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NAME

Net::Twitter - A perl interface to the Twitter API

VERSION

This document describes Net::Twitter version 3.04000

SYNOPSIS

  use Net::Twitter;

  my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
      traits   => [qw/API::REST/],
      username => $user,
      password => $password
  );

  my $result = $nt->update('Hello, world!');

  eval {
      my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline({ since_id => $high_water, count => 100 });
      for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
          print "$status->{time} <$status->{user}{screen_name}> $status->{text}\n";
      }
  };
  if ( my $err = $@ ) {
      die $@ unless blessed $err && $err->isa('Net::Twitter::Error');

      warn "HTTP Response Code: ", $err->code, "\n",
           "HTTP Message......: ", $err->message, "\n",
           "Twitter error.....: ", $err->error, "\n";
  }

DESCRIPTION

This module provides a perl interface to the Twitter APIs. See http://apiwiki.twitter.com/Twitter-API-Documentation for a full description of the Twitter APIs.

OMG! THE MOOSE!

Net::Twitter is Moose based. Moose provides some advantages, including the ability for the maintainer of this module to respond quickly to Twitter API changes.

See Net::Twitter::Lite if you need an alternative without Moose and its dependencies.

Net::Twitter::Lite's API method definitions and documentation are generated from Net::Twitter. It is a related module, but does not depend on Net::Twitter or Moose for installation.

METHODS AND ARGUMENTS

new

This constructs a Net::Twitter object. It takes several named parameters, all of them optional:

traits

An ARRAY ref of traits used to control which APIs the constructed Net::Twitter object will support and how it handles errors. Possible values are:

API::REST

Provides support for the Twitter REST API methods.

API::Search

Provides support for the Twitter Search API methods.

API::TwitterVision

Provides support for the TwitterVision API. See http://twittervision.com/api.html.

WrapError

Net::Twitter normally throws exceptions on error. When this trait is included, Net::Twitter returns undef when a method fails and makes the error available through method get_error. This is the way all errors were handled in Net::Twitter versions prior to version 3.00.

OAuth

The OAuth trait provides OAuth authentication rather than the default Basic Authentication for Twitter API method calls. See the "Authentication" section and Net::Twitter::Role::OAuth for full documentation.

InflateObjects

When this optional trait is included, Net::Twitter inflates HASH refs returned by Twitter into objects with read accessors for each element. In addition, it inflates dates to DateTime objects and URLs to URI objects. Objects that include a created_at attribute also have a relative_created_at method.

For example, with InflateObjects applied, the <friends_timeline> method returns an array of status objects:

    $r = $nt->friends_timeline;
    for my $status ( @$r ) {
        $r->user->screen_name; # same as $r->{user}{screen_name}

        # $created_at is a DateTime; $age is a DateTime::Duration
        my $age = DateTime->now - $r->created_at;

        # print an age in a similar style to the Twitter web site, e.g.:
        # less than a minute ago
        # about a minute ago
        # 6 minutes ago
        # 1 day ago
        # etc.
        print $r->relative_created_at;
Legacy

This trait provides backwards compatibility to Net::Twitter versions prior to 3.00. It implies the traits API::REST, API::Search, API::TwitterVision, and API::WrapError. It also provides additional functionality to ensure consistent behavior for applications written for use with legacy versions of Net::Twitter.

In the current version, this trait is automatically included if the traits option is not specified. This ensures backwards compatibility for existing applications using Net::Twitter versions prior to 3.00. See section "LEGACY COMPATIBILITY" for more details.

Some examples of using the traits parameter in new:

    # provide support for *only* the REST API; throw exceptions on error
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['API::REST']);

    # provide support for both the REST and Search APIs; wrap errors
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => [qw/API::REST API::Search WrapError/]);

    # ensure full legacy support
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);

    # currently, these 2 calls to new are equivalent:
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new();
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);
legacy

A boolean. If set to 0, new constructs a Net::Twitter object implementing the REST API and throws exceptions on API method errors.

    Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 0);

is a shortcut for:

    Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['API::REST']);

If set to 1, new constructs a Net::Twitter object with the Legacy trait.

    Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 1);

is a shortcut for:

    Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);
username

This is the screen name or email used to authenticate with Twitter.

password

This is the password used to authenticate with Twitter.

clientname

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-Name HTTP header. It defaults to "Perl Net::Twitter".

clientver

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-Version HTTP header. It defaults to current version of the Net::Twitter module.

clienturl

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-URL HTTP header. It defaults to the search.cpan.org page for the Net::Twitter distribution.

useragent_class

The LWP::UserAgent compatible class used internally by Net::Twitter. It defaults to "LWP::UserAgent". For POE based applications, consider using "LWP::UserAgent::POE".

useragent_args

An HASH ref of arguments to pass to constructor of the class specified with useragent_class, above. It defaults to {} (an empty HASH ref).

useragent

The value for User-Agent HTTP header. It defaults to "Net::Twitter/$VERSION (Perl)", where $VERSION is the current version of Net::Twitter.

source

The value used in the source parameter of API method calls. It is currently only used in the update method in the REST API. It defaults to "twitterpm". This results in the text "from Net::Twitter" rather than "from web" for status messages posted from Net::Twitter when displayed via the Twitter web interface. The value for this parameter is provided by Twitter when a Twitter application is registered. See http://apiwiki.twitter.com/FAQ#HowdoIget%E2%80%9CfromMyApp%E2%80%9DappendedtoupdatessentfrommyAPIapplication.

apiurl

The URL for the Twitter API. This defaults to "http://twitter.com". This option is available when the API::REST trait is included.

apihost

A string containing the Twitter API host. It defaults to "twitter.com:80". This option is available when the API::REST trait is included.

apirealm

A string containing the Twitter API realm used for Basic Authentication. It defaults to "Twitter API". This option is available when the API::REST trait is included.

identica

If set to 1, Net::Twitter overrides the defaults for apiurl, apihost, and apirealm to "http://identi.ca/api", "identi.ca:80", and "Laconica API" respectively. It defaults to 0. This option is available when the API::REST trait is included.

consumer_key

A string containing the OAuth consumer key provided by Twitter when an application is registered. This option is available when the OAuth trait is included.

consumer_secret

A string containing the OAuth consumer secret. This option is available when the OAuth trait is included.

credentials($username, $password)

Set the credentials for Basic Authentication. This is helpful for managing multiple accounts.

ua

Provides access to the constructed user agent object used internally by Net::Twitter. Use it with caution.

AUTHENTICATION

Twitter currently provides two authentication strategies: Basic Authentication and OAuth. OAuth is officially in beta, however, Twitter has expressed a desire to deprecate Basic Authentication in the future, so consider using OAuth in your applications.

To set up Basic Authentication in Net::Twitter, provide the username and password options to "new" or call the "credentials" method.

To set up OAuth, include the OAuth trait and include the consumer_key and consumer_secret options to "new". See Net::Twitter::Role::OAuth for more information on using OAuth, including examples.

In addition to the arguments specified for each API method described below, an additional authenticate parameter can be passed. To request an Authorization header, pass authenticated => 1; to suppress an authentication header, pass authentication => 0. Even if requested, an Authorization header will not be added if there are no user credentials (username and password for Basic Authentication; access tokens for OAuth).

This is probably only useful for the "rate_limit_status" method in the REST API, since it returns different values for an authenticated and a non-authenticated call.

API METHODS AND ARGUMENTS

Most Twitter API methods take parameters. All Net::Twitter API methods will accept a HASH ref of named parameters as specified in the Twitter API documentation. For convenience, many Net::Twitter methods accept simple positional arguments as documented, below. The positional parameter passing style is optional; you can always use the named parameters in a hash ref if you prefer.

For example, the REST API method update has one required parameter, status. You can call update with a HASH ref argument:

    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!' });

Or, you can use the convenient form:

    $nt->update('Hello world!');

The update method also has an optional parameter, in_reply_to_status_id. To use it, you must use the HASH ref form:

    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!', in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });

Convenience form is provided for the required parameters of all API methods. So, these two calls are equivalent:

    $nt->friendship_exists({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });
    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);

Many API methods have aliases. You can use the API method name, or any of its aliases, as you prefer. For example, these calls are all equivalent:

    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->relationship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->follows($fred, $barney);

Aliases support both the HASH ref and convenient forms:

    $nt->follows({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });

Methods that support the page parameter expect page numbers > 0. Twitter silently ignores invalid page values. So { page => 0 } produces the same result as { page => 1 }.

REST API Methods

These methods are provided when trait API::REST is included in the traits option to new.

Several of these methods accept a user ID as the id parameter. The user ID can be either a screen name, or the users numeric ID. To disambiguate, use the screen_name or user_id parameters, instead.

For example, These calls are equivalent:

    $nt->create_friend('net_twitter'); # screen name
    $nt->create_friend(1564061);       # numeric ID
    $nt->create_friend({ id => 'net_twitter' });
    $nt->create_friend({ screen_name => 'net_twitter' });
    $nt->create_friend({ user_id     => 1564061 });

However user_id 911 and screen_name 911 are separate Twitter accounts. These calls are NOT equivalent:

    $nt->create_friend(911); # interpreted as screen name
    $nt->create_friend({ user_id => 911 }); # screen name: richellis

Whenever the id parameter is required and user_id and screen_name are also parameters, using any one of them satisfies the requirement.

block_exists
block_exists(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id

Returns if the authenticating user is blocking a target user. Will return the blocked user's object if a block exists, and error with HTTP 404 response code otherwise.

Returns: BasicUser

blocking
blocking(page)
Parameters: page
Required: none

Returns an array of user objects that the authenticating user is blocking.

Returns: ArrayRef[BasicUser]

blocking_ids
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns an array of numeric user ids the authenticating user is blocking.

Returns: ArrayRef[Int]

create_block
create_block(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Blocks the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the blocked user when successful. You can find out more about blocking in the Twitter Support Knowledge Base.

Returns: BasicUser

create_favorite
create_favorite(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the favorite status when successful.

Returns: Status

create_friend
create_friend(id)
alias: follow_new
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, follow
Required: id

Befriends the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the befriended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.

Returns: BasicUser

create_saved_search(query)
Parameters: query
Required: query

Creates a saved search for the authenticated user.

Returns: SavedSearch

destroy_block
destroy_block(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Un-blocks the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-blocked user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

destroy_direct_message
destroy_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct message.

Returns: DirectMessage

destroy_favorite
destroy_favorite(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Un-favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-favorited status.

Returns: Status

destroy_friend
destroy_friend(id)
alias: unfollow
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id

Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-friended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.

Returns: BasicUser

destroy_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Destroys a saved search. The search, specified by id, must be owned by the authenticating user.

Returns: SavedSearch

destroy_status
destroy_status(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.

Returns: Status

direct_messages
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent to the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.

Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]

disable_notifications
disable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Disables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

enable_notifications
enable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Enables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

end_session
Parameters: none
Required: none

Ends the session of the authenticating user, returning a null cookie. Use this method to sign users out of client-facing applications like widgets.

Returns: Error

favorites
Parameters: id, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent favorite statuses for the authenticating user or user specified by the ID parameter.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

followers
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, page
Required: none

Returns the authenticating user's followers, each with current status inline. They are ordered by the order in which they joined Twitter (this is going to be changed).

Returns 100 followers per page.

Returns: ArrayRef[BasicUser]

followers_ids
followers_ids(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, page
Required: id

Returns an array of numeric IDs for every user is followed by.

Returns: ArrayRef[Int]

friends
alias: following
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, page
Required: none

Returns the authenticating user's friends, each with current status inline. They are ordered by the order in which they were added as friends. It's also possible to request another user's recent friends list via the id parameter.

Returns 100 friends per page.

Returns: ArrayRef[BasicUser]

friends_ids
friends_ids(id)
alias: following_ids
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, page
Required: id

Returns an array of numeric IDs for every user the specified user is following.

Currently, Twitter returns IDs ordered from most recently followed to least recently followed. This order may change at any time.

Returns: ArrayRef[Int]

friends_timeline
alias: following_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted by the authenticating user and that user's friends. This is the equivalent of /home on the Web.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

friendship_exists
friendship_exists(user_a, user_b)
alias: relationship_exists
alias: follows
Parameters: user_a, user_b
Required: user_a, user_b

Tests for the existence of friendship between two users. Will return true if user_a follows user_b, otherwise will return false.

Returns: Bool

mentions
alias: replies
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent mentions (statuses containing @username) for the authenticating user.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

new_direct_message
new_direct_message(user, text)
Parameters: user, text, screen_name, user_id
Required: user, text

Sends a new direct message to the specified user from the authenticating user. Requires both the user and text parameters. Returns the sent message when successful. In order to support numeric screen names, the screen_name or user_id parameters may be used instead of user.

Returns: DirectMessage

public_timeline
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses from non-protected users who have set a custom user icon. Does not require authentication. Note that the public timeline is cached for 60 seconds so requesting it more often than that is a waste of resources.

If user credentials are provided, public_timeline calls are authenticated, so they count against the authenticated user's rate limit. Use ->public_timeline({ authenticate => 0 }) to make an unauthenticated call which will count against the calling IP address' rate limit, instead.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

rate_limit_status
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the remaining number of API requests available to the authenticated user before the API limit is reached for the current hour.

Use ->rate_limit_status({ authenticate => 0 }) to force an unauthenticated call, which will return the status for the IP address rather than the authenticated user. (Note: for a web application, this is the server's IP address.)

Returns: RateLimitStatus

saved_searches
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the authenticated user's saved search queries.

Returns: ArrayRef[SavedSearch]

sent_direct_messages
Parameters: since_id, max_id, page
Required: none

Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent by the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.

Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]

show_friendship
show_friendship(id)
alias: show_relationship
Parameters: source_id, source_screen_name, target_id, target_id_name
Required: id

Returns detailed information about the relationship between two users.

Returns: Relationship

show_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Retrieve the data for a saved search, by ID, owned by the authenticating user.

Returns: SavedSearch

show_status
show_status(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Returns a single status, specified by the id parameter. The status's author will be returned inline.

Returns: Status

show_user
show_user(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Returns extended information of a given user, specified by ID or screen name as per the required id parameter. This information includes design settings, so third party developers can theme their widgets according to a given user's preferences. You must be properly authenticated to request the page of a protected user.

Returns: ExtendedUser

test
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the string "ok" status code.

Returns: Str

update
update(status)
Parameters: status, in_reply_to_status_id
Required: status

Updates the authenticating user's status. Requires the status parameter specified. A status update with text identical to the authenticating user's current status will be ignored.

Returns: Status

update_delivery_device
update_delivery_device(device)
Parameters: device
Required: device

Sets which device Twitter delivers updates to for the authenticating user. Sending none as the device parameter will disable IM or SMS updates.

Returns: BasicUser

update_profile
Parameters: name, email, url, location, description
Required: none

Sets values that users are able to set under the "Account" tab of their settings page. Only the parameters specified will be updated; to only update the "name" attribute, for example, only include that parameter in your request.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_background_image
update_profile_background_image(image)
Parameters: image
Required: image

Updates the authenticating user's profile background image. Expects raw multipart data, not a URL to an image.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_colors
Required: none

Sets one or more hex values that control the color scheme of the authenticating user's profile page on twitter.com. These values are also returned in the /users/show API method.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_image
update_profile_image(image)
Parameters: image
Required: image

Updates the authenticating user's profile image. Expects raw multipart data, not a URL to an image.

Returns: ExtendedUser

user_timeline
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted from the authenticating user. It's also possible to request another user's timeline via the id parameter. This is the equivalent of the Web /archive page for your own user, or the profile page for a third party.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

verify_credentials
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns an HTTP 200 OK response code and a representation of the requesting user if authentication was successful; returns a 401 status code and an error message if not. Use this method to test if supplied user credentials are valid.

Returns: ExtendedUser

Search API Methods

These methods are provided when trait API::Search is included in the traits option to new.

search(q)
Parameters: q, callback, lang, rpp, page, since_id, geocode, show_user
Required: q

Returns tweets that match a specified query. You can use a variety of search operators in your query.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the top ten queries that are currently trending on Twitter. The response includes the time of the request, the name of each trending topic, and the url to the Twitter Search results page for that topic.

Returns: ArrayRef[Query]

Parameters: exclude
Required: none

Returns the current top ten trending topics on Twitter. The response includes the time of the request, the name of each trending topic, and query used on Twitter Search results page for that topic.

Returns: HashRef

Parameters: date, exclude
Required: none

Returns the top 20 trending topics for each hour in a given day.

Returns: HashRef

Parameters: date, exclude
Required: none

Returns the top 30 trending topics for each day in a given week.

Returns: HashRef

TwitterVision API Methods

These methods are provided when trait API::TwitterVision is included in the traits option to new.

current_status
current_status(id)
Parameters: id, callback
Required: id

Get the current location and status of a user.

Returns: HashRef

update_twittervision
update_twittervision(location)
Parameters: location
Required: location

Updates the location for the authenticated user.

Returns: HashRef

LEGACY COMPATIBILITY

This version of Net::Twitter automatically includes the Legacy trait if no traits option is provided to new. Therefore, these 2 calls are currently equivalent:

    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(username => $user, password => $passwd);
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
        username => $user,
        password => $passwd,
        traits   => ['Legacy'],
    );

Thus, existing applications written for a prior version of Net::Twitter should continue to run, without modification, with this version.

In a future release, the default traits may change. Prior to that change, however, a nearer future version will add a warning if no traits option is provided to new. To avoid this warning, add an appropriate traits option to your existing application code.

ERROR HANDLING

There are currently two strategies for handling errors: throwing exceptions and wrapping errors. Exception handling is the newer, recommended strategy.

Wrapping Errors

When trait WrapError is specified (or Legacy, which includes trait WrapError), Net::Twitter returns undef on error. To retrieve information about the error, use methods http_code, http_message, and get_error. These methods are described in the Net::Twitter::Role::WrapError.

    if ( my $followers = $nt->followers ) {
        for my $follower ( @$followers ) {
            #...
        }
    }
    else {
        warn "HTTP message: ", $nt->http_message, "\n";
    }

Since an error is stored in the object instance, this error handling strategy is problematic when using a user agent like LWP::UserAgent::POE that provides concurrent requests. The error for one request can be overwritten by a concurrent request before you have an opportunity to access it.

Exception Handling

When Net::Twitter encounters a Twitter API error or a network error, it throws a Net::Twitter::Error object. You can catch and process these exceptions by using eval blocks and testing $@:

    eval {
        my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline(); # this might die!

        for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
            #...
        }
    };
    if ( $@ ) {
        # friends_timeline encountered an error

        if ( blessed $@ && $@->isa('Net::Twitter::Error') ) {
            #... use the thrown error obj
            warn $@->error;
        }
        else {
            # something bad happened!
            die $@;
        }
    }

Net::Twitter::Error stringifies to something reasonable, so if you don't need detailed error information, you can simply treat $@ as a string:

    eval { $nt->update($status) };
    if ( $@ ) {
        warn "update failed because: $@\n";
    }

FAQ

Why does ->followers({ screen_name => $friend }) return my followers instead of $friends's?

First, check carefully to make sure you've spelled "screen_name" correctly. Twitter sometimes discards parameters it doesn't recognize. In this case, the result is a list of your own followers---the same thing that would happen if you called followers without the screen_name parameter.

How do I use the geocode parameter in the Search API?

The geocode parameter value includes a latitude, longitude, and radius separated with commas.

    $r = $nt->search({ geocode => "45.511795,-122.675629,25mi" });

SEE ALSO

Net::Twitter::Error

The Net::Twitter exception object.

http://apiwiki.twitter.com/Twitter-API-Documentation

This is the official Twitter API documentation. It describes the methods and their parameters in more detail and may be more current than the documentation provided with this module.

LWP::UserAgent::POE

This LWP::UserAgent compatible class can be used in POE based application along with Net::Twitter to provide concurrent, non-blocking requests.

SUPPORT

Please report bugs to bug-net-twitter@rt.cpan.org, or through the web interface at https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Net-Twitter.

Join the Net::Twitter IRC channel at irc://irc.perl.org/net-twitter.

Follow net_twitter: http://twitter.com/net_twitter.

Track Net::Twitter development at http://github.com/semifor/Net-Twitter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Many thanks to Chris Thompson <cpan@cthompson.com>, the original author of Net::Twitter and all versions prior to 3.00.

Also, thanks to Chris Prather (perigrin) for answering many design and implementation questions, especially with regards to Moose.

AUTHOR

Marc Mims <marc@questright.com>

LICENSE

Copyright (c) 2009 Marc Mims

The Twitter API itself, and the description text used in this module is:

Copyright (c) 2009 Twitter

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY

BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENSE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.