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<h1>Advanced SAX</h1>

<p>The classes, methods, and features described below are
not commonly used in most applications and can be ignored by most
users. If however you find that you are not getting the granularity
you expect from Basic SAX, this would be the place to look for more.
Advanced SAX isn't advanced in the sense that it is harder, or requires
better programming skills. It is simply more complete, and has been
separated to keep Basic SAX simple in terms of the number of events
one would have to deal with.
</p>

<h2><a name="Parsers">SAX Parsers</a></h2>

<p>SAX supports several classes of event handlers: content handlers,
declaration handlers, DTD handlers, error handlers, entity resolvers,
and other extensions.  For each class of events, a seperate handler
can be used to handle those events.  If a handler is not defined for a
class of events, then the default handler, <tt>Handler</tt>, is used.
Each of these handlers is described in the sections below.
Applications may change an event handler in the middle of the parse
and the SAX parser will begin using the new handler immediately.</p>

<p>SAX's basic interface defines methods for parsing system
identifiers (URIs), open files, and strings.  Behind the scenes,
though, SAX uses a <tt>Source</tt> hash that contains that
information, plus encoding, system and public identifiers if
available.  These are described below under the <tt>Source</tt>
option.</p>

<p>SAX parsers accept all features as options to the <tt>parse()</tt>
methods and on the parser's constructor.  Features are described in
the next section.</p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>parse</tt></b>(<var>options</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Parses the XML instance identified by the <tt>Source</tt> option.
<var>options</var> can be a list of option, value pairs or a hash.
<tt>parse()</tt> returns the result of calling the
<tt>end_document()</tt> handler.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt>ContentHandler</tt></b></dt>
<dd>
Object to receive document content events.  The
<tt>ContentHandler</tt>, with additional events defined below, is the
class of events described in <a href="sax-2.0.html#BasicHandler">Basic
SAX Handler</a>.If the application does not register a content handler
or content event handlers on the default handler, content events
reported by the SAX parser will be silently ignored.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt>DTDHandler</tt></b></dt>
<dd>
Object to receive basic DTD events.  If the application does not
register a DTD handler or DTD event handlers on the default handler,
DTD events reported by the SAX parser will be silently
ignored.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt>EntityResolver</tt></b></dt>
<dd>
Object to resolve external entities.  If the application does not
register an entity resolver or entity events on the default handler,
the SAX parser will perform its own default resolution.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt>ErrorHandler</tt></b></dt>
<dd>
Object to receive error-message events.  If the application does not
register an error handler or error event handlers on the default
handler, all error events reported by the SAX parser will be silently
ignored; however, normal processing may not continue. It is highly
recommended that all SAX applications implement an error handler to
avoid unexpected bugs.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt>Source</tt></b></dt>
<dd>
A hash containing information about the XML instance to be parsed.
See <a href="#InputSources">Input Sources</a> below. Note that
<tt>Source</tt> cannot be changed during the parse</dd></dl></p>

<p>
	<dl>
		<dt><strong><tt>Features</tt></strong></dt>
		<dd>
			A hash containing Feature information, as described below.
			Features can be set at runtime but not directly on the Features
			hash (at least, not reliably. You can do it, but the results
			might not be what you expect as it doesn't give the parser a
			chance to look at what you've set so that it can't react properly
			to errors, or Features that it doesn't support). You should use
			the <code>set_feature()</code> method instead.
		</dd>
	</dl>
</p>


<h2><a name="Features">Features</a></h2>

<p>Features are as defined in <a
href="http://sax.sourceforge.net/apidoc/org/xml/sax/package-summary.html#package_description">SAX2: Features
and Properties</a>, but not of course limited to those. You may add
your own Features. Also, Java has an artificial distinction between
Features and Properties which is unnecessary. In Perl, both have been
merged under the same name.
</p>

<p>Features can be passed as options when creating a parser or calling
a <tt>parse()</tt> method. They may also be set using the
set_feature().
</p>

<pre>
    $parser = AnySAXParser->new(
                                Features => {
                                             'http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces' => 0,
                                             },
                                );
    $parser->parse(
                   Features => {
                               'http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces' => 0,
                               },
                   );
    $parser->set_feature('http://xml.org/sax/properties/xml-string', 1);
    $string = $parser->get_feature('http://xml.org/sax/properties/xml-string');
</pre>

<p>
	When performing namespace processing, Perl SAX parsers always provide
	both the raw tag name in <tt>Name</tt> and the namespace names in
	<tt>NamespaceURI</tt>, <tt>LocalName</tt>, and <tt>Prefix</tt>.
	Therefore, the
	"<tt>http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes</tt>" Feature is
	ignored.
</p>

<p>
	Also, Features are things that are supposed to be <strong>turned
	on</strong>, and thus should normally be off by default, especially if
	the parser doesn't support turning them off. Due to backwards
	compatibility problems, the one exception to this rule is the
	"<tt>http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces</tt>" Feature which is on by
	default and which a number of parsers may not be able to turn off. Thus,
	a parser claiming to support this Feature (and all SAX2 parsers must
	support	it) may in fact only support turning it on. This is only a minor
	problem as turning it off basically amounts to returning to SAX1, which
	can be accomplished by a filter (eg XML::Filter::SAX2toSAX1).
</p>

<p>
  In addition to the Features described in the SAX spec
  itself, a number of new ones may be defined for Perl. An example of
  this would be http://xmlns.perl.org/sax/node-factory which
  when supported by the parser would be settable to a NodeFactory object
  that would be in charge of creating SAX nodes different from those that
  are normally received by event handlers. See
  <a href='http://xmlns.perl.org/'>http://xmlns.perl.org/</a> (currently
  in alpha state) for details on how to register Features.
</p>

<p>
	The following methods are used to get and set features:
</p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>get_feature</tt></b>(<var>name</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Look up the value of a feature.

<p>The feature name is any fully-qualified URI.  It is possible for an
SAX parser to recognize a feature name but to be unable to return its
value; this is especially true in the case of an adapter for a SAX1
Parser, which has no way of knowing whether the underlying parser is
validating, for example.</p>

<p>Some feature values may be available only in specific contexts,
such as before, during, or after a parse.</p>

<tt>get_feature()</tt> returns the value of the feature, which is usually
either a boolean or an object, and will throw
<tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotRecognized</tt> when the SAX parser does not
recognize the feature name and <tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotSupported</tt>
when the SAX parser recognizes the feature name but cannot determine its
value at this time.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>set_feature</tt></b>(<var>name</var>,
<var>value</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Set the state of a feature.

<p>The feature name is any fully-qualified URI. It is possible for an
SAX parser to recognize a feature name but to be unable to set its
value; this is especially true in the case of an adapter for a SAX1
Parser, which has no way of affecting whether the underlying parser is
validating, for example.</p>

<p>Some feature values may be immutable or mutable only in specific
contexts, such as before, during, or after a parse.</p>

<tt>set_feature()</tt> will throw <tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotRecognized</tt>
when the SAX parser does not recognize the feature name and
<tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotSupported</tt> when the SAX parser recognizes the
feature name but cannot set the requested value.

<p>
	This method is also the standard mechanism for setting extended	handlers,
	such as "<code>http://xml.org/sax/handlers/DeclHandler</code>".
</p>
</dd></dl></p>


<p>
	<dl>
		<dt><strong><code class='function'>get_features</code></strong>()</dt>
		<dd>
			Look up all Features that this parser claims to support.
			<p>
				This method returns a hash of Features which the parser
				claims to support. The value of the hash is currently
				unspecified though it may be used later. This method is meant
				to be inherited so that Features supported by the base parser
				class (XML::SAX::Base) are declared to be supported by
				subclasses.
			</p>
			<p>
				Calling this method is probably only moderately useful to end
				users. It is mostly meant for use by XML::SAX, so that it can
				query parsers for Feature support and return an appropriate
				parser depending on the Features that are required.
			</p>
		</dd>
	</dl>
</p>



<h2><a name="InputSources">Input Sources</a></h2>

<p>Input sources may be provided to parser objects or are returned by
entity resolvers.  An input source is a hash with these
properties:</p>

<dl>
<dt><b><tt>PublicId</tt></b></dt>
<dd>The public identifier of this input source.

<p>The public identifier is always optional: if the application writer
includes one, it will be provided as part of the location
information.</p></dd>

<dt><b><tt>SystemId</tt></b></dt>
<dd>The system identifier (URI) of this input source.

<p>The system identifier is optional if there is a byte stream or a
character stream, but it is still useful to provide one, since the
application can use it to resolve relative URIs and can include it in
error messages and warnings (the parser will attempt to open a
connection to the URI only if there is no byte stream or character
stream specified).</p>

If the application knows the character encoding of the object
pointed to by the system identifier, it can register the encoding
using the <tt>Encoding</tt> property.</dd>

<dt><b><tt>ByteStream</tt></b></dt>
<dd>The byte stream for this input source.

<p>The SAX parser will ignore this if there is also a character stream
specified, but it will use a byte stream in preference to opening a
URI connection itself.</p>

If the application knows the character encoding of the byte stream, it
should set the <tt>Encoding</tt> property.</dd>

<dt><b><tt>CharacterStream</tt></b></dt>
<dd>The character stream for this input source.

<p>If there is a character stream specified, the SAX parser will
ignore any byte stream and will not attempt to open a URI connection
to the system identifier.</p>

<p>Note: A CharacterStream is a filehandle that does not need any encoding
translation done on it. This is implemented as a regular filehandle
and only works under Perl 5.7.2 or higher using PerlIO. To get a single
character, or number of characters from it, use the perl core read()
function. To get a single byte from it (or number of bytes), you can
use sysread(). The encoding of the stream should be in the Encoding
entry for the Source.</p>

</dd>

<dt><b><tt>Encoding</tt></b></dt>
<dd>The character encoding, if known.

<p>The encoding must be a string acceptable for an XML encoding
declaration (see section 4.3.3 of the XML 1.0 recommendation).</p>

This property has no effect when the application provides a character
stream.</dd>
</dl>

<h2><a name="Handlers">SAX Handlers</a></h2>

<p>SAX supports several classes of event handlers: content handlers,
declaration handlers, DTD handlers, error handlers, entity resolvers,
and other extensions.  This section defines each of these classes of
events.</p>

<h3>Content Events</h3>

<p>This is the main interface that most SAX applications implement: if
the application needs to be informed of basic parsing events, it
implements this interface and registers an instance with the SAX
parser using the <tt>ContentHandler</tt> property. The parser uses
the instance to report basic document-related events like the start
and end of elements and character data.</p>

<p>The order of events in this interface is very important, and
mirrors the order of information in the document itself. For example,
all of an element's content (character data, processing instructions,
and/or subelements) will appear, in order, between the
<tt>start_element</tt> event and the corresponding
<tt>end_element</tt> event.</p>


<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>set_document_locator</tt></b>(<var>locator</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive an object for locating the origin of SAX document events.

<p>SAX parsers are strongly encouraged (though not absolutely
required) to supply a locator: if it does so, it must supply the
locator to the application by invoking this method before invoking any
of the other methods in the ContentHandler interface.</p>

<p>The locator allows the application to determine the end position of
any document-related event, even if the parser is not reporting an
error.  Typically, the application will use this information for
reporting its own errors (such as character content that does not
match an application's business rules).  The information provided by
the locator is probably not sufficient for use with a search
engine.</p>

<p>Note that the locator will provide correct information only during
the invocation of the events in this interface. The application should
not attempt to use it at any other time.</p>

<p>The locator is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>ColumnNumber</tt></b></td>
<td>The column number of the end of the text where the exception
occurred.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>LineNumber</tt></b></td>
<td>The line number of the end of the text where the exception
occurred.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>PublicId</tt></b></td>
<td>The public identifier of the entity where the exception
occurred.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>SystemId</tt></b></td>
<td>The system identifier of the entity where the exception
occurred.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>start_prefix_mapping</tt></b>(<var>mapping</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Begin the scope of a prefix-URI Namespace mapping.

<p>The information from this event is not necessary for normal
Namespace processing: the SAX XML reader will automatically replace
prefixes for element and attribute names when the
"<tt>http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces</tt>" feature is true (the
default).</p>

<p>There are cases, however, when applications need to use prefixes in
character data or in attribute values, where they cannot safely be
expanded automatically; the start/end_prefix_mapping event supplies the
information to the application to expand prefixes in those contexts
itself, if necessary.</p>

<p>Note that <tt>start</tt>/<tt>end_prefix_mapping()</tt> events are
not guaranteed to be properly nested relative to each-other: all
<tt>start_prefix_apping()</tt> events will occur before the
corresponding <tt>start_element()</tt> event, and all
<tt>end_prefix_mapping</tt> events will occur after the corresponding
<tt>end_element()</tt> event, but their order is not
guaranteed.
</p>

<p><var>mapping</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Prefix</tt></b></td>
<td>The Namespace prefix being declared.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>NamespaceURI</tt></b></td>
<td>The Namespace URI the prefix is mapped to.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>end_prefix_mapping</tt></b>(<var>mapping</var>)</dt>
<dd>
End the scope of a prefix-URI mapping.

<p>See <tt>start_prefix_mapping()</tt> for details. This event will
always occur after the corresponding <tt>end_element</tt> event, but
the order of <tt>end_prefix_mapping</tt> events is not otherwise
guaranteed.</p>

<p><var>mapping</var> is a hash with this property:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Prefix</tt></b></td>
<td>The Namespace prefix that was being mapped.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>processing_instruction</tt></b>(<var>pi</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive notification of a processing instruction.

<p>The Parser will invoke this method once for each processing
instruction found: note that processing instructions may occur before
or after the main document element.</p>

<p>A SAX parser should never report an XML declaration (XML 1.0,
section 2.8) or a text declaration (XML 1.0, section 4.3.1) using this
method.</p>

<p><var>pi</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Target</tt></b></td>
<td>The processing instruction target.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>Data</tt></b></td>
<td>The processing instruction data, or null if none was
supplied.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>skipped_entity</tt></b>(<var>entity</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive notification of a skipped entity.

<p>The Parser will invoke this method once for each entity skipped.
Non-validating processors may skip entities if they have not seen the
declarations (because, for example, the entity was declared in an
external DTD subset). All processors may skip external entities,
depending on the values of the
"<tt>http://xml.org/sax/features/external-general-entities</tt>" and the
"<tt>http://xml.org/sax/features/external-parameter-entities</tt>"
Features.</p>

<p><var>entity</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the skipped entity. If it is a parameter
entity, the name will begin with '<tt>%</tt>'.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<h3>Declaration Events</h3>

<p>This is an optional extension handler for SAX2 to provide
information about DTD declarations in an XML document. XML readers are
not required to support this handler.</p>

<p>Note that data-related DTD declarations (unparsed entities and
notations) are already reported through the DTDHandler interface.</p>

<p>If you are using the declaration handler together with a lexical
handler, all of the events will occur between the <tt>start_dtd</tt>
and the <tt>end_dtd</tt> events.</p>

<p>To set a seperate DeclHandler for an XML reader, set the
"<tt>http://xml.org/sax/handlers/DeclHandler</tt>" Feature with the
object to received declaration events.  If the reader does not support
declaration events, it will throw a <tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotRecognized</tt>
or a <tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotSupported</tt> when you attempt to register
the handler.  Declaration event handlers on the default handler are
automatically recognized and used.</p>


<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>element_decl</tt></b>(<var>element</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report an element type declaration.

<p>The content model will consist of the string "EMPTY", the string
"ANY", or a parenthesised group, optionally followed by an occurrence
indicator. The model will be normalized so that all whitespace is
removed, and will include the enclosing parentheses.</p>

<p><var>element</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The element type name.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>Model</tt></b></td>
<td>The content model as a normalized string.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>attribute_decl</tt></b>(<var>attribute</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report an attribute type declaration.

<p>Only the effective (first) declaration for an attribute will be
reported.  The type will be one of the strings "<tt>CDATA</tt>",
"<tt>ID</tt>", "<tt>IDREF</tt>", "<tt>IDREFS</tt>",
"<tt>NMTOKEN</tt>", "<tt>NMTOKENS</tt>", "<tt>ENTITY</tt>",
"<tt>ENTITIES</tt>", or "<tt>NOTATION</tt>", or a parenthesized token
group with the separator "<tt>|</tt>" and all whitespace removed.</p>

<p><var>attribute</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>eName</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the associated element.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>aName</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the attribute.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>Type</tt></b></td>
<td>A string representing the attribute type.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>ValueDefault</tt></b></td>
<td>A string representing the attribute default ("<tt>#IMPLIED</tt>",
"<tt>#REQUIRED</tt>", or "<tt>#FIXED</tt>") or undef if none of these
applies.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>Value</tt></b></td>
<td>A string representing the attribute's default value, or null if
there is none.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>internal_entity_decl</tt></b>(<var>entity</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report an internal entity declaration.

<p>Only the effective (first) declaration for each entity will be
reported.</p>

<p><var>entity</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the entity. If it is a parameter entity, the name will
begin with '%'.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>Value</tt></b></td>
<td>The replacement text of the entity.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>external_entity_decl</tt></b>(<var>entity</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report a parsed external entity declaration.

<p>Only the effective (first) declaration for each entity will be
reported.</p>

<p><var>entity</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the entity. If it is a parameter entity, the name will
begin with '%'.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>PublicId</tt></b></td>
<td>The public identifier of the entity, or <tt>undef</tt> if none was
declared.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>SystemId</tt></b></td>
<td>The system identifier of the entity.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<h3>DTD Events</h3>

<p>If a SAX application needs information about notations and unparsed
entities, then the application implements this interface.  The parser
uses the instance to report notation and unparsed entity declarations
to the application.</p>

<p>The SAX parser may report these events in any order, regardless of
the order in which the notations and unparsed entities were declared;
however, all DTD events must be reported after the document handler's
<tt>start_document()</tt> event, and before the first
<tt>start_element()</tt> event.</p>

<p>It is up to the application to store the information for future use
(perhaps in a hash table or object tree). If the application
encounters attributes of type "<tt>NOTATION</tt>", "<tt>ENTITY</tt>",
or "<tt>ENTITIES</tt>", it can use the information that it obtained
through this interface to find the entity and/or notation
corresponding with the attribute value.</p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>notation_decl</tt></b>(<var>notation</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive notification of a notation declaration event.

<p>It is up to the application to record the notation for later
reference, if necessary.</p>

<p>If a system identifier is present, and it is a URL, the SAX parser
must resolve it fully before passing it to the application.</p>

<p><var>notation</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The notation name.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>PublicId</tt></b></td>
<td>The public identifier of the entity, or <tt>undef</tt> if none was
declared.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>SystemId</tt></b></td>
<td>The system identifier of the entity, or <tt>undef</tt> if none was
declared.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>unparsed_entity_decl</tt></b>(<var>entity</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive notification of an unparsed entity declaration event.

<p>Note that the notation name corresponds to a notation reported by
the <tt>notation_decl()</tt> event. It is up to the application to
record the entity for later reference, if necessary.</p>

<p>If the system identifier is a URL, the parser must resolve it fully
before passing it to the application.</p>

<p><var>entity</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The unparsed entity's name.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>PublicId</tt></b></td>
<td>The public identifier of the entity, or <tt>undef</tt> if none was
declared.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>SystemId</tt></b></td>
<td>The system identifier of the entity.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>Notation</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the associated notation.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<h3>Entity Resolver</h3>

<p>If a SAX application needs to implement customized handling for
external entities, it must implement this interface.</p>

<p>The parser will then allow the application to intercept any
external entities (including the external DTD subset and external
parameter entities, if any) before including them.</p>

<p>
  Many SAX applications will not need to implement this interface,
  but it will be especially useful for applications that build XML
  documents from databases or other specialised input sources, or for
  applications that use URI types that are either not URLs, or that
  have schemes unknown to the parser.
</p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>resolve_entity</tt></b>(<var>entity</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Allow the application to resolve external entities.

<p>The Parser will call this method before opening any external entity
except the top-level document entity (including the external DTD
subset, external entities referenced within the DTD, and external
entities referenced within the document element): the application may
request that the parser resolve the entity itself, that it use an
alternative URI, or that it use an entirely different input
source.</p>

<p>Application writers can use this method to redirect external system
identifiers to secure and/or local URIs, to look up public identifiers
in a catalogue, or to read an entity from a database or other input
source (including, for example, a dialog box).</p>

<p>If the system identifier is a URL, the SAX parser must resolve it
fully before reporting it to the application.</p>

<p><var>entity</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>PublicId</tt></b></td>
<td>The public identifier of the entity being referenced, or
<tt>undef</tt> if none was declared.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>SystemId</tt></b></td>
<td>The system identifier of the entity being referenced.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<h3>Error Events</h3>

<p>If a SAX application needs to implement customized error handling,
it must implement this interface.  The parser will then report all
errors and warnings through this interface.</p>

<p>The parser shall use this interface to report errors instead or in
addition to throwing an exception: for errors and warnings the recommended
approach is to leave the application throw its own exceptions and to not
throw them in the parser. For fatal errors however, it is not uncommon that
the parser will throw an exception after having reported the error as it
renders any continuation of parsing impossible.
</p>

<p>All error handlers receive a hash, <var>exception</var>, with the
properties defined in <a
href="sax-2.0.html#Exceptions">Exceptions</a>.</p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>warning</tt></b>(<var>exception</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive notification of a warning.

<p>SAX parsers will use this method to report conditions that are not
errors or fatal errors as defined by the XML 1.0 recommendation. The
default behaviour is to take no action.</p>

The SAX parser must continue to provide normal parsing events after
invoking this method: it should still be possible for the application
to process the document through to the end.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>error</tt></b>(<var>exception</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive notification of a recoverable error.

<p>This corresponds to the definition of "error" in section 1.2 of the
W3C XML 1.0 Recommendation.  For example, a validating parser would use
this callback to report the violation of a validity constraint.  The
default behaviour is to take no action.</p>

The SAX parser must continue to provide normal parsing events after
invoking this method: it should still be possible for the application
to process the document through to the end.  If the application cannot
do so, then the parser should report a fatal error even if the XML 1.0
recommendation does not require it to do so.</dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>fatal_error</tt></b>(<var>exception</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Receive notification of a non-recoverable error.

<p>This corresponds to the definition of "fatal error" in section 1.2
of the W3C XML 1.0 Recommendation.  For example, a parser would use
this callback to report the violation of a well-formedness
constraint.</p>

The application must assume that the document is unusable after the
parser has invoked this method, and should continue (if at all) only
for the sake of collecting addition error messages: in fact, SAX
parsers are free to stop reporting any other events once this method
has been invoked.</dd></dl></p>

<h3>Lexical Events</h3>

<p>This is an optional extension handler for SAX2 to provide lexical
information about an XML document, such as comments and CDATA section
boundaries; XML readers are not required to support this handler.</p>

<p>The events in the lexical handler apply to the entire document, not
just to the document element, and all lexical handler events must
appear between the content handler's <tt>start_document()</tt> and
<tt>end_document()</tt> events.</p>

<p>To set the LexicalHandler for an XML reader, set the Feature
"<tt>http://xml.org/sax/handlers/LexicalHandler</tt>" on the parser to
the object to receive lexical events.  If the reader does not support
lexical events, it will throw a <tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotRecognized</tt> or
a <tt>XML::SAX::Exception::NotSupported</tt> when you attempt to register the
handler.</p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>start_dtd</tt></b>(<var>dtd</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report the start of DTD declarations, if any.

<p>Any declarations are assumed to be in the internal subset unless
otherwise indicated by a start_entity event.</p>

<p>Note that the <tt>start</tt>/<tt>end_dtd()</tt> events will appear
within the <tt>start</tt>/<tt>end_document()</tt> events from Content
Handler and before the first <tt>start_element()</tt> event.</p>

<p><var>dtd</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The document type name.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>PublicId</tt></b></td>
<td>The declared public identifier for the external DTD subset, or
<tt>undef</tt> if none was declared.</td></tr>
<tr><td><b><tt>SystemId</tt></b></td>
<td>The declared system identifier for the external DTD subset, or
<tt>undef</tt> if none was declared.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>end_dtd</tt></b>(<var>dtd</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report the end of DTD declarations.

<p>No properties are defined for this event (<var>dtd</var> is
empty).</p></dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>start_entity</tt></b>(<var>entity</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report the beginning of an entity in content.

<p><b>NOTE</b>: entity references in attribute values -- and the start
and end of the document entity -- are never reported.</p>

<p>The start and end of the external DTD subset are reported using the
pseudo-name "[dtd]". All other events must be properly nested within
start/end entity events.</p>

<p>Note that skipped entities will be reported through the
<tt>skipped_entity()</tt> event, which is part of the ContentHandler
interface.</p>

<p><var>entity</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the entity. If it is a parameter entity, the
name will begin with '%'.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>end_entity</tt></b>(<var>entity</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report the end of an entity.

<p><var>entity</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Name</tt></b></td>
<td>The name of the entity that is ending.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>start_cdata</tt></b>(<var>cdata</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report the start of a CDATA section.

<p>The contents of the CDATA section will be reported through the
regular characters event.</p>

<p>No properties are defined for this event (<var>cdata</var> is
empty).</p></dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>end_cdata</tt></b>(<var>cdata</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report the end of a CDATA section.

<p>No properties are defined for this event (<var>cdata</var> is
empty).</p></dd></dl></p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt class='function'>comment</tt></b>(<var>comment</var>)</dt>
<dd>
Report an XML comment anywhere in the document.

<p>This callback will be used for comments inside or outside the
document element, including comments in the external DTD subset (if
read).</p>

<p><var>comment</var> is a hash with these properties:</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr><td><b><tt>Data</tt></b></td>
<td>The comment characters.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote></dd>
</dl></p>

<h2><a name="Filters">SAX Filters</a></h2>

<p>An XML filter is like an XML event generator, except that it
obtains its events from another XML event generator rather than a
primary source like an XML document or database.  Filters can modify a
stream of events as they pass on to the final application.</p>

<p>
<dl><dt><b><tt>Parent</tt></b></dt>
<dd>
The parent reader.

<p>This Feature allows the application to link the filter to a parent
event generator (which may be another filter).</p></dd></dl></p>

<p>
  See the XML::SAX::Base module for more on filters. It is meant to be
  used as a base class for filters and drivers, and makes them much
  easier to implement.
</p>

<h2><a name="Java">Java Compatibility</a></h2>

The Perl SAX 2.0 binding differs from the Java binding in these ways:

<ul>

<li>Takes parameters to <tt>new()</tt>, to <tt>parse()</tt>, and to be
set directly in the object, instead of requiring set/get calls (see
below).</li>

<li>Allows a default <tt>Handler</tt> parameter to be used for all
handlers.</li>

<li>
  No base classes are enforced. Instead, parsers dynamically
  check the handlers for what methods they support. Note however that
  using XML::SAX::Base as your base class for Drivers and Filters will
  make your code a lot simpler, less error prone, and probably much more
  correct with regard to this spec. Only reimplement that functionality
  if you really need to.
</li>

<li>The Attribute, InputSource, and SAXException (XML::SAX::Exception)
classes are only described as hashes (see below).</li>

<li>Handlers are passed a hash (Node) containing properties as an
argument instead of positional arguments.</li>

<li><tt>parse()</tt> methods return the value returned by calling the
<tt>end_document()</tt> handler.</li>

<li>
  Method names have been converted to lower-case with underscores.
  Parameters are all mixed case with initial upper-case.
</li>
</ul>

<p>
  If compatibility is a problem for you consider writing a Filter that
  converts from this style to the one you want. It is likely that such
  a Filter will be available from CPAN in the not distant future.
</p>

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