Apache::SSI - Implement Server Side Includes in Perl

    In httpd.conf:

        <Files *.phtml>  # or whatever
        SetHandler perl-script
        PerlHandler Apache::SSI

    You may wish to subclass Apache::SSI for your own extensions. If so, compile
    mod_perl with PERL_METHOD_HANDLERS=1 (so you can use object-oriented
    inheritance), and create a module like this:

        package MySSI;
        use Apache::SSI ();
        @ISA = qw(Apache::SSI);

        #embedded syntax:
        #<!--#something param=value -->
        sub ssi_something {
           my($self, $attr) = @_;
           my $cmd = $attr->{param};
           return $a_string;   
     Then in httpd.conf:
        <Files *.phtml>
         SetHandler perl-script
         PerlHandler MySSI

    Apache::SSI implements the functionality of mod_include for handling
    server-parsed html documents. It runs under Apache's mod_perl.

    In my mind, there are two main reasons you might want to use this module:
    you can sub-class it to implement your own custom SSI directives, and/or you
    can parse the output of other mod_perl handlers, or send the SSI output
    through another handler (use Apache::Filter to do this).

    Each SSI directive is handled by an Apache::SSI method with the prefix
    "ssi_". For example, <!--#printenv--> is handled by the ssi_printenv method.
    attribute=value pairs inside the SSI tags are parsed and passed to the
    method in a hash reference.

    'Echo' directives are handled by the ssi_echo method, which delegates lookup
    to methods with the prefix "echo_". For instance, <!--#echo
    var=DOCUMENT_NAME--> is handled by the echo_DOCUMENT_NAME method.

    You can customize behavior by inheriting from Apache::SSI and overriding
    'ssi_*' and 'echo_*' methods, or writing new ones.

  SSI Directives

    This module supports the same directives as mod_include. At least, that's
    the goal. =) For methods listed below but not documented, please see
    mod_include's online documentation at .

    * config
    * echo
    * exec
    * fsize
    * flastmod
    * include
    * printenv
    * set
    * perl
        There are two ways to call a Perl function, and two ways to supply it
        with arguments. The function can be specified either as an anonymous
        subroutine reference, or as the name of a function defined elsewhere:

         <!--#perl sub="sub { localtime() }"-->
         <!--#perl sub="time::now"-->

        If the 'sub' argument matches the regular expression /^\s*sub[^\w:]/, it
        is assumed to be a subroutine reference. Otherwise it's assumed to be
        the name of a function. In the latter case, the string "main::" will be
        prepended to the function name if the name doesn't contain "::" (this
        forces the function to be in the main package, or a package you
        specify). Note that it's a pretty bad idea to put your code in the main
        package, so I only halfheartedly endorse this feature.

        In general, it will be slower to use anonymous subroutines, because each
        one has to be eval()'ed and there is no caching. For best results,
        pre-load any code you need in the parent process, then call it by name.

        If you're calling a subroutine like "&Package::SubPack::handler", you
        can omit the "handler" portion, making your directive like this:

         <!--#perl sub="Package::Subpack"-->

        If you want to supply a list of arguments to the function, you use
        either the "arg" or the "args" parameter:

         <!--#perl sub="sub {$_[0] * 7}" arg=7-->
         <!--#perl sub=holy::matrimony arg=Hi arg=Lois-->
         <!--#perl sub=holy::matrimony args=Hi,Lois-->

        The "args" parameter will simply split on commas, meaning that currently
        there's no way to embed a comma in arguments passed via the "args"
        parameter. Use the "arg" parameter for this.

        If you give a key-value pair and the key is not 'sub', 'arg', 'args', or
        'pass_request' (see below), then your routine will be passed both the
        key and the value. This lets you pass a hash of key-value pairs to your

         <!--#perl sub=holy::matrimony groom=Hi bride=Lois-->
         Will call &holy::matrimony('groom', 'Hi', 'bride', 'Lois');

        As of version 1.95, we pass the current Apache request object ($r) as
        the first argument to the function. To turn off this behavior, give the
        key-value pair 'pass_request=no', or put 'PerlSetVar SSIPerlPass_Request
        no' in your server's config file.

        See "" for more information on
        Perl SSI calls.

    * if
    * elif
    * else
    * endif
        These four directives can be used just like in "mod_include", with one
        important difference: the boolean expression is evaluated using Perl's
        eval(). This means you use "==" or "eq" instead of "=" to test equality.
        It also means you can use pre-loaded Perl subroutines in the conditions:

         <!--#if expr="&Movies::is_by_Coen_Brothers($MOVIE)"-->
          This movie is by the Coen Brothers.
          This movie is not by the Coen Brothers.

        It can't handle very sophistocated Perl though, because it manually
        looks for variables (of the form $var or ${var}, just like
        "mod_include"), and will get tripped up on expressions like
        $object->method or $hash{'key'}. I'll welcome any suggestions for how to
        allow arbitrary Perl expressions while still filling in Apache

    There are two fairly simple ways for this module to exist in a stacked
    handler chain. The first uses "Apache::Filter", and your httpd.conf would
    look something like this:

     PerlModule Apache::Filter
     PerlModule Apache::SSI
     PerlModule My::BeforeSSI
     PerlModule My::AfterSSI
     <Files ~ "\.ssi$">
      SetHandler perl-script
      PerlSetVar Filter On
      PerlHandler My::BeforeSSI Apache::SSI My::AfterSSI

    The ""PerlSetVar Filter On"" directive tells the three stacked handlers that
    they should use their filtering mode. It's mandatory.

    The second uses "Apache::OutputChain", and your httpd.conf would look
    something like this:

     PerlModule Apache::OutputChain
     PerlModule Apache::SSIChain
     PerlModule My::BeforeSSI
     PerlModule My::AfterSSI
     <Files ~ "\.ssi$">
      SetHandler perl-script
      PerlHandler Apache::OutputChain My::AfterSSI Apache::SSIChain My::BeforeSSI

    Note that the order of handlers is reversed in the two different methods.
    One reason I wrote "Apache::Filter" is to get the order to be more
    intuitive. Another reason is that "Apache::SSI" itself can be used in a
    handler stack using "Apache::Filter", whereas it needs to be wrapped in
    "Apache::SSIChain" to be used with "Apache::OutputChain".

    Please see the documentation for "Apache::OutputChain" and "Apache::Filter"
    for more specific information. And look at the note in CAVEATS too.

    * When chaining handlers via Apache::Filter, if you use <!--#include ...-->
    or <!--#exec cgi=...-->, then Apache::SSI must be the last filter in the
    chain. This is because Apache::SSI uses $r->lookup_uri(...)->run to include
    the files, and this sends the output through C's stdout rather than Perl's
    STDOUT. Thus Apache::Filter can't catch it and filter it.

    If Apache::SSI is the last filter in the chain, or if you stick to simpler
    SSI directives like <!--#fsize-->, <!--#flastmod-->, etc. you'll be fine.

    * Currently, the way <!--#echo var=whatever--> looks for variables is to
    first try $r->subprocess_env, then try %ENV, then the five extra environment
    variables mod_include supplies. Is this the correct order?

    Revisit and see what else
    there I can implement.

    It would be nice to have a "PerlSetVar ASSI_Subrequests 0|1" option that
    would let you choose between executing a full-blown subrequest when
    including a file, or just opening it and printing it.

    I'd like to know how to use Apache::test for the real.t test.

    mod_include, mod_perl(3), Apache(3), HTML::Embperl(3), Apache::ePerl(3),

    Ken Williams

    Concept based on original version by Doug MacEachern .
    Implementation different.

    Copyright 1998 Swarthmore College. All rights reserved.

    This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself.