->errstr unless defined $deleted;
    	next if $deleted;
	$table->update_record_hash($_, "MSG" => "New message")
						if $id == 123;
    }

=head2 Sequentially reading the file

If you plan to sequentially walk through the file, you can create
a cursor first and then repeatedly call B<fetch> to get next record.

=over 4

=item prepare_select

As parameters, pass list of field names to return, if no parameters,
the following B<fetch> will return all fields.

=item prepare_select_with_index

The first parameter is the file name of the index file, the rest is
as above. For index types that can hold more index structures in on
file, use arrayref instead of the file name and in that array include
file name and the tag name, and optionaly the index type.
The B<fetch> will then return records in the ascending order,
according to the index.

=back

Prepare will return object cursor, the following method are methods of
the cursor, not of the table.

=over 4

=item fetch

Returns the fields of the next available undeleted record. The list
thus doesn't contain the C<_DELETED> flag since you are guaranteed
that the record is not deleted.

=item fetch_hashref

Returns a hash reference of fields for the next non deleted record.

=item last_fetched

Returns the number of the record last fetched.

=item find_eq

This only works with cursor created via B<prepare_select_with_index>.
Will roll to the first record what is equal to specified argument, or
to the first greater if there is none equal. The following B<fetch>es
then continue normally.

=back

Examples of using cursors:

    my $table = new XBase "names.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
    my $cursor = $table->prepare_select("ID", "NAME", "STREET");
    while (my @data = $cursor->fetch) {
	### do something here, like print "@data\n";
    }

    my $table = new XBase "employ.dbf";
    my $cur = $table->prepare_select_with_index("empid.ndx");
    ## my $cur = $table->prepare_select_with_index(
		["empid.cdx", "ADDRES", "char"], "id", "address");
    $cur->find_eq(1097);
    while (my $hashref = $cur->fetch_hashref
			and $hashref->{"ID"} == 1097) {
	### do something here with $hashref
    }

The second example shows that after you have done B<find_eq>, the
B<fetch>es continue untill the end of the index, so you have to check
whether you are still on records with given value. And if there is no
record with value 1097 in the indexed field, you will just get the
next record in the order.

The updating example can be rewritten to:

    use XBase;
    my $table = new XBase "test.dbf" or die XBase->errstr;
    my $cursor = $table->prepare_select("ID")
    while (my ($id) = $cursor->fetch) {
	$table->update_record_hash($cursor->last_fetched,
			"MSG" => "New message") if $id == 123	
    }

=head2 Dumping the content of the file

A method B<get_all_records> returns reference to an array containing
array of values for each undeleted record at once. As parameters,
pass list of fields to return for each record.

To print the content of the file in a readable form, use method
B<dump_records>. It prints all not deleted records from the file. By
default, all fields are printed, separated by colons, one record on
a row. The method can have parameters in a form of a hash with the
following keys:

=over 4

=item rs

Record separator, string, newline by default.

=item fs

Field separator, string, one colon by default.

=item fields

Reference to a list of names of the fields to print. By default it's
undef, meaning all fields.

=item undef

What to print for undefined (NULL) values, empty string by default.

=back

Example of use is

    use XBase;
    my $table = new XBase "table" or die XBase->errstr;
    $table->dump_records("fs" => " | ", "rs" => " <-+\n",
			"fields" => [ "id", "msg" ]);'

Also note that there is a script dbfdump(1) that does the printing.

=head2 Errors and debugging

If the method fails (returns false or null list), the error message
can be retrieved via B<errstr> method. If the B<new> or B<create>
method fails, you have no object so you get the error message using
class syntax C<XBase-E<gt>errstr()>.

The method B<header_info> returns (not prints) string with
information about the file and about the fields.

Module XBase::Base(3) defines some basic functions that are inherited
by both XBase and XBase::Memo(3) module.

=head1 DATA TYPES

The character fields are returned "as is". No charset or other
translation is done. The numbers are converted to Perl numbers. The
date fields are returned as 8 character string of the 'YYYYMMDD' form
and when inserting the date, you again have to provide it in this
form. No checking for the validity of the date is done. The datetime
field is returned in the number of (possibly negative) seconds since
1970/1/1, possibly with decimal part (since it allows precision up to
1/1000 s). To get the fields, use the gmtime (or similar) Perl function.

If there is a memo field in the dbf file, the module tries to open
file with the same name but extension dbt, fpt or smt. It uses module
XBase::Memo(3) for this. It reads and writes this memo field
transparently (you do not know about it) and returns the data as
single scalar.

=head1 INDEX, LOCKS

B<New:> A support for ndx, ntx, mdx, idx and cdx index formats is
available with alpha status for testing. Some of the formats are
already rather stable (ndx). Please read the XBase::Index(3) man page
and the eg/use_index file in the distribution for examples and ideas.
Send me examples of your data files and suggestions for interface if
you need indexes.

General locking methods are B<locksh>, B<lockex> and B<unlock> for
shared lock, exclusive lock and unlock. They call flock but you can
redefine then in XBase::Base package.

=head1 INFORMATION SOURCE

This module is built using information from and article XBase File
Format Description by Erik Bachmann, URL

	http://www.clicketyclick.dk/databases/xbase/format/

Thanks a lot.

=head1 VERSION

1.08

=head1 AVAILABLE FROM

http://www.adelton.com/perl/DBD-XBase/

=head1 AUTHOR

(c) 1997--2017 Jan Pazdziora.

All rights reserved. This package is free software; you can
redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

Contact the author at jpx dash perl at adelton dot com.

=head1 THANKS

Many people have provided information, test files, test results and
patches. This project would not be so great without them. See the
Changes file for (I hope) complete list. Thank you all, guys!

Special thanks go to Erik Bachmann for his great page about the
file structures; to Frans van Loon, William McKee, Randy Kobes and
Dan Albertsson for longtime cooperation and many emails we've
exchanged when fixing and polishing the modules' behaviour; and to
Dan Albertsson for providing support for the project.

=head1 SEE ALSO

perl(1); XBase::FAQ(3); DBD::XBase(3) and DBI(3) for DBI interface;
dbfdump(1)

=cut