#!/bin/false
# Net::DHCP::Packet.pm
# Author : D. Hamstead
# Original Author: F. van Dun, S. Hadinger

package Net::DHCP::Packet;

# standard module declaration
use 5.8.0;
use strict;
use warnings;

our ( @ISA, @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK, $VERSION );
use Exporter;
$VERSION   = 0.696;
@ISA       = qw(Exporter);
@EXPORT    = qw( packinet packinets unpackinet unpackinets );
@EXPORT_OK = qw( );

use Socket;
use Carp;
use Net::DHCP::Constants qw(:DEFAULT :dhcp_hashes :dhcp_other %DHO_FORMATS);
use Scalar::Util qw(looks_like_number);    # for numerical testing
use List::Util qw(first);

#=======================================================================
sub new {
    my $class = shift;

    my $self = {
        options       => {},    # DHCP options
        options_order => []     # order in which the options were added
    };

    bless $self, $class;
    if ( scalar @_ == 1 ) {     # we build the packet from a binary string
        $self->marshall(shift);
    }
    else {

        my %args         = @_;
        my @ordered_args = @_;

        if ( exists $args{Comment} ) {
            $self->comment( $args{Comment} );
        }
        else {
            $self->{comment} = undef;
        }

        if ( exists $args{Op} ) {
            $self->op( $args{Op} );
        }
        else { $self->{op} = BOOTREQUEST(); }

        if ( exists $args{Htype} ) { $self->htype( $args{Htype} ) }
        else {
            $self->{htype} = 1;    # 10mb ethernet
        }

        if ( exists $args{Hlen} ) {
            $self->hlen( $args{Hlen} );
        }
        else {
            $self->{hlen} = 6;     # Use 6 bytes MAC
        }

        if ( exists $args{Hops} ) {
            $self->hops( $args{Hops} );
        }
        else { $self->{hops} = 0; }

        if ( exists $args{Xid} ) {
            $self->xid( $args{Xid} );
        }
        else { $self->{xid} = 0x12345678; }

        if ( exists $args{Secs} ) {
            $self->secs( $args{Secs} );
        }
        else { $self->{secs} = 0; }

        if ( exists $args{Flags} ) {
            $self->flags( $args{Flags} );
        }
        else { $self->{flags} = 0; }

        if ( exists $args{Ciaddr} ) {
            $self->ciaddr( $args{Ciaddr} );
        }
        else { $self->{ciaddr} = "\0\0\0\0"; }

        if ( exists $args{Yiaddr} ) {
            $self->yiaddr( $args{Yiaddr} );
        }
        else { $self->{yiaddr} = "\0\0\0\0"; }

        if ( exists $args{Siaddr} ) {
            $self->siaddr( $args{Siaddr} );
        }
        else { $self->{siaddr} = "\0\0\0\0"; }

        if ( exists $args{Giaddr} ) {
            $self->giaddr( $args{Giaddr} );
        }
        else { $self->{giaddr} = "\0\0\0\0"; }

        if ( exists $args{Chaddr} ) {
            $self->chaddr( $args{Chaddr} );
        }
        else { $self->{chaddr} = q||; }

        if ( exists $args{Sname} ) {
            $self->sname( $args{Sname} );
        }
        else { $self->{sname} = q||; }

        if ( exists $args{File} ) {
            $self->file( $args{File} );
        }
        else { $self->{file} = q||; }

        if ( exists $args{Padding} ) {
            $self->padding( $args{Padding} );
        }
        else { $self->{padding} = q||; }

        if ( exists $args{IsDhcp} ) {
            $self->isDhcp( $args{IsDhcp} );
        }
        else { $self->{isDhcp} = 1; }

        # TBM add DHCP option parsing
        while ( defined( my $key = shift @ordered_args ) ) {

            my $value = shift @ordered_args;
            my $is_numeric;
            {
                no warnings;
                $is_numeric = ( $key eq ( 0 + $key ) );
            }

            if ($is_numeric) {
                $self->addOptionValue( $key, $value );
            }
        }
    }

    return $self

}

#=======================================================================
# comment attribute : enables transaction number identification
sub comment {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{comment} = shift }
    return $self->{comment};
}

# op attribute
sub op {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{op} = shift }
    return $self->{op};
}

# htype attribute
sub htype {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{htype} = shift }
    return $self->{htype};
}

# hlen attribute
sub hlen {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{hlen} = shift }
    if ( $self->{hlen} < 0 ) {
        carp( 'hlen must not be < 0 (currently ' . $self->{hlen} . ')' );
        $self->{hlen} = 0;
    }
    if ( $self->{hlen} > 16 ) {
        carp( 'hlen must not be > 16 (currently ' . $self->{hlen} . ')' );
        $self->{hlen} = 16;
    }
    return $self->{hlen};
}

# hops attribute
sub hops {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{hops} = shift }
    return $self->{hops};
}

# xid attribute
sub xid {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{xid} = shift }
    return $self->{xid};
}

# secs attribute
sub secs {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{secs} = shift }
    return $self->{secs};
}

# flags attribute
sub flags {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{flags} = shift }
    return $self->{flags};
}

# ciaddr attribute
sub ciaddr {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{ciaddr} = packinet(shift) }
    return unpackinet( $self->{ciaddr} );
}

# ciaddr attribute, Raw version
sub ciaddrRaw {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{ciaddr} = shift }
    return $self->{ciaddr};
}

# yiaddr attribute
sub yiaddr {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{yiaddr} = packinet(shift) }
    return unpackinet( $self->{yiaddr} );
}

# yiaddr attribute, Raw version
sub yiaddrRaw {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{yiaddr} = shift }
    return $self->{yiaddr};
}

# siaddr attribute
sub siaddr {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{siaddr} = packinet(shift) }
    return unpackinet( $self->{siaddr} );
}

# siaddr attribute, Raw version
sub siaddrRaw {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{siaddr} = shift }
    return $self->{siaddr};
}

# giaddr attribute
sub giaddr {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{giaddr} = packinet(shift) }
    return unpackinet( $self->{giaddr} );
}

# giaddr attribute, Raw version
sub giaddrRaw {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{giaddr} = shift }
    return $self->{giaddr};
}

# chaddr attribute
sub chaddr {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{chaddr} = pack( "H*", shift ) }
    return unpack( "H*", $self->{chaddr} );
}

# chaddr attribute, Raw version
sub chaddrRaw {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{chaddr} = shift }
    return $self->{chaddr};
}

# sname attribute
sub sname {
    use bytes;
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{sname} = shift }
    if ( length( $self->{sname} ) > 63 ) {
        carp(   q|'sname' must not be > 63 bytes, (currently |
              . length( $self->{sname} )
              . ')' );
        $self->{sname} = substr( $self->{sname}, 0, 63 );
    }
    return $self->{sname};
}

# file attribute
sub file {
    use bytes;
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{file} = shift }
    if ( length( $self->{file} ) > 127 ) {
        carp(   q|'file' must not be > 127 bytes, (currently |
              . length( $self->{file} )
              . ')' );
        $self->{file} = substr( $self->{file}, 0, 127 );
    }
    return $self->{file};
}

# is it DHCP or BOOTP
#   -> DHCP needs magic cookie and options
sub isDhcp {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{isDhcp} = shift }
    return $self->{isDhcp};
}

# padding attribute
sub padding {
    my $self = shift;
    if (@_) { $self->{padding} = shift }
    return $self->{padding};
}

#=======================================================================

sub addOptionRaw {
    my ( $self, $key, $value_bin ) = @_;
    $self->{options}->{$key} = $value_bin;
    push @{ $self->{options_order} }, ($key);
}

sub addOptionValue {
    my $self  = shift;
    my $code  = shift;    # option code
    my $value = shift;

    # my $value_bin;        # option value in binary format

    carp("addOptionValue: unknown format for code ($code)")
      unless exists $DHO_FORMATS{$code};

    my $format = $DHO_FORMATS{$code};

    if ( $format eq 'suboption' ) {
        carp 'Use addSubOptionValue to add sub options';
        return;
    }

    # decompose input value into an array
    my @values;
    if ( defined $value && $value ne q|| ) {
        @values =
          split( /[\s\/,;]+/, $value );    # array of values, split by space
    }

    # verify number of parameters
    if ( $format eq 'string' || $format eq 'csr' ) {
        @values = ($value);                # don't change format
    }
    elsif ( $format =~ m/s$/ )
    {    # ends with an 's', meaning any number of parameters
        ;
    }
    elsif ( $format =~ m/2$/ ) { # ends with a '2', meaning couples of parameters
        croak(
            "addOptionValue: only pairs of values expected for option '$code'")
          if ( ( @values % 2 ) != 0 );
    }
    else {                      # only one parameter
        croak("addOptionValue: exactly one value expected for option '$code'")
          if ( @values != 1 );
    }

    my %options = (

        inet   => sub { return packinet(shift) },
        inets  => sub { return packinets_array(@_) },
        inets2 => sub { return packinets_array(@_) },
        int    => sub { return pack( 'N', shift ) },
        short  => sub { return pack( 'n', shift ) },
        byte   => sub { return pack( 'C', 255 & shift ) }
        ,    # 255 & trims the input to single octet
        bytes => sub {
            return pack( 'C*', map { 255 & $_ } @_ );
        },
        string => sub { return shift },
        csr    => sub { return packcsr(shift) },

    );

    #  } elsif ($format eq 'relays') {
    #    $value_bin = $self->encodeRelayAgent(@values);
    #  } elsif ($format eq 'ids') {
    #    $value_bin = $values[0];
    #    # TBM bad format

    # decode the option if we know how, otherwise use the original value
    $self->addOptionRaw( $code, $options{$format}
        ? $options{$format}->(@values)
        : $value );

}    # end AddOptionValue

sub addSubOptionRaw {
    my ( $self, $key, $subkey, $value_bin ) = @_;
    $self->{options}->{$key}->{$subkey} = $value_bin;

    push @{ $self->{sub_options_order}{$subkey} }, ($key);
}

sub addSubOptionValue {

    my $self    = shift;
    my $code    = shift;    # option code
    my $subcode = shift;    # sub option code
    my $value   = shift;
    my $value_bin;          # option value in binary format

    # FIXME
    carp("addSubOptionValue: unknown format for code ($code)")
      unless exists $DHO_FORMATS{$code};

    carp("addSubOptionValue: not a suboption parameter for code ($code)")
      unless ( $DHO_FORMATS{$code} eq 'suboptions' );

    carp(
"addSubOptionValue: unknown format for subcode ($subcode) on code ($code)"
    ) unless ( $DHO_FORMATS{$code} eq 'suboptions' );

    carp("addSubOptionValue: no suboptions defined for code ($code)?")
      unless exists $SUBOPTION_CODES{$code};

    carp(
        "addSubOptionValue: suboption ($subcode) not defined for code ($code)?")
      unless exists $SUBOPTION_CODES{$code}->{$subcode};

    my $format = $SUBOPTION_CODES{$code}->{$subcode};

    # decompose input value into an array
    my @values;
    if ( defined $value && $value ne q|| ) {
        @values =
          split( /[\s\/,;]+/, $value );    # array of values, split by space
    }

    # verify number of parameters
    if ( $format eq 'string' ) {
        @values = ($value);                # don't change format
    }
    elsif ( $format =~ m/s$/ )
    {    # ends with an 's', meaning any number of parameters
        ;
    }
    elsif ( $format =~ m/2$/ )
    {    # ends with a '2', meaning couples of parameters
        croak(
"addSubOptionValue: only pairs of values expected for option '$code'"
        ) if ( ( @values % 2 ) != 0 );
    }
    else {    # only one parameter
        croak(
            "addSubOptionValue: exactly one value expected for option '$code'")
          if ( @values != 1 );
    }

    my %options = (
        inet   => sub { return packinet(shift) },
        inets  => sub { return packinets_array(@_) },
        inets2 => sub { return packinets_array(@_) },
        int    => sub { return pack( 'N', shift ) },
        short  => sub { return pack( 'n', shift ) },
        byte   => sub { return pack( 'C', 255 & shift ) }
        ,    # 255 & trims the input to single octet
        bytes => sub {
            return pack( 'C*', map { 255 & $_ } @_ );
        },
        string => sub { return shift },
    );

    #  } elsif ($format eq 'relays') {
    #    $value_bin = $self->encodeRelayAgent(@values);
    #  } elsif ($format eq 'ids') {
    #    $value_bin = $values[0];
    #    # TBM bad format

    # decode the option if we know how, otherwise use the original value
    $self->addOptionRaw( $code, $options{$format}
        ? $options{$format}->(@values)
        : $value );

}

sub getOptionRaw {
    my ( $self, $key ) = @_;
    return $self->{options}->{$key}
      if exists( $self->{options}->{$key} );
    return;
}

sub getOptionValue {
    my $self = shift;
    my $code = shift;

    carp("getOptionValue: unknown format for code ($code)")
      unless exists( $DHO_FORMATS{$code} );

    my $format = $DHO_FORMATS{$code};

    my $value_bin = $self->getOptionRaw($code);

    return unless defined $value_bin;

    my @values;

    # hash out these options for speed and sanity
    my %options = (
        inet   => sub { return unpackinets_array(shift) },
        inets  => sub { return unpackinets_array(shift) },
        inets2 => sub { return unpackinets_array(shift) },
        int    => sub { return unpack( 'N', shift ) },
        short  => sub { return unpack( 'n', shift ) },
        shorts => sub { return unpack( 'n*', shift ) },
        byte   => sub { return unpack( 'C', shift ) },
        bytes  => sub { return unpack( 'C*', shift ) },
        string => sub { return shift },
        csr    => sub { return unpackcsr(shift) },

    );

    #  } elsif ($format eq 'relays') {
    #    @values = $self->decodeRelayAgent($value_bin);
    #    # TBM, bad format
    #  } elsif ($format eq 'ids') {
    #    $values[0] = $value_bin;
    #    # TBM, bad format

    # decode the options if we know the format
    return join( q| |, $options{$format}->($value_bin) )
      if $options{$format};

    # if we cant work out the format
    return $value_bin

}    # getOptionValue

sub getSubOptionRaw {
    my ( $self, $key, $subkey ) = @_;
    return $self->{options}->{$key}->{$subkey}
      if exists( $self->{options}->{$key}->{$subkey} );
    return;
}

sub getSubOptionValue {

    # FIXME
    #~ my $self = shift;
    #~ my $code = shift;
    #~
    #~ carp("getOptionValue: unknown format for code ($code)")
    #~ unless exists( $DHO_FORMATS{$code} );
    #~
    #~ my $format = $DHO_FORMATS{$code};
    #~
    #~ my $value_bin = $self->getOptionRaw($code);
    #~
    #~ return unless defined $value_bin;
    #~
    #~ my @values;
    #~
    #~ # hash out these options for speed and sanity
    #~ my %options = (
    #~ inet   => sub { return unpackinets_array(shift) },
    #~ inets  => sub { return unpackinets_array(shift) },
    #~ inets2 => sub { return unpackinets_array(shift) },
    #~ int    => sub { return unpack( 'N', shift ) },
    #~ short  => sub { return unpack( 'n', shift ) },
    #~ shorts => sub { return unpack( 'n*', shift ) },
    #~ byte   => sub { return unpack( 'C', shift ) },
    #~ bytes  => sub { return unpack( 'C*', shift ) },
    #~ string => sub { return shift },
    #~
    #~ );
    #~
    #~ #  } elsif ($format eq 'relays') {
    #~ #    @values = $self->decodeRelayAgent($value_bin);
    #~ #    # TBM, bad format
    #~ #  } elsif ($format eq 'ids') {
    #~ #    $values[0] = $value_bin;
    #~ #    # TBM, bad format
    #~
    #~ # decode the options if we know the format
    #~ return join( q| |, $options{$format}->($value_bin) )
    #~ if $options{$format};
    #~
    #~ # if we cant work out the format
    #~ return $value_bin

}    # getSubOptionValue

sub removeOption {
    my ( $self, $key ) = @_;
    if ( exists( $self->{options}->{$key} ) ) {
        my $i =
          first { $self->{options_order}->[$_] == $key }
        0 .. $#{ $self->{options_order} };

        #        for ( $i = 0 ; $i < @{ $self->{options_order} } ; $i++ ) {
        #            last if ( $self->{options_order}->[$i] == $key );
        #        }
        if ( $i < @{ $self->{options_order} } ) {
            splice @{ $self->{options_order} }, $i, 1;
        }
        delete( $self->{options}->{$key} );
    }
}

sub removeSubOption {

# FIXME
#~ my ( $self, $key ) = @_;
#~ if ( exists( $self->{options}->{$key} ) ) {
#~ my $i = first { $self->{options_order}->[$_] == $key } 0..$#{ $self->{options_order} };
#~ #        for ( $i = 0 ; $i < @{ $self->{options_order} } ; $i++ ) {
#~ #            last if ( $self->{options_order}->[$i] == $key );
#~ #        }
#~ if ( $i < @{ $self->{options_order} } ) {
#~ splice @{ $self->{options_order} }, $i, 1;
#~ }
#~ delete( $self->{options}->{$key} );
#~ }

}

#=======================================================================
my $BOOTP_FORMAT = 'C C C C N n n a4 a4 a4 a4 a16 Z64 Z128 a*';

#my $DHCP_MIN_LENGTH = length(pack($BOOTP_FORMAT));
#=======================================================================
sub serialize {
    use bytes;
    my ($self)  = shift;
    my $options = shift;    # reference to an options hash for special options
    my $bytes   = undef;

    $bytes = pack( $BOOTP_FORMAT,
        $self->{op},     $self->{htype},  $self->{hlen},   $self->{hops},
        $self->{xid},    $self->{secs},   $self->{flags},  $self->{ciaddr},
        $self->{yiaddr}, $self->{siaddr}, $self->{giaddr}, $self->{chaddr},
        $self->{sname},  $self->{file} );

    if ( $self->{isDhcp} ) {    # add MAGIC_COOKIE and options
        $bytes .= MAGIC_COOKIE();
        for my $key ( @{ $self->{options_order} } ) {
            if ( ref($self->{options}->{$key}) eq 'ARRAY' ) {
                for my $value ( @{$self->{options}->{$key}} ) {
                    $bytes .= pack( 'C',    $key );
                    $bytes .= pack( 'C/a*', $value );
                }
            } else {
                $bytes .= pack( 'C',    $key );
                $bytes .= pack( 'C/a*', $self->{options}->{$key} );
            }
        }
        $bytes .= pack( 'C', 255 );
    }

    $bytes .= $self->{padding};    # add optional padding

    # add padding if packet is less than minimum size
    my $min_padding = BOOTP_MIN_LEN() - length($bytes);
    if ( $min_padding > 0 ) {
        $bytes .= "\0" x $min_padding;
    }

    # test if packet is not bigger than absolute maximum MTU
    if ( length($bytes) > DHCP_MAX_MTU() ) {
        croak(  'serialize: packet too big ('
              . length($bytes)
              . ' greater than max MAX_MTU ('
              . DHCP_MAX_MTU() );
    }

    # test if packet length is not bigger than DHO_DHCP_MAX_MESSAGE_SIZE
    if ( $options
        && exists( $options->{ DHO_DHCP_MAX_MESSAGE_SIZE() } ) )
    {

        # maximum packet size is specified
        my $max_message_size = $options->{ DHO_DHCP_MAX_MESSAGE_SIZE() };
        if (   ( $max_message_size >= BOOTP_MIN_LEN() )
            && ( $max_message_size < DHCP_MAX_MTU() ) )
        {

            # relevant message size
            if ( length($bytes) > $max_message_size ) {
                croak(  'serialize: message is bigger than allowed ('
                      . length($bytes)
                      . '), max specified :'
                      . $max_message_size );
            }
        }
    }

    return $bytes

}    # end sub serialize

#=======================================================================
sub marshall {

    use bytes;
    my ( $self, $buf ) = @_;
    my $opt_buf;

    if ( length($buf) < BOOTP_ABSOLUTE_MIN_LEN() ) {
        croak(  'marshall: packet too small ('
              . length($buf)
              . '), absolute minimum size is '
              . BOOTP_ABSOLUTE_MIN_LEN() );
    }
    if ( length($buf) < BOOTP_MIN_LEN() ) {
        carp(   'marshall: packet too small ('
              . length($buf)
              . '), minimum size is '
              . BOOTP_MIN_LEN() );
    }
    if ( length($buf) > DHCP_MAX_MTU() ) {
        croak(  'marshall: packet too big ('
              . length($buf)
              . '), max MTU size is '
              . DHCP_MAX_MTU() );
    }

    # if we are re-using this object, then we need to clear out these arrays
    delete $self->{options}
      if $self->{options};
    delete $self->{options_order}
      if $self->{options_order};

    (
        $self->{op},     $self->{htype},  $self->{hlen},   $self->{hops},
        $self->{xid},    $self->{secs},   $self->{flags},  $self->{ciaddr},
        $self->{yiaddr}, $self->{siaddr}, $self->{giaddr}, $self->{chaddr},
        $self->{sname},  $self->{file},   $opt_buf
    ) = unpack( $BOOTP_FORMAT, $buf );

    $self->{isDhcp} = 0;    # default to BOOTP
    if (   ( length($opt_buf) > 4 )
        && ( substr( $opt_buf, 0, 4 ) eq MAGIC_COOKIE() ) )
    {

        # it is definitely DHCP
        $self->{isDhcp} = 1;

        my $pos   = 4;                  # Skip magic cookie
        my $total = length($opt_buf);
        my $type;

        while ( $pos < $total ) {

            $type = ord( substr( $opt_buf, $pos++, 1 ) );
            next if ( $type eq DHO_PAD() );  # Skip padding bytes
            last if ( $type eq DHO_END() );  # Type 'FF' signals end of options.
            my $len = ord( substr( $opt_buf, $pos++, 1 ) );
            my $option = substr( $opt_buf, $pos, $len );
            $pos += $len;
            $self->addOptionRaw( $type, $option );

        }

        # verify that we ended with an "END" code
        if ( $type != DHO_END() ) {
            croak('marshall: unexpected end of options');
        }

        # put remaining bytes in the padding attribute
        if ( $pos < $total ) {
            $self->{padding} = substr( $opt_buf, $pos, $total - $pos );
        }
        else {
            $self->{padding} = q||;
        }

    }
    else {

        # in bootp, everything is padding
        $self->{padding} = $opt_buf;

    }

    return $self

}    # end sub marshall

#=======================================================================
sub decodeRelayAgent {

    use bytes;
    my $self = shift;
    my ($opt_buf) = @_;
    my @opt;

    if ( length($opt_buf) > 1 ) {

        my $pos   = 0;
        my $total = length($opt_buf);

        while ( $pos < $total ) {
            my $type = ord( substr( $opt_buf, $pos++, 1 ) );
            my $len  = ord( substr( $opt_buf, $pos++, 1 ) );
            my $option = substr( $opt_buf, $pos, $len );
            $pos += $len;
            push @opt, $type, $option;
        }

    }

    return @opt

}

sub encodeRelayAgent {

    use bytes;
    my $self = shift;
    my @opt;    # expect key-value pairs
    my $buf;

    while ( defined( my $key = shift(@opt) ) ) {
        my $value = shift(@opt);
        $buf .= pack( 'C',    $key );
        $buf .= pack( 'C/a*', $value );
    }

    return $buf;

}

#=======================================================================
sub toString {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $s;

    $s .= sprintf( "comment = %s\n", $self->comment() )
      if defined( $self->comment() );
    $s .= sprintf(
        "op = %s\n",
        (
            exists( $REV_BOOTP_CODES{ $self->op() } )
              && $REV_BOOTP_CODES{ $self->op() }
          )
          || $self->op()
    );
    $s .= sprintf(
        "htype = %s\n",
        (
            exists( $REV_HTYPE_CODES{ $self->htype() } )
              && $REV_HTYPE_CODES{ $self->htype() }
          )
          || $self->htype()
    );
    $s .= sprintf( "hlen = %s\n",   $self->hlen() );
    $s .= sprintf( "hops = %s\n",   $self->hops() );
    $s .= sprintf( "xid = %x\n",    $self->xid() );
    $s .= sprintf( "secs = %i\n",   $self->secs() );
    $s .= sprintf( "flags = %x\n",  $self->flags() );
    $s .= sprintf( "ciaddr = %s\n", $self->ciaddr() );
    $s .= sprintf( "yiaddr = %s\n", $self->yiaddr() );
    $s .= sprintf( "siaddr = %s\n", $self->siaddr() );
    $s .= sprintf( "giaddr = %s\n", $self->giaddr() );
    $s .= sprintf( "chaddr = %s\n",
        substr( $self->chaddr(), 0, 2 * $self->hlen() ) );
    $s .= sprintf( "sname = %s\n", $self->sname() );
    $s .= sprintf( "file = %s\n",  $self->file() );
    $s .= "Options : \n";

    for my $key ( @{ $self->{options_order} } ) {
        my $value;    # value of option to be printed

        if ( $key == DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE() ) {
            $value = $self->getOptionValue($key);
            $value =
              ( exists( $REV_DHCP_MESSAGE{$value} )
                  && $REV_DHCP_MESSAGE{$value} )
              || $self->getOptionValue($key);
        }
        else {
            if ( exists( $DHO_FORMATS{$key} ) ) {
                $value = join( q| |, $self->getOptionValue($key) );
            }
            else {
                $value = $self->getOptionRaw($key);
            }
            $value =~
              s/([[:^print:]])/ sprintf q[\x%02X], ord $1 /eg;  # printable text
        }
        $s .= sprintf( " %s(%d) = %s\n",
            exists $REV_DHO_CODES{$key} ? $REV_DHO_CODES{$key} : '',
            $key, $value );
    }
    $s .= sprintf(
        "padding [%s] = %s\n",
        length( $self->{padding} ),
        unpack( 'H*', $self->{padding} )
    );

    return $s

}    # end toString

#=======================================================================
# internal utility functions
# never failing versions of the "Socket" module functions
sub packinet {    # bullet-proof version, never complains
    use bytes;
    my $addr = shift;

    if ( $addr && $addr =~ /(\d+)\.(\d+)\.(\d+)\.(\d+)/ ) {
        return chr($1) . chr($2) . chr($3) . chr($4);
    }

    return "\0\0\0\0";
}

sub unpackinet {    # bullet-proof version, never complains
    use bytes;
    my $ip = shift;
    return '0.0.0.0' unless ( $ip && length($ip) == 4 );
    return
        ord( substr( $ip, 0, 1 ) ) . q|.|
      . ord( substr( $ip, 1, 1 ) ) . q|.|
      . ord( substr( $ip, 2, 1 ) ) . q|.|
      . ord( substr( $ip, 3, 1 ) );
}

sub packinets {     # multiple ip addresses, space delimited
    return join(
        q(), map { packinet($_) }
          split( /[\s\/,;]+/, shift || 0 )
    );
}

sub unpackinets {    # multiple ip addresses
    return join( q| |, map { unpackinet($_) } unpack( "(a4)*", shift || 0 ) );
}

sub packinets_array {    # multiple ip addresses, space delimited
    return unless @_;
    return join( q(), map { packinet($_) } @_ );
}

sub unpackinets_array {    # multiple ip addresses, returns an array
    return map { unpackinet($_) } unpack( "(a4)*", shift || 0 );
}

sub unpackRelayAgent {     # prints a human readable 'relay agent options'

    my %relay_opt = @_
      or return;

    return
      join( q|,|, map { "($_)=" . $relay_opt{$_} } ( sort keys %relay_opt ) )

}

sub packcsr {
    # catch empty value
    my $results = [ '' ];

    for my $pair ( @{$_[0]} ) {
        push @$results, ''
        	if (length($results->[-1]) > 255 - 8);

        my ($ip, $mask) = split /\//, $pair->[0];
        $mask = '32'
                unless (defined($mask));

        my $addr = packinet($ip);
        $addr = substr $addr, 0, int(($mask - 1)/8 + 1);

        $results->[-1] .= pack('C', $mask) . $addr;
        $results->[-1] .= packinet($pair->[1]);
    }

    return $results;
}

sub unpackcsr {
    my $csr = shift
      or return;

   croak('unpack csr field still WIP');

}

#=======================================================================

1;

=pod

=head1 NAME

Net::DHCP::Packet - Object methods to create a DHCP packet.

=head1 VERSION

version 0.696

=head1 SYNOPSIS

   use Net::DHCP::Packet;

   my $p = Net::DHCP::Packet->new(
        'Chaddr' => '000BCDEF',
        'Xid' => 0x9F0FD,
        'Ciaddr' => '0.0.0.0',
        'Siaddr' => '0.0.0.0',
        'Hops' => 0);

=head1 DESCRIPTION

Represents a DHCP packet as specified in RFC 1533, RFC 2132.

=head1 CONSTRUCTOR

This module only provides basic constructor. For "easy" constructors, you can use
the L<Net::DHCP::Session> module.

=over 4

=item new( )

=item new( BUFFER )

=item new( ARG => VALUE, ARG => VALUE... )

Creates an C<Net::DHCP::Packet> object, which can be used to send or receive
DHCP network packets. BOOTP is not supported.

Without argument, a default empty packet is created.

  $packet = Net::DHCP::Packet();

A C<BUFFER> argument is interpreted as a binary buffer like one provided
by the socket C<recv()> function. if the packet is malformed, a fatal error
is issued.

   use IO::Socket::INET;
   use Net::DHCP::Packet;

   $sock = IO::Socket::INET->new(LocalPort => 67, Proto => "udp", Broadcast => 1)
           or die "socket: $@";

   while ($sock->recv($newmsg, 1024)) {
       $packet = Net::DHCP::Packet->new($newmsg);
       print $packet->toString();
   }

To create a fresh new packet C<new()> takes arguments as a key-value pairs :

   ARGUMENT   FIELD      OCTETS       DESCRIPTION
   --------   -----      ------       -----------

   Op         op            1  Message op code / message type.
                               1 = BOOTREQUEST, 2 = BOOTREPLY
   Htype      htype         1  Hardware address type, see ARP section in "Assigned
                               Numbers" RFC; e.g., '1' = 10mb ethernet.
   Hlen       hlen          1  Hardware address length (e.g.  '6' for 10mb
                               ethernet).
   Hops       hops          1  Client sets to zero, optionally used by relay agents
                               when booting via a relay agent.
   Xid        xid           4  Transaction ID, a random number chosen by the
                               client, used by the client and server to associate
                               messages and responses between a client and a
                               server.
   Secs       secs          2  Filled in by client, seconds elapsed since client
                               began address acquisition or renewal process.
   Flags      flags         2  Flags (see figure 2).
   Ciaddr     ciaddr        4  Client IP address; only filled in if client is in
                               BOUND, RENEW or REBINDING state and can respond
                               to ARP requests.
   Yiaddr     yiaddr        4  'your' (client) IP address.
   Siaddr     siaddr        4  IP address of next server to use in bootstrap;
                               returned in DHCPOFFER, DHCPACK by server.
   Giaddr     giaddr        4  Relay agent IP address, used in booting via a
                               relay agent.
   Chaddr     chaddr       16  Client hardware address.
   Sname      sname        64  Optional server host name, null terminated string.
   File       file        128  Boot file name, null terminated string; "generic"
                               name or null in DHCPDISCOVER, fully qualified
                               directory-path name in DHCPOFFER.
   IsDhcp     isDhcp        4  Controls whether the packet is BOOTP or DHCP.
                               DHCP conatains the "magic cookie" of 4 bytes.
                               0x63 0x82 0x53 0x63.
   DHO_*code                   Optional parameters field.  See the options
                               documents for a list of defined options.
                               See Net::DHCP::Constants.
   Padding    padding       *  Optional padding at the end of the packet

See below methods for values and syntax description.

Note: DHCP options are created in the same order as key-value pairs.

=back

=head1 METHODS

=head2 ATTRIBUTE METHODS

=over 4

=item comment( [STRING] )

Sets or gets the comment attribute (object meta-data only)

=item op( [BYTE] )

Sets/gets the I<BOOTP opcode>.

Normal values are:

  BOOTREQUEST()
  BOOTREPLY()

=item htype( [BYTE] )

Sets/gets the I<hardware address type>.

Common value is: C<HTYPE_ETHER()> (1) = ethernet

=item hlen ( [BYTE] )

Sets/gets the I<hardware address length>. Value must be between C<0> and C<16>.

For most NIC's, the MAC address has 6 bytes.

=item hops ( [BYTE] )

Sets/gets the I<number of hops>.

This field is incremented by each encountered DHCP relay agent.

=item xid ( [INTEGER] )

Sets/gets the 32 bits I<transaction id>.

This field should be a random value set by the DHCP client.

=item secs ( [SHORT] )

Sets/gets the 16 bits I<elapsed boot time> in seconds.

=item flags ( [SHORT] )

Sets/gets the 16 bits I<flags>.

  0x8000 = Broadcast reply requested.

=item ciaddr ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<client IP address>.

IP address is only accepted as a string like '10.24.50.3'.

Note: IP address is internally stored as a 4 bytes binary string.
See L<Special methods> below.

=item yiaddr ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<your IP address>.

IP address is only accepted as a string like '10.24.50.3'.

Note: IP address is internally stored as a 4 bytes binary string.
See L<Special methods> below.

=item siaddr ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<next server IP address>.

IP address is only accepted as a string like '10.24.50.3'.

Note: IP address is internally stored as a 4 bytes binary string.
See L<Special methods> below.

=item giaddr ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<relay agent IP address>.

IP address is only accepted as a string like '10.24.50.3'.

Note: IP address is internally stored as a 4 bytes binary string.
See L<Special methods> below.

=item chaddr ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<client hardware address>. Its length is given by the C<hlen> attribute.

Value is formatted as an Hexadecimal string representation.

  Example: "0010A706DFFF" for 6 bytes mac address.

Note : internal format is packed bytes string.
See L<Special methods> below.

=item sname ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the "server host name". Maximum size is 63 bytes. If greater
a warning is issued.

=item file ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the "boot file name". Maximum size is 127 bytes. If greater
a warning is issued.

=item isDhcp ( [BOOLEAN] )

Sets/gets the I<DHCP cookie>. Returns whether the cookie is valid or not,
hence whether the packet is DHCP or BOOTP.

Default value is C<1>, valid DHCP cookie.

=item padding ( [BYTES] )

Sets/gets the optional padding at the end of the DHCP packet, i.e. after
DHCP options.

=back

=head2 DHCP OPTIONS METHODS

This section describes how to read or set DHCP options. Methods are given
in two flavours : (i) text format with automatic type conversion,
(ii) raw binary format.

Standard way of accessing options is through automatic type conversion,
described in the L<DHCP OPTION TYPES> section. Only a subset of types
is supported, mainly those defined in rfc 2132.

Raw binary functions are provided for pure performance optimization,
and for unsupported types manipulation.

=over 4

=item addOptionValue ( CODE, VALUE )

Adds a DHCP option field. Common code values are listed in
C<Net::DHCP::Constants> C<DHO_>*.

Values are automatically converted according to their data types,
depending on their format as defined by RFC 2132.
Please see L<DHCP OPTION TYPES> for supported options and corresponding
formats.

If you need access to the raw binary values, please use C<addOptionRaw()>.

   $pac = Net::DHCP::Packet->new();
   $pac->addOption(DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE(), DHCPINFORM());
   $pac->addOption(DHO_NAME_SERVERS(), "10.0.0.1", "10.0.0.2"));

=item addSubOptionValue ( CODE, SUBCODE, VALUE )

Adds a DHCP sub-option field. Common code values are listed in
C<Net::DHCP::Constants> C<SUBOPTION_>*.

Values are automatically converted according to their data types,
depending on their format as defined by RFC 2132.
Please see L<DHCP OPTION TYPES> for supported options and corresponding
formats.

If you need access to the raw binary values, please use C<addSubOptionRaw()>.

   $pac = Net::DHCP::Packet->new();
   # FIXME update exampls
   $pac->addSubOption(DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE(), DHCPINFORM());
   $pac->addSubOption(DHO_NAME_SERVERS(), "10.0.0.1", "10.0.0.2"));


=item getOptionValue ( CODE )

Returns the value of a DHCP option.

Automatic type conversion is done according to their data types,
as defined in RFC 2132.
Please see L<DHCP OPTION TYPES> for supported options and corresponding
formats.

If you need access to the raw binary values, please use C<getOptionRaw()>.

Return value is either a string or an array, depending on the context.

  $ip  = $pac->getOptionValue(DHO_SUBNET_MASK());
  $ips = $pac->getOptionValue(DHO_NAME_SERVERS());

=item addOptionRaw ( CODE, VALUE )

Adds a DHCP OPTION provided in packed binary format.
Please see corresponding RFC for manual type conversion.

=item addSubOptionRaw ( CODE, SUBCODE, VALUE )

Adds a DHCP SUB-OPTION provided in packed binary format.
Please see corresponding RFC for manual type conversion.

=item getOptionRaw ( CODE )

Gets a DHCP OPTION provided in packed binary format.
Please see corresponding RFC for manual type conversion.

=item getSubOptionRaw ( CODE, SUBCODE )

Gets a DHCP SUB-OPTION provided in packed binary format.
Please see corresponding RFC for manual type conversion.

=item getSubOptionValue ()

This is an empty stub for now

=item removeSubOption ()

This is an empty stub for now

=item removeOption ( CODE )

Remove option from option list.

=item encodeRelayAgent ()

These are half baked, but will encode the relay agent options in the future

=item decodeRelayAgent ()

These are half baked, but will decode the relay agent options in the future

=item unpackRelayAgent ( HASH )

returns a human readable 'relay agent options', not to be confused with
C<decodeRelayAgent>

=item I packcsr( ARRAYREF )

returns the packed Classless Static Route option built from a list of CIDR style address/mask combos

=item I<unpackcsr>

Not implemented, currently croaks.

=item I<addOption ( CODE, VALUE )>

I<Removed as of version 0.60. Please use C<addOptionRaw()> instead.>

=item I<getOption ( CODE )>

I<Removed as of version 0.60. Please use C<getOptionRaw()> instead.>

=back

=head2 DHCP OPTIONS TYPES

This section describes supported option types (cf. RFC 2132).

For unsupported data types, please use C<getOptionRaw()> and
C<addOptionRaw> to manipulate binary format directly.

=over 4

=item dhcp message type

Only supported for DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE (053) option.
Converts a integer to a single byte.

Option code for 'dhcp message' format:

  (053) DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE

Example:

  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE(), DHCPINFORM());

=item string

Pure string attribute, no type conversion.

Option codes for 'string' format:

  (012) DHO_HOST_NAME
  (014) DHO_MERIT_DUMP
  (015) DHO_DOMAIN_NAME
  (017) DHO_ROOT_PATH
  (018) DHO_EXTENSIONS_PATH
  (047) DHO_NETBIOS_SCOPE
  (056) DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE
  (060) DHO_VENDOR_CLASS_IDENTIFIER
  (062) DHO_NWIP_DOMAIN_NAME
  (064) DHO_NIS_DOMAIN
  (065) DHO_NIS_SERVER
  (066) DHO_TFTP_SERVER
  (067) DHO_BOOTFILE
  (086) DHO_NDS_TREE_NAME
  (098) DHO_USER_AUTHENTICATION_PROTOCOL

Example:

  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_TFTP_SERVER(), "foobar");

=item single ip address

Exactly one IP address, in dotted numerical format '192.168.1.1'.

Option codes for 'single ip address' format:

  (001) DHO_SUBNET_MASK
  (016) DHO_SWAP_SERVER
  (028) DHO_BROADCAST_ADDRESS
  (032) DHO_ROUTER_SOLICITATION_ADDRESS
  (050) DHO_DHCP_REQUESTED_ADDRESS
  (054) DHO_DHCP_SERVER_IDENTIFIER
  (118) DHO_SUBNET_SELECTION

Example:

  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_SUBNET_MASK(), "255.255.255.0");

=item multiple ip addresses

Any number of IP address, in dotted numerical format '192.168.1.1'.
Empty value allowed.

Option codes for 'multiple ip addresses' format:

  (003) DHO_ROUTERS
  (004) DHO_TIME_SERVERS
  (005) DHO_NAME_SERVERS
  (006) DHO_DOMAIN_NAME_SERVERS
  (007) DHO_LOG_SERVERS
  (008) DHO_COOKIE_SERVERS
  (009) DHO_LPR_SERVERS
  (010) DHO_IMPRESS_SERVERS
  (011) DHO_RESOURCE_LOCATION_SERVERS
  (041) DHO_NIS_SERVERS
  (042) DHO_NTP_SERVERS
  (044) DHO_NETBIOS_NAME_SERVERS
  (045) DHO_NETBIOS_DD_SERVER
  (048) DHO_FONT_SERVERS
  (049) DHO_X_DISPLAY_MANAGER
  (068) DHO_MOBILE_IP_HOME_AGENT
  (069) DHO_SMTP_SERVER
  (070) DHO_POP3_SERVER
  (071) DHO_NNTP_SERVER
  (072) DHO_WWW_SERVER
  (073) DHO_FINGER_SERVER
  (074) DHO_IRC_SERVER
  (075) DHO_STREETTALK_SERVER
  (076) DHO_STDA_SERVER
  (085) DHO_NDS_SERVERS

Example:

  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_NAME_SERVERS(), "10.0.0.11 192.168.1.10");

=item pairs of ip addresses

Even number of IP address, in dotted numerical format '192.168.1.1'.
Empty value allowed.

Option codes for 'pairs of ip address' format:

  (021) DHO_POLICY_FILTER
  (033) DHO_STATIC_ROUTES

Example:

  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_STATIC_ROUTES(), "10.0.0.1 192.168.1.254");

=item byte, short and integer

Numerical value in byte (8 bits), short (16 bits) or integer (32 bits)
format.

Option codes for 'byte (8)' format:

  (019) DHO_IP_FORWARDING
  (020) DHO_NON_LOCAL_SOURCE_ROUTING
  (023) DHO_DEFAULT_IP_TTL
  (027) DHO_ALL_SUBNETS_LOCAL
  (029) DHO_PERFORM_MASK_DISCOVERY
  (030) DHO_MASK_SUPPLIER
  (031) DHO_ROUTER_DISCOVERY
  (034) DHO_TRAILER_ENCAPSULATION
  (036) DHO_IEEE802_3_ENCAPSULATION
  (037) DHO_DEFAULT_TCP_TTL
  (039) DHO_TCP_KEEPALIVE_GARBAGE
  (046) DHO_NETBIOS_NODE_TYPE
  (052) DHO_DHCP_OPTION_OVERLOAD
  (116) DHO_AUTO_CONFIGURE

Option codes for 'short (16)' format:

  (013) DHO_BOOT_SIZE
  (022) DHO_MAX_DGRAM_REASSEMBLY
  (026) DHO_INTERFACE_MTU
  (057) DHO_DHCP_MAX_MESSAGE_SIZE

Option codes for 'integer (32)' format:

  (002) DHO_TIME_OFFSET
  (024) DHO_PATH_MTU_AGING_TIMEOUT
  (035) DHO_ARP_CACHE_TIMEOUT
  (038) DHO_TCP_KEEPALIVE_INTERVAL
  (051) DHO_DHCP_LEASE_TIME
  (058) DHO_DHCP_RENEWAL_TIME
  (059) DHO_DHCP_REBINDING_TIME

Examples:

  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_DHCP_OPTION_OVERLOAD(), 3);
  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_INTERFACE_MTU(), 1500);
  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_DHCP_RENEWAL_TIME(), 24*60*60);

=item multiple bytes, shorts

A list a bytes or shorts.

Option codes for 'multiple bytes (8)' format:

  (055) DHO_DHCP_PARAMETER_REQUEST_LIST

Option codes for 'multiple shorts (16)' format:

  (025) DHO_PATH_MTU_PLATEAU_TABLE
  (117) DHO_NAME_SERVICE_SEARCH

Examples:

  $pac->addOptionValue(DHO_DHCP_PARAMETER_REQUEST_LIST(),  "1 3 6 12 15 28 42 72");

=back

=head2 SERIALIZATION METHODS

=over 4

=item serialize ()

Converts a Net::DHCP::Packet to a string, ready to put on the network.

=item marshall ( BYTES )

The inverse of serialize. Converts a string, presumably a
received UDP packet, into a Net::DHCP::Packet.

If the packet is malformed, a fatal error is produced.

=back

=head2 HELPER METHODS

=over 4

=item toString ()

Returns a textual representation of the packet, for debugging.

=item packinet ( STRING )

Transforms a IP address "xx.xx.xx.xx" into a packed 4 bytes string.

These are simple never failing versions of inet_ntoa and inet_aton.

=item packinets ( STRING )

Transforms a list of space delimited IP addresses into a packed bytes string.

=item packinets_array( LIST )

Transforms an array (list) of IP addresses into a packed bytes string.

=item unpackinet ( STRING )

Transforms a packed bytes IP address into a "xx.xx.xx.xx" string.

=item unpackinets ( STRING )

Transforms a packed bytes list of IP addresses into a list of
"xx.xx.xx.xx" space delimited string.

=item unpackinets_array ( STRING )

Transforms a packed bytes list of IP addresses into a array of
"xx.xx.xx.xx" strings.

=back

=head2 SPECIAL METHODS

These methods are provided for performance tuning only. They give access
to internal data representation , thus avoiding unnecessary type conversion.

=over 4

=item ciaddrRaw ( [STRING])

Sets/gets the I<client IP address> in packed 4 characters binary strings.

=item yiaddrRaw ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<your IP address> in packed 4 characters binary strings.

=item siaddrRaw ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<next server IP address> in packed 4 characters binary strings.

=item giaddrRaw ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<relay agent IP address> in packed 4 characters binary strings.

=item chaddrRaw ( [STRING] )

Sets/gets the I<client hardware address> in packed binary string.
Its length is given by the C<hlen> attribute.

=back

=head1 EXAMPLES

Sending a simple DHCP packet:

  #!/usr/bin/perl
  # Simple DHCP client - sending a broadcasted DHCP Discover request

  use IO::Socket::INET;
  use Net::DHCP::Packet;
  use Net::DHCP::Constants;

  # creat DHCP Packet
  $discover = Net::DHCP::Packet->new(
                        xid => int(rand(0xFFFFFFFF)), # random xid
                        Flags => 0x8000,              # ask for broadcast answer
                        DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE() => DHCPDISCOVER()
                        );

  # send packet
  $handle = IO::Socket::INET->new(Proto => 'udp',
                                  Broadcast => 1,
                                  PeerPort => '67',
                                  LocalPort => '68',
                                  PeerAddr => '255.255.255.255')
                or die "socket: $@";     # yes, it uses $@ here
  $handle->send($discover->serialize())
                or die "Error sending broadcast inform:$!\n";

Sniffing DHCP packets.

  #!/usr/bin/perl
  # Simple DHCP server - listen to DHCP packets and print them

  use IO::Socket::INET;
  use Net::DHCP::Packet;
  $sock = IO::Socket::INET->new(LocalPort => 67, Proto => "udp", Broadcast => 1)
          or die "socket: $@";
  while ($sock->recv($newmsg, 1024)) {
          $packet = Net::DHCP::Packet->new($newmsg);
          print STDERR $packet->toString();
  }

Sending a LEASEQUERY (provided by John A. Murphy).

  #!/usr/bin/perl
  # Simple DHCP client - send a LeaseQuery (by IP) and receive the response

  use IO::Socket::INET;
  use Net::DHCP::Packet;
  use Net::DHCP::Constants;

  $usage = "usage: $0 DHCP_SERVER_IP DHCP_CLIENT_IP\n"; $ARGV[1] || die $usage;

  # create a socket
  $handle = IO::Socket::INET->new(Proto => 'udp',
                                  Broadcast => 1,
                                  PeerPort => '67',
                                  LocalPort => '67',
                                  PeerAddr => $ARGV[0])
                or die "socket: $@";     # yes, it uses $@ here

  # create DHCP Packet
  $inform = Net::DHCP::Packet->new(
                      op => BOOTREQUEST(),
                      Htype  => '0',
                      Hlen   => '0',
                      Ciaddr => $ARGV[1],
                      Giaddr => $handle->sockhost(),
                      Xid => int(rand(0xFFFFFFFF)),     # random xid
                      DHO_DHCP_MESSAGE_TYPE() => DHCPLEASEQUERY
                      );

  # send request
  $handle->send($inform->serialize()) or die "Error sending LeaseQuery: $!\n";

  #receive response
  $handle->recv($newmsg, 1024) or die;
  $packet = Net::DHCP::Packet->new($newmsg);
  print $packet->toString();

A simple DHCP Server is provided in the "examples" directory. It is composed of
"dhcpd.pl" a *very* simple server example, and "dhcpd_test.pl" a simple tester for
this server.

=head1 AUTHOR

Dean Hamstead E<lt>djzort@cpan.orgE<gt>
Previously Stephan Hadinger E<lt>shadinger@cpan.orgE<gt>.
Original version by F. van Dun.

=head1 BUGS

See L<https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Net-DHCP>

=head1 GOT PATCHES?

Many young people like to use Github, so by all means send me pull requests at

https://github.com/djzort/Net-DHCP

=head1 COPYRIGHT

This is free software. It can be distributed and/or modified under the same terms as
Perl itself.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Net::DHCP::Options>, L<Net::DHCP::Constants>.

=cut