#!/usr/bin/perl -Tw -Ilib -I../lib
#
# noid - a Perl script that mints and binds nice opaque identifiers
#   using the Noid.pm module.  This script can be invoked additionally
#   via a URL interface as "noidu...", which formats output for the web.
#
# Author:  John A. Kunze, jak@ucop.edu, California Digital Library
#    Orginally created Nov. 2002 at UCSF Center for Knowledge Management
# 
# ---------
# Copyright (c) 2002-2006 UC Regents
# 
# Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and
# its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee, provided
# that (i) the above copyright notices and this permission notice appear in
# all copies of the software and related documentation, and (ii) the names
# of the UC Regents and the University of California are not used in any
# advertising or publicity relating to the software without the specific,
# prior written permission of the University of California.
# 
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS-IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, 
# EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY 
# WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  
# 
# IN NO EVENT SHALL THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BE LIABLE FOR ANY
# SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND,
# OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS,
# WHETHER OR NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE, AND ON ANY
# THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE
# OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
# ---------

# XXX change 'NOID' as database name to 'dbnoid' (for case insensitive filesys)
# XXX fix To Do alphabets
# XXX document an example of how to set up a rewrite rule that responds
#     to the ? and ?? at the end of an id, and convert to a CGI string
# XXX add java interface
# XXX fix env test to suggest that NFS and AFS filesystems not be used
# XXX why does dbopen fail when doing dbinfo from an account that can't
#     write the file -- should be doing readonly open
# XXX record literal noid dbcreate (re)creation command used into README

use strict;

#sub get_untainted_PERL5LIB {
#	my $key;
#	my $perl_5_lib = $ENV{"PERL5LIB"};
#	#my @lib_list = ('./Noid/lib');
#	my @lib_list = ('./lib');
#	! defined($perl_5_lib) and
#		return(@lib_list);
#	if ($perl_5_lib =~ /^(\/\S+)$/) {
#		push @lib_list, $1;
#		return(@lib_list);
#	}
#	die(qq@Format of variable "PERL5LIB" ($perl_5_lib) invalid.\n@);
#}
#
#use lib	get_untainted_PERL5LIB( );

use Config;     # Now do Brian McCauley's perl5lib.pm trick for untainting.
use lib map { /(.*)/ } split /$Config{path_sep}/ => $ENV{PERL5LIB};

use Text::ParseWords;
use Getopt::Long;
use BerkeleyDB;
use Noid;

my $web = 0;
my ($dbdir, $dbname, $debug, $locktest, $ver, $help, $contact, $bulkcmd);
my ($template, $snaa, $total);
my (@valid_helptopics, %info);		# purposely undefined for now
my @valid_commands = qw(
	bind dbinfo dbcreate fetch get hello help hold
	mint note peppermint queue validate
);

# yyy make a noidmail (email robot interface?)
# yyy location field for redirect should include a discriminant
#     eg, ^c for client choice, ^i for ipaddr, ^f format, ^l language
#     and ^b for browser type, ^xyz for any http header??
# yyy add "file" command, like bind, but stores a file, either as file or
#     in a big concatenation stream (binding offset, length, checksum)?
# yyy figure out whether validate needs to open the database, and if not,
#     what that means

# yyy for locking and transactions: (1) ask Paul Marquess about what
#  Perl interface support for txn and locking really is (2) check into
#  lock and/or transaction timeout, (3) if I use cursors exclusively for
#  storage, that may solve everything(?) (eg, no more simple tied assigments,
#  which are db_put's in disguise, (4) make sure Noid.pm exit block releases
#  locks, aborts transactions, etc.

# main
{
	my $line;
	if ($0 =~ m|noidu[^/]*$|) {	# if called with the URL interface
		$web = 1;			# orient output for HTTP
		print "Content-Type: text/plain\n\n";
		open(STDERR, ">&STDOUT")
			or die("Can't combine stderr and stdout: $!\n");
		! defined($ENV{'QUERY_STRING'}) and
			die("No QUERY_STRING (hence no command) defined.\n");
		($line = $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'}) =~ tr/+/ /;
		@ARGV = shellwords($line);
		#print "ARGV: " . join("|", @ARGV) . "\n";
	}
	if ($0 =~ m|noidr[^/]*$|) {	# if called for RewriteMap resolving,
					# see Apache Rewrite mod documentation
		$| = 1;		# very important to unbuffer the output
		$bulkcmd = 1;
		# yyy should we set a timeout to prevent hanging the server?
	}

	if (! ($contact = who_are_you($web))) {
		print STDERR "Can't tell who you are: $!\n";
		exit(1);
	}

	if (! GetOptions(
		'debug'		=> \$debug,	# flag
		'locktest=i'	=> \$locktest,	# flag
		'f=s'		=> \$dbdir,	# filesystem directory name
		'version'	=> \$ver,	# flag
		'help'		=> \$help,	# flag
	)) {
		print "error: GetOptions\n";
		usage(1, 1, "intro");
		exit(1);
	}
	if ($locktest) {
		$locktest < 0 and
			print("error: locktest value must be a positive "
				. "number of seconds to sleep\n"),
			exit(0);
		Noid::locktest($locktest);
	}
	$web && $debug and
		print "contact=$contact, pwd=", `pwd`;

	# Handle -v or -h, and exit early.
	if ($ver) {
		# We take our version number from the Noid module version.
		print qq@This is "noid" version $Noid::VERSION.\n@;
		exit(0);
	}
	if ($help) {
		# yyy should we encode help output?   print "help:\n";
		usage(0, 0, "intro");
		exit(0);
	}

	# Now try to find a database directory string.
	# In the special case of dbcreate, we may create
	# and name the directory on behalf of the user.
	#
	if (! defined($dbdir)) {
		defined($ENV{'NOID'}) and	# is NOID env variable defined?
			$dbdir = $ENV{'NOID'},
		1 or
		$0 =~ m|_([^/]+)$| and		# executable link reveals dbdir?
			$dbdir = $1,
		1 or
			$dbdir = '.',		# else try current directory
		;
		if (! defined($dbdir) || $dbdir !~ /\S/) {
			print "error: no Dbdir\n";
			usage(1, 1, "intro");
			exit(1);
		}
	}
	elsif ($web) {
		print qq@-f option not allowed in URL interface.\n@;
		return(0);
	}
	# Now untaint $dbdir.  yyy we can do better?
	$dbdir =~ m|^(.*)$| and
		$dbdir = $1
	or
		print("error: bad Dbdir\n"),
		usage(1, 1, "intro"),
		exit(1)
	;
	$dbname = "$dbdir/NOID/noid.bdb";

	# Bulk command mode is signified by a single final argument of "-".
	# If we're _not_ in bulk command mode, expect a single command
	# represented by the remaining arguments; do it and exit.
	#
	$bulkcmd ||= ($#ARGV == 0 && $ARGV[0] eq "-");
	if (! $bulkcmd) {
		do_command(@ARGV);
		exit(0);
	}

	# If we get here, we're in bulk command mode.  Read, tokenize,
	# and execute commands from the standard input.  Test with
	#   curl --data-binary @cmd_file http://dot.ucop.edu/nd/noidu_kt5\?-
	# where cmd_file contains newline-separated commands.
	# XXX make sure to %-decode web QUERY_STRING, so we don't have
	#     to always put +'s for spaces
	#
	while (($line = <STDIN>)) {
		do_command(shellwords($line));
	}
	exit(0);
}

sub do_command {

	# Any remaining args should form a noid command.
	# Look at the command part (if any) now, and complain about
	# a non-existent database unless the command is "dbcreate".
	#
	my $command = shift;
	if (! defined($command)) {	# if no command arg
		usage(1, 1, "intro");
		return(0);
	}
	if (! -f $dbname
			&& $command ne 'dbcreate' && $command ne 'help') {
		# if the database doesn't exist when it needs to
		bprint(*STDERR, "error: no database ($dbname) "
			. "-- use dbcreate?\n\n");
		usage(1, 1, "intro");
		return(0)
	}
	if (grep(/^$command$/, @valid_commands) != 1) {
		print "error: no such command: $command (",
			join(" ", @_), ")\n";
		usage(1, 1, "intro");
		return(0);
	}
	# Perform extra checks in $web case.
	if ($web && $command eq 'dbcreate') {
		print qq@error: command "$command" not allowed in URL interface.\n@;
		usage(1, 1, "intro");
		return(0);
	}
	# It should now be safe to turn off strict 'refs' when we
	# invoke a command via its subroutine name.
	#if ($#_ < 0) {
	#	usage(1);	# yyy say something senstive about $command
	#usage(1, 1, "intro");
	#	return(0);
	#}

	no strict 'refs';
	&$command(@_);
}

#
# --- begin almost alphabetic listing of functions ---
#

# yyy what is the sensible thing to do if (a) no element given,
#     (b) if no value, or (c) if there are multiple values?
# yyy vbind(..., template, ...)?  nvbind()?
#
# Returns number of elements successfully bound.
#
# yyy what about append at the list vs the string level?
sub bind { my( $how, $id, $elem, $value )=@_;

	my $validate = 1;
	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, 0);
	if (! $noid) {
		print STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	my $report;
	! defined($elem) and
		$elem = "";
	if ($elem eq ":") {	# expect name/value pairs up to blank line
		defined($value) and
			print(STDERR "Why give a value ($value) with an "
				. qq@element "$elem"?\n@),
			Noid::dbclose($noid),
			return(0);

		# To slurp paragraph, apparently safest to use local $/, which
		local $/;			# disappears when scope exits.
		$/ = "\n\n";			# Means paragraph mode.
		my $para = <STDIN> || "";
		chop $para;	# yyy needed?
		$para =~ s/^#.*\n//g;		# remove comment lines
		$para =~ s/\n\s+/ /g;		# merge continuation lines
		my @elemvals = split(/^([^:]+)\s*:\s*/m, $para);
		shift @elemvals;		# throw away first null
		my ($bound, $total) = (0, 0);
		while (1) {
			($elem, $value) = (shift @elemvals, shift @elemvals);
			! defined($elem) && ! defined($value) and
				last;
			$total++;
			! defined($elem) and
				Noid::addmsg($noid,
					"error: $id: bad element associated "
						. qq@with value "$value".@),
				last;
			! defined($value) and
				$value = "",
			1 or
				chop $value
			;
			$report = Noid::bind($noid, $contact, $validate,
				$how, $id, $elem, $value);
			! defined($report) and
				print(STDERR $report, "\n"),
				usage(1, 1, "bind"),
				# yyy how/who should log failures in "hard" case
			or
				$bound++,
				print($report, "\n"),
			;
		}
		# yyy summarize for log $total and $bound
		Noid::dbclose($noid);
		return(defined($report) ? 1 : 0);
	}
	elsif ($elem eq ":-") {		# expect name/value to be rest of file
		defined($value) and
			print(STDERR "Why give a value ($value) with an "
				. qq@element "$elem"?\n@),
			Noid::dbclose($noid),
			return(0);
#		while (<STDIN>) {
#			next if /^#/ || /^\s*\n/;
#			last;		# end at first non-blank, non-comment
#		}
#		chop;
#		! defined($_) || ! s/^(\w+)\s*:\s*// and
#			Noid::addmsg($noid, "error: $id no element to bind."),
#			Noid::dbclose($noid),
#			return(0);
#		$elem = $1;
#		$value = $_;
#		# To slurp file, apparently safest is to use local $/, which
#		local $/;			# disappears when scope exits.
#		$value .= <STDIN>;		# $/==undef means file mode.

		# Read all of STDIN into array "@input_lines".
		my @input_lines = <STDIN>;

		# Remove all newlines.
		foreach (@input_lines) {
			chomp;
			}

		# Ignore any leading lines that start with a pound sign
		# or contain nothing but white space.
		while (scalar(@input_lines) > 0) {
			if ((substr($input_lines[0], 0, 1) eq "#") ||
				($input_lines[0] =~ /^\s*$/)) {
				shift @input_lines;
				next;
				}
			last;
			}

		# If we don't have any lines, there's a problem.
		if (scalar(@input_lines) == 0) {
			print STDERR "error:  no non-blank, non-comment ",
				"input.\n";
			Noid::dbclose($noid);
			return(0);
			}

		# There must be an element and a colon on the first line.
		unless ($input_lines[0] =~ /^\s*(\w+)\s*:\s*(.*)$/) {
			print STDERR "error:  missing element or colon on ",
				"first non-blank, non-comment line.\n";
			Noid::dbclose($noid);
			return(0);
			}

		# Save the element, and any part of the value that there
		# might be on the first line.
		$elem = $1;
		$value = $2;

		# Remove the first line from the array.
		shift @input_lines;

		# Append any additional lines to the value.
		foreach (@input_lines) {
			$value .= "\n" . $_;
			}

		# Put on the final newline.
		$value .= "\n";

		#
		# Now drop through to end of if-elsif clause to real binding.
	}
	# yyy eg, :fragment:Offset:Length:Path
	# yyy eg, :fragment:Offset:Length:Path
	# yyy eg, :file:Path
	# yyy eg, ":xml",
	elsif ($elem =~ /^:/) {
		print(STDERR qq@Binding to element syntax "$elem" @
			. "not supported.\n");
		Noid::dbclose($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	$report = Noid::bind($noid, $contact, $validate,
			$how, $id, $elem, $value);
	! defined($report) and
		print(STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid)),
		usage(0, 1, "bind")
	or
		print($report, "\n")
	;
	# yyy make sure return(0)'s do dbclose...
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	return(defined($report) ? 1 : 0);
}

# This routine may not make sense in the URL interface.
#
sub dbcreate { my( $template, $policy, $naan, $naa, $subnaa )=@_;

	my $dbreport = Noid::dbcreate($dbdir, $contact, $template, $policy,
			$naan, $naa, $subnaa);
	if (! $dbreport) {
		print Noid::errmsg(), "\n";
		return(0);
	}
	print $dbreport, "\n";
	return(1);
}

sub dbinfo { my( $level )=@_;

	$level = "brief"
		if (! defined($level));
	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, DB_RDONLY);
	if (! $noid) {
		print Noid::errmsg($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	Noid::dbinfo($noid, $level);
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	return(1);
}

sub fetch { my( $id, @elems )=@_;

	return(getfetch(1, $id, @elems));
}

sub get { my( $id, @elems )=@_;

	return(getfetch(0, $id, @elems));
}

sub getfetch { my( $verbose, $id, @elems )=@_;

	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, DB_RDONLY);
	if (! $noid) {
		print STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	my $fetched = Noid::fetch($noid, $verbose, $id, @elems);
	! defined($fetched) and
		print(STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid))
	or
		print($fetched),
		$verbose && print("\n")
	;
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	return(1);
}

sub hello {
	print "Hello.\n";
}

sub help { my( $topic )=@_;

	my $in_error = 0;
	my $brief = 0;
	return(usage($in_error, $brief, $topic));
}

# yyy what about a "winnow" routine that is either started
#     from cron or is started when an exiting noid call notices
#     that there's some harvesting/garbage collecting to do and
#     schedules it for, say, 10 minutes hence (by not exiting,
#     but sleeping for 10 minutes and then harvesting)?

sub hold { my( $on_off, @ids )=@_;

	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, 0);
	if (! $noid) {
		print STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	if (! Noid::hold($noid, $contact, $on_off, @ids)) {
		print(STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid));
		usage(1, 1, "hold");
		Noid::dbclose($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	print(Noid::errmsg($noid), "\n");	# no error message at all
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	return(1);
}

sub peppermint { my( $n, $elem, $value )=@_;
	mint($n, $elem, $value, 1);
}

sub mint { my( $n, $elem, $value, $pepper )=@_;

	if (defined($pepper)) {
		print STDERR
			"The peppermint command is not implemented yet.\n";
		return(0);
	}
	if (! defined($n) || $n !~ /^\d+$/) {
		print STDERR "Argument error: expected positive integer, got ",
			(defined($n) ? qq@"$n"@ : "nothing"), "\n";
		usage(1, 1, "mint");
		return(0);
	}
	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, 0);
	if (! $noid) {
		print Noid::errmsg($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	my $id;
	while ($n--) {
		if (! defined($id = Noid::mint($noid, $contact, $pepper))) {
			print STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid);
			Noid::dbclose($noid);
			return(0);
		}
		print "id: $id\n";
	}
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	print "\n";
	return(1);

}

sub note { my( $key, $value )=@_;

	if (! defined($key) || ! defined($value)) {
		print STDERR
			"You must supply a key and a value.\n";
		usage(1, 1, "note");
		return(0);
	}
	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, 0);
	! Noid::note($noid, $contact, $key, $value)
		and print Noid::errmsg($noid);
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	return(1);
}

sub queue { my( $when, @ids )=@_;

	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, 0);
	if (! $noid) {
		print STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	my @queued = Noid::queue($noid, $contact, $when, @ids);
	my $retval;
	! @queued and
		$retval = 0,
		print(STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid), "\n"),
	1 or
		$retval = 1,
		print(join("\n", @queued), "\n"),
	;
	my $n = scalar(grep(! /^error:/, @queued));
	print("note: $n identifier", ($n == 1 ? "" : "s"), " queued\n");
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	return($retval);
}

# Returns the number of valid ids.
sub validate { my( $template, @ids )=@_;

	my $noid = Noid::dbopen($dbname, DB_RDONLY);
	if (! $noid) {
		print Noid::errmsg($noid);
		return(0);
	}
	my @valids = Noid::validate($noid, $template, @ids);
	! @valids and
		print(STDERR Noid::errmsg($noid)),
		Noid::dbclose($noid),
		usage(1, 1, "validate"),
		return(0);

	my @iderrs = grep(/^error:/, @valids);
	print($_, "\n")
		for (@valids);
	Noid::dbclose($noid);
	return(scalar(@ids) - scalar(@iderrs));
}

# Print a blank (space) in front of every newline.
# First arg must be a filehandle.
#
sub bprint { my( $out, @args )=@_;
	map {s/\n/\n /g} @args;
	return print $out @args;
}

# Always returns 1 so it can be used in boolean blocks.
#
sub usage { my( $in_error, $brief, $topic )=@_;

	! defined($in_error) and
		$in_error = 1;		# default is to treat as error
	$in_error and
		$| = 1;			# flush any pending output
	my $out =			# where to send output
		($in_error ? *STDERR : *STDOUT);
	! defined($brief) and
		$brief = 1;		# default is to be brief
	$topic ||= "intro";
	$topic = lc($topic);

	# Initialize info topics if need be.
	#
	! @valid_helptopics and
		init_help();
	my @blurbs = grep(/^$topic/, @valid_helptopics);
	if (scalar(@blurbs) != 1) {
		print $out (scalar(@blurbs) < 1
			? qq@Sorry: nothing under "$topic".\n@
			: "Help: Your request ($topic), matches more than one "
				. "topic:\n\t(" . join(", ", @blurbs) . ").\n"
			),
			" You might try one of these topics:";
		my @topics = @valid_helptopics;
		my $n = 0;
		my $topics_per_line = 8;
		while (1) {
			! @topics and
				print("\n "),
				last
			or
			$n++ % $topics_per_line == 0 and
				print("\n\t")
			or
				print(" ", shift(@topics))
			;
		}
		print "\n\n";
		return(1);
	}
	# If we get here, @blurbs names one story.
	my $blurb = shift @blurbs;

	# Big if-elsif clause to switch on requested topic.
	#
	# Note that we try to make the output conform to ANVL syntax;
	# in the case of help output, every line tries to be a continuation
	# line for the value of an element called "Usage".  To do this we
	# pass all output through a routine that just adds a space after
	# every newline.  The end of the output should end the ANVL record,
	# so we print "\n\n" at the end.
	#
	my ($t, $i);
	if ($blurb eq "intro") {
		bprint $out,
qq@Usage:
              noid [-f Dbdir] [-v] [-h] Command Arguments@, ($brief ? qq@
              noid -h             (for help with a Command summary).@
	: qq@

Dbdir defaults to "." if not found from -f or a NOID environment variable.
For more information try "perldoc noid" or "noid help Command".  Summary:
@);
		$brief and
			print("\n\n"),
			return(1);
		for $t (@valid_commands) {
			$i = $info{"$t/brief"};
			! defined($i) || ! $i and
				next;
			bprint $out, $i;
		}
bprint $out, qq@
If invoked as "noidu...", output is formatted for a web client.  Give Command
as "-" to run a block of noid Commands read from stdin or from POST data.@;
		print "\n\n";
		return(1);
	}
	#elsif $blurb eq "dbcreate" and print $out $info{$blurb}
	#or
	#$blurb eq "bind" and print $out
	$brief and
		$blurb .= "/brief";
	$t = $info{$blurb};
	if (! defined($t) || ! $t) {
		print $out qq@Sorry: no information on "$blurb".\n\n@;
		return(1);
	}
	bprint $out, $t;
	print "\n";
	return(1);

# yyy fix these verbose messages

my $yyyy = qq@
Called as "noid", an id generator accompanies every COMMAND.  Called as
"noi", the id generator is supplied implicitly by looking first for a
NOID environment variable and, failing that, for a file calld ".noid" in
the current directory.  Examples show the explicit form.  To create a
generator, use

	noid ck8 dbcreate TPL SNAA

where you replace TPL with a template that defines the shape and number
of all identifiers to be minted by this generator.  You replace SNAA with
the name (eg, the initials) of the sub NAA (Name Assigning Authority) that
will be responsible for this generator; for example, if the Online Archive
of California is the sub-authority for a template, SNAA could be "oac".
This example of generator intialization,

	noid oac.noid dbcreate pd2.wwdwwdc oac

sets up the "oac.noid" identifier generator.  It can create "nice opaque
identifiers", such as "pd2pq5dk9z", suitable for use as persistent
identifiers should the supporting organization wish to provide such a
level of commitment.  This generator is also capable of holding a simple
sequential counter (starting with 1), which some callers may wish to use
as an internal number to keep track of minted external identifiers.
[ currently accessible only via the count() routine ]

In the example template, "pd2" is a constant prefix for an identifier
generator capable of producing 70,728,100 identifiers before it runs out.
A template has the form "prefix.mask", where 'prefix' is a literal string
prepended to each identifier and 'mask' specifies the form of the generated
identifier that will appear after the prefix (but with no '.' between).
Mask characters are 'd' (decimal digit), 'w' (limited alpha-numeric
digit), 'c' (a generated check character that may only appear in the
terminal position).

Alternatively, if the mask contains an 's' (and no other letters), dbcreate
initializes a generator of sequential numbers.  Instead of seemingly random
creates sequentially generated number.  Use '0s'
to indicate a constant width number padded on the left with zeroes.
@;
	return(1);
}

sub init_help {

	# For convenient maintenance, we store individual topics in separate
	# array elements.  So as not to slow down script start up, we don't
	# pre-load anything.  In this way only the requester of help info,
	# who does not need speed for this purpose, pays for it.
	#
	@valid_helptopics = qw(
		intro all templates
	);
	push(@valid_helptopics, @valid_commands);
	%info = (
		'bind/brief' =>
q@
   noid bind How Id Element Value	# to bind an Id's Element, where
      How is set|add|insert|new|replace|mint|append|prepend|delete|purge.
      Use an Id of :idmap/Idpattern, Value=PerlReplacementPattern so that
      fetch returns variable values.  Use ":" as Element to read Elements
      and Values up to a blank line from stdin (up to EOF with ":-").
@,
		'bind' =>
q@@,
		'dbinfo/brief' =>
q@@,
		'dbinfo' =>
q@@,
		'dbcreate/brief' =>
q@
   noid dbcreate [ Template (long|-|short) [ NAAN NAA SubNAA ] ]
      where Template=prefix.Tmask, T=(r|s|z), and mask=string of (e|d|k)
@,

		'dbcreate' =>
q|
To create an identifier minter governed by Template and Term ("long" or "-"),

   noid dbcreate [ Template Term [ NAAN NAA SubNAA ] ]

The Template gives the number and form of generated identifiers.  Examples:

    .rddd        minter of random 3-digit numbers that stops after the 1000th
    .zd          sequential numbers without limit, adding new digits as needed
  bc.sdddd       sequential 4-digit numbers with constant prefix "bc"
    .rdedeede    .7 billion random ids, extended-digits at chars 2, 4, 5 and 7
  fk.rdeeek      .24 million random ids with prefix "fk" and final check char

For persistent identifiers, use "long" for Term, and specify the NAAN, NAA,
and SubNAA.  Otherwise, use "-" for Term or omit it.  The NAAN is a globally
registered Name Assigning Authority Number; for identifiers conforming to the
ARK scheme, this is a 5-digit number registered with ark@cdlib.org, or 00000.
The NAA is the character string equivalent registered for the NAAN; for
example, the NAAN, 13030, corresponds to the NAA, "cdlib.org".  The SubNAA
is also a character string, but it is a locally determined and possibly
structured subauthority string (e.g., "oac", "ucb/dpg", "practice_area") that
is not globally registered.
|,
		'fetch/brief' =>
q@
   noid fetch Id Element ...		# fetch/map one or more Elements
@,
		'fetch' =>
q@
To bind,

   noid bind replace fk0wqkb myGoto http://www.cdlib.org/foobar.html

sets "myGoto" element of identifier "fk0wqkb" to a string (here a URL).
@,
		'get/brief' =>
q@
   noid get Id Element ...		# fetch/map Elements without labels
@,
		'get' =>
q@@,
		'hello/brief' =>
q@@,
		'hello' =>
q@@,
		'hold/brief' =>
q@
   noid hold (set|release) Id ...	# place or remove a "hold" on Id(s)
@,
		'hold' =>
q@@,
		'mint/brief' =>
q@
   noid mint N [ Elem Value ]	# to mint N identifiers (optionally binding)
@,
		'mint' =>
q@@,
		'note/brief' =>
q@@,
		'note' =>
q@@,
		'peppermint/brief' =>
q@@,
		'peppermint' =>
q@@,
		'queue/brief' =>
q@
   noid queue (now|first|lvf|Time) Id ...	# queue (eg, recycle) Id(s)
      Time is NU, meaning N units, where U= d(ays) | s(econds).
      With "lvf" (Lowest Value First) lowest value of id will mint first.
@,
		'queue' =>
q@@,

		'validate/brief' =>
q@
   noid validate Template Id ...	# to check if Ids are valid
      Use Template of "-" to use the minter's native template.
@,
		'validate' =>
q@@,
	);
	return(1);
}

sub who_are_you { my( $web )=@_;

	my $user;
	if ($web) {
		$user = $ENV{'REMOTE_USER'} || '';
		my $host = $ENV{'REMOTE_HOST'} || $ENV{'REMOTE_ADDR'} || '';
		$user .= '@' . $host;
	}

	# Look up by REAL_USER_ID first.
	my ($name, undef, undef, $gid) = getpwuid($<);
	my $ugid = getlogin() || $name;
	! $ugid and
		return "";
	$ugid .= "/" . ((getgrgid($gid))[0] || "");

	# If EFFECTIVE_USER_ID differs from REAL_USER_ID, get its info too.
	if ($> ne $<) {
		($name, undef, undef, $gid) = getpwuid($>);
		! $name and
			return "";
		$ugid .= " ($name/" . ((getgrgid($gid))[0] || "") . ")";
	}
	$user = ($user ? "$user $ugid" : $ugid);
	return $user;
}

exit 0;

1;

# yyy Possible for 'c' mask char:
#	ASCII 33 to 126 (no SPACE, no DEL)  --> 94 (not prime)
#	MINUS the 5 chars:  / \ - % "       --> 89 (prime)
#    or MINUS the 5 chars:  / \ - % .       --> 89 (prime)
#    or MINUS the 5 chars:  / \ - % SPACE   --> 89 (prime)
#
# Note: current (1/2004) restrictions on ARKs are alphanums plus
#	= @ $ _ * + #
# with the following reserved for special purposes
#	/ . - %

# yyy noid example:  shuffle play (as in random song list)
# yyy bind is pair-wise or triple-wise?  (how to explain consistently)

# yyy add java class to distro
# yyy add pdf of doc to distro

__END__

=pod

=for roff
.nr PS 12p
.nr VS 14.4p

=head1 NAME

noid - nice opaque identifier generator commands

=head1 SYNOPSIS

B<noid> [ B<-f> I<Dbdir> ] [ B<-vh> ] I<Command> I<Arguments>

=head1 DESCRIPTION

The B<noid> utility creates minters (identifier generators) and accepts
commands that operate them.  Once created, a minter can be used to produce
persistent, globally unique names for documents, databases, images,
vocabulary terms, etc.  Properly managed, these identifiers can be used as
long term durable information object references within naming schemes such
as ARK, PURL, URN, DOI, and LSID.  At the same time, alternative minters
can be set up to produce short-lived names for transaction identifiers,
compact web server session keys, and other ephemera.

A B<noid> minter is a lightweight database designed for efficiently
generating, tracking, and binding unique identifiers, which are produced
without replacement in random or
sequential order, and with or without a check character that can be used
for detecting transcription errors.  A minter can bind identifiers to
arbitrary element names and element values that are either stored or
produced upon retrieval from rule-based transformations of requested
identifiers, the latter having application in identifier resolution.  Noid
minters are very fast, scalable, easy to create and tear down, and have a
relatively small footprint.  They use BerkeleyDB as the underlying database.

An identifier generated by a B<noid> minter is also known generically
as a "noid" (standing for nice opaque identifier and rhyming with void).
While a minter can record and bind any identifiers 
that you bring to its attention, often it is used to generate, bringing
to your attention, identifier strings that carry no widely recognizable
meaning.  This semantic opaqueness reduces their vulnerability to era-Z<>
and language-specific change, and helps persistence by making for
identifiers that can age and travel well.

The form, number, and intended longevity of a minter's identifiers are given
by a Template and a Term supplied when the generator database is created.
A supplied Term of "long" establishes extra restrictions and logging
appropriate for the support of persistent identifiers.  Across successive
minting operations, the generator "uses up" its namespace (the pool of
identifiers it is capable of minting) such that no identifier will ever be
generated twice unless the supplied Term is "short" and the namespace is
finite and completely exhausted.  The default Term is "medium".

The B<noid> utility parameters -- flags, I<Dbdir> (database location),
I<Command>, I<Arguments> -- are described later under COMMANDS AND MODES.
There are also sections covering persistence, templates, rule-based
mapping, URL interface, and name resolution.

=head1 TUTORIAL INTRODUCTION

Once the noid utility is installed, the command,

    noid dbcreate s.zd

will create a minter for an unlimited number of identifiers.
It produces a generator for medium term identifiers (the default) with
the Template, C<s.zd>, governing the order, number, and form of minted
identifier strings.  These identifiers will begin with the constant part
C<s> and end in a digit (the final C<d>), all within an unbounded sequential
(C<z>) namespace.  The TEMPLATES section gives a full explanation.
This generator will mint the identifiers, in order,

    s0, s1, s2, ..., s9, s10, ..., s99, s100, ...

and never run out.  To mint the first ten identifiers,

    noid mint 10

When you're done, on a UNIX platform you can remove that minter with

    rm -fr NOID

Now let's create a more complex minter.

    noid dbcreate f5.reedeedk long 13030 cdlib.org oac/cmp

This produces a generator for long term identifiers that begin with the
constant part C<13030/f5>.  Exactly 70,728,100 identifiers will be minted
before running out.

The 13030 parameter is the registered Name Assigning Authority Number
(NAAN) for the assigning authority known as "cdlib.org", and "oac/cmp"
is a string chosen by the person setting up this minter to identify the
project that will be operating it.  This particular minter generates
identifiers that start with the prefix C<f5> in the 13030 namespace.
If long term information retention is within the mission of your
organization (this includes national and university libraries and archives),
you may register for a globally unique NAAN by sending email to ark at
cdlib dot org.

Identifiers will emerge in "quasi-random" order, each consisting of six
characters matching up one-for-one with the letters C<eedeed>.

  noid mint 1

The first identifier should be C<13030/f54x54g11>, with the namespace
ranging from a low of C<13030/f5000000s> to a high of C<13030/f5zz9zz94>.
You can create a "locations" element under a noid and bind three URLs
to it with the command,

  noid bind set 13030/f54x54g11 locations \
    'http://a.b.org/foo|http://c.d.org/bar|http://e.f.org/zaf'

The template's final C<k> causes a computed check character to be added
to the end of every generated identifier.  It also accounts for why the
lowest and highest noids look a little odd on the end.  The final check
character allows detection of the most common transcription errors,
namely, incorrect entry of one character and the transposition of two
characters.  The next command takes three identifiers that someone
might ask you about and determines that, despite appearances, only the
first is in the namespace of this minter.

  noid validate - 13030/f54x54g11 13030/f54y54g11 \
    13030/f54x45g11

To make way for creation of another minter, you can move the entire
minter into a subdirectory with the command,

  mkdir f57 ; mv NOID f57

A minter may be set up on a web server, allowing the NAA organization
easily to distribute name assigment to trusted parties operating from
remote locations.  The URL INTERFACE section describes the procedure in
detail.  Once set up, you could mint one identifier by entering a URL such
as the following into your web browser:

  http://foo.ucop.edu/nd/noidu_f57?mint+1 

Using a different procedure, you can also make your identifier bindings
(e.g., location information) visible to the Internet via a few web server
configuration directives.  The NAME RESOLUTION section explains this further.

=head1 IDENTIFIER - AN ASSOCIATION SUPPORTED BY BINDINGS

An identifier is not a string of character data -- an identifier is an
association between a string of data and an object.  This abstraction
is necessary because without it a string is just data.  It's
nonsense to talk about a string's breaking, or about its being strong,
maintained, and authentic.  But as a representative of an association,
a string can do, metaphorically, the things that we expect of it.

Without regard to whether an object is physical, digital, or conceptual,
to identify it is to claim an association between it and a representative
string, such as "Jane" or "ISBN 0596000278".  What gives your claim
credibility is a set of verifiable assertions, or metadata, about the
object, such as age, height, title, or number of pages.  Verifiability is
outside the scope of the noid utility, but you can use a minter to record
assertions supporting an association by binding arbitrary named elements
and values to the identifier.  Noid database elements can be up to 4
gigabytes in length, and one noid minter is capable of recording billions
of identifiers.

You don't have to use the noid binding features at all if you prefer to
keep track of your metadata elsewhere, such as in a separate database
management system (DBMS) or on a sheet of paper.  In any case, for each
noid generated, the minter automatically stores its own lightweight
"circulation" record asserting who generated it and when.  If most of
your metadata is maintained in a separate database, the minter's own
records play a back up role, providing a small amount of redundancy that
may be useful in reconstructing database bindings that have become damaged.

An arbitrary database system can complement a noid minter without any
awareness or dependency on noids.  On computers, identifier bindings are
typically managed using methods that at some point map identifier strings
to database records and/or to filesystem entries (effectively using the
filesystem as a DBMS).  The structures and logistics for bindings
maintenance may reside entirely with the minter database, entirely outside
the minter database, or anywhere in between.  An individual organization
defines whatever maintenance configuration suits it.

=head1 PERSISTENCE

A persistent identifier is an identifier that an organization commits to
retain in perpetuity.  Associations, the I<sine qua non> of identifiers,
last only as long as they (in particular, their bindings) are maintained.
Often maintaining identifiers goes hand in hand with controlling the
objects to which they are bound.  No technology exists that automatically
manages objects and associations; persistence is a matter of service
commitment, tools that support that commitment, and information that
allows users receiving identifiers to make the best judgment regarding
an organization's ability and intention to maintain them.

It will be normal for organizations to maintain their own assertions
about identifiers that you issue, and vice versa.  In general there is
nothing to prevent discrepancies among sets of assertions.  Effectively,
the association -- the identifier -- is in the eye of the beholder.  As a
simple example, authors create bibliography entries for cited works, and
in that process they make their claims, often with small errors, about
such things as the author and title of the identified thing.  It is common
for a provider of an identifier-driven service such as digital object
retrieval to allow users to review its own, typically better-maintained
sets of identifier assertions (i.e., metadata), even if it minted none
of the identifiers
that it services.  We call such an organization a Name Mapping Authority
(NMA) because it "maps" identifiers to services.  It is possible for an
NMA to service identifiers even if it neither hosts nor controls any
objects.

It will also be normal for archiving organizations to maintain their own
peculiar ideas about what persistence means.  Different flavors will
exist even within one organization, where, for example, it may be
appropriate to apply corrections to persistent objects of one category,
to never change objects of another, and to remove objects of a third
category with a promise never to re-assign those objects' identifiers.
One institution will guarantee persistence for certain
things, while the strongest commitment made by some
prominent archives will be "reasonable effort".  Given the range of
possibilities, a memory organization will need to record not only the
identities but also the support policies for objects in its care.
Any database, including a noid minter, can be used for this purpose.

For persistence across decades or centuries, opinions regarding an
object's identity and commitments made to various copies of it will
tend naturally to become more diverse.  An object may have been inherited
through a chain of stewardship, subtle identity changes, and peaks of
renewed interest
stretching back to a completely unrelated and now defunct organization
that created and named it.  For its original identifier to have persisted
across the intervening years, it must look the same as when first minted.
At that particular time, global uniqueness required the minted identifier
to bear the imprint of the issuing organization (the NAA, or Name
Assigning Authority), which long ago ceased to have any responsibility
for its persistence.  There is thus no conflict in a mapping authority
(NMA) servicing identifiers that originate in many different assigning
authorities.

These notions of flavors of persistence and separation of name authority
function are built into the ARK (Archival Resource Key) identifier scheme
that the B<noid> utility was partly created to support.  By design, noid
minters also work within other schemes in recognition that persistence
has nothing to do with identifier syntax.  Opaque identifiers can be used
by any application needing to reduce the liability created when identifier
strings contain linguistic fragments that, however appropriate or even
meaningless they are today, may one day create confusion, give offense,
or infringe on a trademark as the semantic environment around us and our
communities evolves.  If employed for persistence, noid minters ease the
unavoidable costs of long term maintenance by having a small technical
footprint and by being implemented completely as open source software.
For more information on ARKs, please see L<http://ark.cdlib.org/> .

=head1 COMMANDS AND MODES

Once again, the overall utility summary is

=over 5

B<noid> [ B<-f> I<Dbdir> ] [ B<-vh> ] I<Command> I<Arguments>

=back

In all invocations, output is intended to be both human- and
machine-readable.  Batch operations are possible, allowing multiple
minting and binding commands within one invocation.  In particular,
if I<Command> is given as a "-" argument, then actual I<Commands>
are read in bulk from the standard input.

The string, I<Dbdir>, specifies the directory where the database resides.
To protect database coherence, it should not be located on a filesystem
such as NFS or AFS that doesn't support POSIX file locking semantics.
I<Dbdir> may be given with the B<NOID>
environment variable, overridable with the B<-f> option.  If those strings
are empty, the name or link name of the B<noid> executable (argv[0] for C
programmers) is checked to see if it reveals I<Dbdir>.  If that check
(described next) fails, I<Dbdir> is taken to be the current directory.

To check the name of the executable for I<Dbdir>, the final pathname
component (tail) is examined and split at the first "_" encountered.  If none,
the check fails.  Otherwise, the check is considered successful and the
latter half is taken as naming I<Dbdir> relative to the current directory.
This mechanism is designed for cases when it is inconvenient to specify
I<Dbdir> (such as in the URL interface) or when you are running several
minters at once.  As an example, F</usr/bin/noid_fk9> specifies a
I<Dbdir> of F<fk9>.

All files associated with a minter will be organized in a subdirectory,
F<NOID>, of I<Dbdir>; this has the consequence that there can be at most
one minter in a directory.  To allow B<noid> to create a new minter in
a directory already containing a F<NOID> subdirectory, remove or rename
the entire F<NOID> subdirectory.

The B<noid> utility may be run as a URL-driven web server application,
such as in a CGI that allows name assignment via remote operator.
If the executable begins B<noidu...>, the noid URL mode is in effect.
Input parameters, separated by a "+" sign, are expected to arrive
embedded in the query part of a URL, and output will be formatted
for display on an ordinary web browser.  An executable of B<noidu_xk4>,
for example, would turn on URL mode and set I<Dbdir> to F<xk4>.
This is further described under URL INTERFACE.

The B<noid> utility may be run as a name resolver running behind a web
server.  If the executable begins B<noidr...>, the noid resolver mode is
in effect, which means that commands will be read from the standard input
(as if only the "-" argument had been given) and the script output will
be unbuffered.  This mode is designed for machine interaction and is
intended to be operated by rewriting rules listed in a web server
configuration file as described later under NAME RESOLUTION AND
REDIRECTION INTERFACE.

At minter creation time, a report summarizing its properties is produced
and stored in the file, F<NOID/README>.  This report may be useful to the
organization articulating the operating policy of the minter.  In a formal
context, such as the creation of a minter for long term identifiers, that
organization is the Name Assigning Authority.

The B<-v> option prints the current version of the B<noid> utility and
B<-h> prints a help message.

In the I<Command> list below, capitalized symbols indicate values to be
replaced by the caller.
Optional arguments are in [brackets] and (A|B|C) means one of A or B or C.

=over 4

=item B<noid dbcreate> [ I<Template> [ I<Term> [ I<NAAN NAA SubZ<>NAA> ] ] ]

Create a database that will mint (generate) identifiers according to the
given Template and Term.  As a side-effect this causes the creation of
a directory, F<NOID>, within I<Dbdir>.  If you have several generators,
it may be convenient to operate each from within a I<Dbdir> that uniquely
identifies each Template; for example, you might change to a directory
that you named F<fk6> after the Template C<fk.rdeedde> ("fk" followed by
6 variable characters) of the minter that resides there.

The Term declares whether the identifiers are intended to be "long",
"medium" (the default), or "short".  A short term identifier minter is
the only one that will re-mint identifiers after the namespace is
exhausted, simply returning the oldest previously minted identifier.
As mentioned earlier, however, some namespaces are unbounded and never
run out of identifiers.

If Term is "long", the arguments NAAN, NAA, and SubZ<>NAA are required,
and all minted identifiers will be returned with the NAAN and a "/"
prepended to them.  The NAAN is a namespace identifier and should be a
globally unique Name Assigning Authority (NAA) number.  Apply for one
by email to ark@cdlib.org, or for testing purposes, use "00000" as a
non-unique NAAN.

The NAA argument is the character string equivalent for the NAAN; for
example, 13960 corresponds to the NAA, "archive.org".  The SubNAA argument
is also a character string, but is a locally determined and possibly
structured subauthority string (e.g., "oac", "ucb/dpg", "practice_area")
that is not globally registered.

If Template is not supplied, the minter freely binds any identifier that
you submit without validating it first.  In this case it also mints
medium term identifiers under the default Template, C<.zd>.

=item B<noid mint> I<N> [ I<Element Value> ]

Generate N identifiers.  If other arguments are specified, for each
generated noid, add the given Element and bind it to the given Value.
[Element-Value binding upon minting is not implemented yet.]

There is no "unmint" command.  Once an identifier has been circulated in
the outside world, it may be hard to withdraw because external users and
systems will have bound it with their own assertions.
Even within the minting organization, removing all of the identifier's
supporting bindings could entail actions such as file deletion that are
outside the scope of the minter.  While there is no command capable of
withdrawing a circulated identifier, it is nonetheless easy to B<queue>
an identifier for reminting and to B<hold> it against the possibility of
minting at all.  Identifiers that are long term should be treated as
non-renewable resources except when you are absolutely sure about
recycling them.

=item B<noid peppermint> I<N> [ I<Element Value> ]

[This command is not implemented yet.]
Generate N "peppered" identifiers.  A peppered identifier is a regular
identifier concatenated with a "!" character and a randomly generated
cookie -- the pepper -- which serves as a kind of per-identifier password.
(Salt is a technical term for some extra data that makes it harder to
crack encrypted values; we use pepper for some extra data that makes it
harder to crack unencrypted values.)  To provide an extra level of
database security, the base identifier, which is everything up to the "!",
should be used in all public communication, but the complete peppered
identifier is required for all noid operations that would change values
in the database.

As with the B<mint> command, if other arguments are specified, for each
generated noid, add the given Element and bind it to the given Value.

=item B<noid bind> I<How Id Element Value>

For the given Id, bind the Element to Value according to How.  The
Element and Value may be arbitrary strings.  There are two reserved
Element names allowing Values to be entered that are too large or
syntactically inconvenient (depending on the calling environment's
quoting restrictions) to pass in as command-line tokens.

If the Element is ":" and no Value is present, lines are read
from the standard input up to a blank line; they will contain
Element-colon-Value pairs in essentially email header format,
with long values continued on indented lines.  If the Element is ":-"
and no Value is present, lines are read from the standard input up
to end-of-file; the first non-comment, non-blank line must have an
Element-colon to specify an Element name, and all the remaining input
(up to EOF) is taken as its corresponding Value.  Lines beginning
with "#" are considered "comment" lines and are skipped.

=for later XXX test the "and no Value is present" in the both cases above

The I<How> argument specifies one of the following kinds of binding.
Of these, the B<set>, B<add>, B<insert>, and B<purge> kinds "don't care"
if there is no current binding.

=over 6

=item B<new>

Only if Element does not exist, create a new binding.

=item B<replace>

Only if Element exists, undo any old bindings and create a new binding.

=item B<set>

Means B<new> or, failing that, B<replace>.

=item B<append>

Only if Element exists, place Value at the end of the old binding.

=item B<add>

Means B<new> or, failing that, B<append>.

=item B<prepend>

Only if Element exists, place Value at the beginning of the old binding.

=item B<insert>

Means B<new> or, failing that, B<prepend>.

=item B<delete>

Remove any trace of Element, returning an error if it did not exist to
begin with.

=item B<purge>

Remove any trace of Element, returning success whether or not it existed
to begin with.

=item B<mint>

Means B<new>, but ignore the Id argument (actually, confirm that it
was given as B<new>) and mint a new Id first.

=item B<peppermint>

[This kind of binding is not implemented yet.]
Means B<new>, but ignore the Id argument (B<new>)
and peppermint a new Id first.

=back

The RULEZ<>-Z<>BASED MAPPING section explains how to set up retrieval
using non-stored values.

=item B<noid fetch> I<Id> [ I<Element> ... ]

For the noid, Id, print with labels all bindings for the given
Elements.  If no Element is given, find and print all bindings for the
given Id.  This is the verbose version of the B<get> command, in that it
prints headers and labels for everything it finds.

=item B<noid get> I<Id> [ I<Element> ... ]

For the noid, Id, print without labels all bindings for the given
Elements.  If no Element is given, find and print all bindings for the
given Id.  This is the quiet version of the B<fetch> command, in that it
suppresses all headers and labels.  Between each Element requested,
the output will be separated by a blank line.

=item B<noid hold> (B<set>|B<release>) I<Id> ...

Place or remove a B<hold> on one or more Ids.  A hold placed on an Id that
has not been minted will cause it to be skipped when its turn to be minted
comes around.  A hold placed on an Id that has been minted will make it
impossible to queue (typically for recycling).  Minters of long term
identifiers automatically place a hold on every minted noid.
Holds can be placed or removed manually at any time.

=item B<noid queue> (B<now>|B<first>|B<lvf>|I<Time>) I<Id> ...

Queue one or more Ids for minting.  Time is a number followed by units,
which can be B<d> for days or B<s> for seconds (the default units).  This
can be used to recycle noids B<now> or after a delay period.  With
B<first>, the Id(s) will be queued such that they will be minted before
any of the time-delayed entries.  With B<lvf> (Lowest Value First), the
lowest valued identifier (intended for use with numeric identifiers) will
be taken from the queue for minting before all others.  [ needs testing ]

=for comment XXX is lvf tested enough?

=item B<noid validate> (I<Template>|B<->) I<Id> ...

Validate one or more Ids against a given Template, which, if given as "-",
causes the minter's native I<Template> to be used.

=back

=head1 TEMPLATES

A Template is a coded string of the form Prefix.Mask that is given to
the noid B<dbcreate> command to govern how identifiers will be minted.
The Prefix, which may be empty, specifies an initial constant string.
For example, upon database creation, in the Template

  tb7r.zdd

the Prefix says that every minted identifier will begin with the literal
string C<tb7r>.  Each identifier will end in at least two digits (C<dd>),
and because of the C<z> they will be sequentially generated without limit.
Beyond the first 100 mint operations, more digits will be added as needed.
The minted noids will be, in order,

  tb7r00, tb7r01, ..., tb7r100, tb7r101, ..., tb7r1000, ...

The period (".") in the Template does not appear in the identifiers but
serves to separate the constant first part (Prefix) from the variable
second part (Mask).  In the Mask, the first letter determines either
random or sequential ordering and the remaining letters each match up
with characters in a generated identifier.  Perhaps the best way to
introduce templates is with a series of increasingly complex examples.

=over 12

=item C<.rddd>

to mint random 3-digit numbers, stopping after 1000th

=item C<.sdddddd>

to mint sequential 6-digit numbers, stopping after millionth

=item C<.zd>

sequential numbers without limit, adding new digits as needed
 
=item C<bc.rdddd>

random 4-digit numbers with constant prefix C<bc>

=item C<8rf.sdd>

sequential 2-digit numbers with constant prefix C<8rf>

=item C<.se>

sequential extended-digits (from 0123456789bcdfghjkmnpqrstvwxz)

=item C<h9.reee>

random 3-extended-digit numbers with constant prefix C<h9>

=item C<.zeee>

unlimited sequential numbers with at least 3 extended-digits

=item C<.rdedeedd>

random 7-char numbers, extended-digits at chars 2, 4, and 5

=item C<.zededede>

unlimited mixed digits, adding new extended-digits as needed

=item C<sdd.sdede>

sequential 4-mixed-digit numbers with constant prefix C<sdd>

=item C<.rdedk>

random 3 mixed digits plus final (4th) computed check character

=item C<.sdeeedk>

5 sequential mixed digits plus final extended-digit check char

=item C<.zdeek>

sequential digits plus check char, new digits added as needed

=item C<63q.redek>

prefix plus random 4 mixed digits, one of them a check char

=back

The first letter of the Mask, the generator type, determines the order
and boundedness of the namespace.  For example, in the Template C<.sddd>,
the Prefix is empty and the C<s> says that the namespace is sequentially
generated but bounded.  The generator type may be one of,

=over 4

=item C<r>

for quasi-randomly generated identifiers,

=item C<s>

for sequentially generated identifiers, limited in length and
number by the length of the Mask,

=item C<z>

for sequentially generated identifiers, unlimited in length or
number, re-using the most significant mask character (the second
character of the Mask) as needed.

=back

Although the order of minting is not obvious for C<r> type minters,
it is "quasi-random" in the sense that on your machine a minter created
with the same Template will always produce the same sequence of noids
over its lifetime.  Quasi-random is a shade more predictable than
pseudo-random (which, techically, is as random as computers get).
This is a feature designed to help noid managers in case they are
forced to start minting again from scratch; they simply process their
objects over in the same order as before to recover the original
assignments.

After the generator type, the rest of the Mask determines the form of
the non-Prefix part, matching up letter-for-character with each generated
noid character (an exception for the C<z> case is described below).
In the case of the Template C<xv.sdddd>, the last four C<d> Mask characters
say that all identifiers will end with four digits, so the last identifier
in the namespace is C<xv9999>.

When C<z> is used, the namespace is unbounded and therefore identifiers
will eventually need to grow in length.  To accommodate the growth, the
second character (C<e> or C<d>) of the Mask will be repeated as often as
needed; for instance, when all 4-digit numbers are used up, a 5th digit
will be added.  After the generator type character, Mask characters have
the following meanings:

=over 4

=item C<d>

a pure digit, one of { 0123456789 }

=item C<e>

an "extended digit", one of { 0123456789bcdfghjkmnpqrstvwxz }
(lower case only)

=item C<k>

a computed extended digit check character;
if present, it must be the final Mask character

=back

The set of extended digits is designed to help create more compact
noids (a larger namespace for the same length of identifier) and
discourage "accidental semantics", namely, the introduction of strings that
have unintended but commonly recognized meanings.  Opaque identifiers are
desirable in many situations and the absence of vowels in extended digits
is a step in that direction.  To reduce visual mismatches, there is also
no letter "l" (ell) because it is often mistaken for the digit "1".

The optional C<k> Mask character, which may only appear at the end, enables
detection of cases when a single character is mistyped and when two
adjacent characters have been transposed -- the most common transcription
errors.  A final C<k> in the Mask will cause a check character to be
appended after first computing it on the entire identifier generated so
far, including the NAAN if one was specified at database creation time.
For example, the final digit C<1> in

        13030/f54x54g11 

was first computed over the string C<13030/f54x54g1> and then added to the end.

=head1 RULEZ<>-Z<>BASED MAPPING

Any Element may be bound to a class of Ids such that retrieval
against that Element for any Id in the class returns a computed value when
no stored value exists.  The class of Ids is specified via a regular
expression (Perl-style) that will be checked for a match against Ids
submitted via a retrieval operation (B<get> or B<fetch>) that names any
Element bound in this manner.  If the match succeeds, the element Value
that was bound with the Id class is used as the right-hand side of a Perl
substitution, and the resulting transformation is returned.  We call this
rule-based mapping, and it is probably best explained by working through
the examples below.

To set up rule-based mapping for an Id class, construct a B<bind> operation
with an Id of the form C<:idmap/>I<Idpattern>, where I<Idpattern> is a Perl
regular expression.  Then choose an Element name that you wish to have
trigger the pattern match check whenever that Element is requested via a
retrieval operation and a stored value does NOT exist; any Element will
work as long as you use it for both binding and retrieving.  Finally,
specify a Value to be used as replacement text that transforms matching
Ids into computed values via a Perl s/// substitution.  As a simple example,

    noid bind set :idmap/^ft redirect g7h

would cause any subsequent retrieval request against the Element named
"redirect" to try pattern matching when no stored value is found.
If the Id begins with "ft", it would then try to replace the "ft" with
"g7h" and return the result as if it were a stored value.  So if the Id
were C<ft89xr2t>, the command

   noid get ft89xr2t redirect

would return C<g7h89xr2t>.  Fancier substitutions are possible, including
replacement patterns that reference subexpressions in the original
matching I<Idpattern>.  For example, the second command below,

   noid bind set ':idmap/^ft([^x]+)x(.*)' my_elem '$2/g7h/$1'
   noid get ft89xr2t my_elem

would return C<r2t/g7h/89>.  For ease of implementation, internally this kind
of binding is stored and reported (which can be confusing) as the special
noid, C<:idmap/>I<Element>, under element name I<Idpattern>.

=head1 URL INTERFACE

Any number of minters can be operated behind a web server from a browser
or any tool that activates URLs.  This section describes a one-time set up
procedure to make your server aware of minters, followed by another set up
procedure for each minter.  The one-time procedure involves creating a
directory in your web server document tree where you will place one or
more noid minter databases.  In this example, the directory is F<htdocs/nd>
and we'll assume the B<noid> script was originally installed in
F</usr/local/bin>.

        mkdir htdocs/nd
        cp -p /usr/local/bin/noid htdocs/nd/

The second command above creates an executable copy of the noid script
that will be linked to for each minter you intend to expose to the web.
To make your server recognize such links, include the line

 ScriptAliasMatch ^/nd/noidu(.*) "/srv/www/htdocs/nd/noidu$1"

in your server configuration file and restart the server before trying the
commands that follow.  If you did not install the supporting F<Noid.pm>
module normally, you may also have to store a copy of it next to the script.
This completes the one-time server set up.

Thereafter, for each minter that you wish to expose, it must first be
allowed to write to its own database when invoked via the web server.
Because it will be running under a special user at that time, before you
create it, first become the user that your server runs under.  In this
example that user is "wwwrun".

        cd htdocs/nd
        su wwwrun
        noid dbcreate kt.reeded
        mkdir kt5
        mv NOID kt5/
        ln noid noidu_kt5

The third command above creates a minter for noids beginning with
C<kt> followed by 5 characters.  The minter is then moved into its own
directory within F<htdocs/nd>.  Finally, the last command makes a hard
link (not a soft link) to the noid script, which for this minter will
be invoked under the name B<noidu_kt5>.

The URL interface is similar to the command line interface, but
I<Commands> are passed in via the query string of a URL where by
convention a plus sign ("+") is used instead of spaces to separate
arguments.  You will likely want to set up access restrictions (e.g.,
with an F<.htaccess> file) so that only the parties you designate
can generate identifiers.  There is also no B<dbcreate> command
available from the URL interface.

To mint one identifier, you could enter the following URL into your
web browser, but replace "foo.ucop.edu" with your server's name:

    http://foo.ucop.edu/nd/noidu_kt5?mint+1 

Reload to mint again. If you change the 1 to 20, you get twenty new and
different noids.

    http://foo.ucop.edu/nd/noidu_kt5?mint+20 

To bind some data to an element called "myGoto" under one of the noids
already minted, 

    http://foo.ucop.edu/nd/noidu_kt5?
        bind+set+13030/kt639k9+myGoto+http://foo.ucsd.edu/ 

In this case we stored a URL in "myGoto".  This kind of convention can
underly a redirection mechanism that is part of an organization's overall
identifier resolution strategy.  To retrieve that stored data, 

  http://foo.ucop.edu/nd/noidu_kt5?get+13030/kt639k9+myGoto 

Bulk operations can be performed over the web by invoking the URL with a
query string of just "-", which will cause the minter to look for noid
commands, one per line, in the POST data part of the HTTP request.  If
you put noid commands in a file F<myCommands> and run the Unix utility

  curl --data-binary @myCommands \
    'http://foo.ucop.edu/nd/noidu_kt5?-'

you could, for example, change the "myGoto" bindings for 500 noids
in that one shell command.  The output from each command in the file
will be separated from the next (on the standard output) by a blank line.

=head1 NAME RESOLUTION AND REDIRECTION INTERFACE

In a URI context, I<name resolution> is a computation, sometimes
multi-stage, that translates a name into associated information of a
particular type, often another name or an address.  A I<resolver> is
a system that can perform one or more stages of a resolution.  Noid
minters can be set up as resolvers.

In our case, we're interested in automatically translating access
requests for each of a number of identifiers into requests for another
kind of identifier.  This is one tool in the persistent access strategy
for naming schemes such as URL, ARK, PURL, Handle, DOI, and URN.  You
can use a noid minter to bind a second name to each identifier, even
to identifiers that the minter did not generate.  In principle, this
will work with names from any scheme.

With web browsers, a central mechanism for name resolution is known as the
server redirect, and mainstream web servers can easily be configured to
redirect a half million different names without suffering in performance.
You might choose not to use native web server redirects if you require
resolution of several million names, or if you require software and
infrastructure for non-URL-based names.  Whatever your choice, maintaining
a table that maps the first name to the second is an unavoidable burden.

As with the URL interface, any number of resolvers (minters underneath)
can be operated behind a web server from a browser or a tool that
activates URLs.  This section describes a one-time set up procedure to
make your server aware of resolvers, followed by another set up procedure
for each resolver.  The one-time procedure involves creating a directory
in your web server document tree where you will place one or more noid
resolver databases.  In this example (and in the previous example),
we use F<htdocs/nd>:

        mkdir htdocs/nd
        cp -p /usr/local/bin/noid htdocs/nd/

The second command above creates an executable copy of the noid script
that will be linked to for each resolver you intend to expose.  To make
your server recognize such links, include the line (this is slightly
different from the similar line in the previous section),

 ScriptAliasMatch ^/nd/noidr(.*) "/srv/www/htdocs/nd/noidr$1"

in your server configuration file.  If you did not install the supporting
F<Noid.pm> module normally, you may also have to store a copy of it next
to the script.  Then include the following lines in the configuration file;
they form the start of a rewriting rule section that you will add to later
for each resolver that you set up.

        RewriteEngine on
        # These next two files and their containing
        # directory should be owned by "wwwrun".
        RewriteLock   /var/log/rewrite/lock
        RewriteLog    /var/log/rewrite/log
        ## RewriteLogLevel 9

The non-comment lines above initialize the rewriting system, identify the
lock file used to synchronize access to the resolver, and identify the log
file which can help in finalizing the exact rewrite rules that you use;
disable logging with the default RewriteLogLevel value of 0, or set it as
high as 9, with higher numbers producing more detailed information.
This completes the one-time server set up for resolvers.

Thereafter, for each resolver that you wish to run, you need to set up
a noid database and create a link of the form B<noidr...> so that the
noid script can be invoked in resolution mode.  Unlike the URL interface,
the resolution interface does not itself mint from the underlying minter.
A separate URL interface may still be set up to mint and bind identifiers
in the resolver database, or minting and binding can take place off the net.

In what follows, we will assume that you have set up a noid database with
the same location and template as in the previous section.  As before, the
server is assumed to run under the user "wwwrun" and the database resides
in F<htdocs/nd/kt5>.  As if our intentions included persistent identification,
the minter in this example is for generating long term identifiers.

        cd htdocs/nd
        noid dbcreate kt.reeded long 13030 cdlib.org dpg
        mkdir kt5
        mv NOID kt5/
        ln noid noidr_kt5

The last command makes a new hard link (not a soft link) to the noid
script, which for this resolver will be invoked under the name B<noidr_kt5>.
The resolution interface is not called by a URL directly, but is invoked
once upon server startup, where the B<noidr...> prefix tells it to run in
resolution mode.  In this mode it loops, waiting for and responding to
individual resolution attempts from the server itself.

To set up an individual resolver, define a Rewrite Map followed by a set
of Rewrite Rules.  This is done using server configuration file lines as
shown in the next example.  As with any change to the file, you will need
to restart the server before it will have the desired effect.

 # External resolution; start program once on server start
 RewriteMap  rslv           prg:/srv/www/htdocs/nd/noidr_kt5
 # Main lookup; add artificial prefix for subsequent testing
 RewriteRule ^/ark:/(13030/.*)$ "_rslv_${rslv:get $1 myGoto}"

 # Test: redirect [R] if it looks like a redirect
 RewriteRule ^_rslv_([^:]*://.*)$    $1 [R]
 # Test: strip prefix; pass through [PT] if intended for us
 RewriteRule ^_rslv_(/.*)$           $1 [PT]
 # Test: restore value if lookup failed; let come what may
 RewriteRule ^_rslv_$                %{REQUEST_URI}
 # Alternative: redirect failed lookup to a global resolver

When a request received by the server matches a Rewrite Rule, an attempt
to resolve it via the running B<noidr...> script is made.  In this example,
we will need to have bound a string representing a URL to the value for
the fixed element name "myGoto" under each identifier that we wish to be
resolvable.  Building on the example from the previous section, assume the
element "myGoto" holds the same URL as before for the noid C<13030/kt639k9>.
A browser retrieval request made by entering or clicking on

        http://foo.ucop.edu/ark:/13030/kt639k9

would then result in a server redirect to

        http://foo.ucsd.edu/ 

The resolution result for an identifier is whatever the B<get> returns,
which could as easily have retrieved a stored value as a rule-based
value (allowing you to redirect many similar identifiers with one rule).

This approach to resolution does not address resolver discovery.
An identifier found in the wild need not easily reveal whether it is
actionable or resolvable, let alone which system or resolver to ask.
The usual strategy for contemporary (web era) identifier schemes relies
on well-known, scheme-dependent resolvers and web proxying of identifiers
embedded in URLs.  For example, global resolution for a non-proxied URN
or Handle uses an undisclosed internet address, hard-coded into the
resolver program, from which to start the resolution process.  An ARK,
PURL, or proxied Handle or URN tend to rely on a disclosed starting point.
Whatever method is used for discovery, a noid resolver can in principle
be used to resolve identifiers from any scheme.

=head1 NOID CHECK DIGIT ALGORITHM

The following describes the Noid Check Digit Algorithm (NCDA).  Digits
in question are actually "extended digits", or I<xdigits>, which form
an ordered set of I<R> digits and characters.  This set has radix I<R>.
In the examples below, we use a specific set of I<R=29> xdigits.

When applied to substrings of well-formed identifiers, where the length
of the substring is less than I<R>, the NCDA is "perfect" for single digit
and transposition errors, by far the most common user transcription errors
(see David Bressoud, Stan Wagon, "Computational Number Theory, 2000, Key
College Publishing").  The NCDA is complemented by well-formedness rules
that confirm the placement of constant data, including fixed labels and
any characters that are not extended digits.  After running the NCDA on
the selected substring, the resulting check digit, an xdigit actually,
is used either for comparing with a received check digit or for appending
to the substring prior to issuing the identifier that will contain it.

For the algorithm to work, the substring in question must be less than
I<R> characters.  The extended digit set used in the current instance is
a sequence of I<R=29> printable characters defined as follows:

    xdigit:  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  b  c  d  f  g
     value:  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14

    xdigit:  h  j  k  m  n  p  q  r  s  t  v  w  x  z
     value: 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Each xdigit in the identifier has the corresponding ordinal value shown.
Any character not in the xdigit set is considered in the algorithm to
have an ordinal value of zero.

A check digit is an xdigit computed from the base substring and then
appended to form the "checked substring" (less than I<R+1> characters long).
To determine if a received identifier has been corrupted by a single
digit or transposition error, the relevant substring is extracted and
its last character is compared to the result of the same computation
performed on the preceding substring characters.

The computation has two steps.  Consider a base substring (no check
digit appended) such as

C<    13030/xf93gt2        >(base substring)

Step 1.  Check that the substring is well-formed, that is, that all
non-xdigit characters (often constant character data) are exactly
where expected; if not, the substring is not well-formed and the
computation aborts.  (This step is required to accommodate characters
such as "/" that contribute nothing to the overall computation.)

Step 2.  Multiply each character's ordinal value by its position number
(starting at position 1), and sum the products.  For example,

 char: 1   3   0   3   0   /   x   f   9   3   g   t   2
  ord: 1   3   0   3   0   0  27  13   9   3  14  24   2
  pos: 1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13
 prod: 1 + 6 + 0 +12 + 0 + 0+189+104 +81 +30+154+288 +26=891

Step 3.  The check digit is the xdigit whose ordinal value is that sum
modulo I<R> (divide the sum by I<R> and take the remainder).

In the example, I<891 = 21> mod I<R> (29) and so the check digit is C<q>.
This is appended to obtain the "checked substring", which is

C<    13030/xf93gt2q	   >(substring with check digit appended)

What follows is a two-part proof that this algorithm is "perfect" with
respect to single digit and transposition errors.

B<Lemma 1:>  The NCDA is guaranteed against single-character errors.

Proof:  We must prove that if two strings differ in one single character,
then the check digit (xdigit) also differs.  If the I<n>-th xdigit's
ordinal is I<d> in one string and I<e> in another, the sums of products
differ only by

   (... + nd + ...) - (... + ne + ...) = n(d - e)

The check digits differ only if I<n(d - e)> is not I<0> mod I<R>.  Assume
(contrapositively) that I<n(d - e)> does equal I<0> mod I<R>.  First, we
know that I<n(d - e)> is not zero because I<n> is positive and I<d> is
different from I<e>.  Therefore, there must be at least one positive
integer I<i> such that

   n(d - e) = Ri     =>     (n/i)(d - e) = R

Now, because I<R> is prime,

   either   (a)  n/i = 1    and   d - e = R
   or       (b)  n/i = R    and   d - e = 1

But (a) cannot hold because xdigit ordinals differ by at most I<R-1>.
This leaves (b), which implies that there is an integer I<i = n/R>.
But since I<R> is prime and I<n> (a position number) is a positive
integer less than I<R>, then I<S<0 E<lt> i E<lt> 1>>, which cannot be true.
So the check digits must differ.

B<Lemma 2:>  The NCDA is guaranteed against transposition of two single
characters.

Proof:  Non-contributing characters (non-xdigits) transposed with other
characters will be detected in Step 1 when checking the constraints for
well-formedness (e.g., the "/" must be at position 6 and only at position
6).  Therefore we need only consider transposition of two xdigit
characters.  We must prove that if one string has an xdigit of ordinal
I<e> in position I<i> and an xdigit of ordinal I<d> in position I<j>,
and if another string is the same except for having I<d> in position I<i>
and I<e> in position I<j>, then the check digits also differ.  The sums
of the products differ by

   (... + ie + ... + jd + ...) - (... + id + ... + je + ...)
       = (ie + jd) - (id + je) = e(i - j) + d(j - i)
       =  d(j - i) - e(j - i)  = n(d - e)

where I<< n = j - i > 0 >> and I<< n < R >>.  The check digits differ
only if I<n(d - e) = 0> mod I<R>.  This reduces to the central statement
of Lemma 1, which has been proven.

=head1 TO DO

Add features that are documented but not implemented yet:  Element-Value
binding upon minting; the B<peppermint> command.  The B<append> and
B<prepend> kinds of binding currently have string-level semantics
(new data is added as characters to an existing element); should there
also be list-level semantics (new data added as an extra subelement)?

Add extra options for B<dbcreate>.  An option to specify one or more
identifier labels to strip from requests, and one canonical label to
add upon minting and reporting.  An option to set the initial seed for
quasi-random ordering.  Utilize the granular BerkeleyDB transaction and
locking protection mechanisms.

Extend the Template Mask to allow for other character repertoires with
prime numbers of elements.  These would trade a some eye-friendliness
for much more compact identifiers (cf. UUID/GUID), possibly also a way
of asking that the last character of the repertoire only appear in the
check character (e.g., for i and x below).

 { 0-9 x }			 cardinality 11, mask char i
 { 0-9 a-f _ }			 cardinality 17, mask char x
 { 0-9 a-z _ }			 cardinality 37, mask char v
 { 1-9 b-z B-Z } - {l, vowels}	 cardinality 47, mask char E
 { 0-9 a-z A-Z # * + @ _ }	 cardinality 67, mask char w
 Visible ASCII - { % - . / \ } 	 cardinality 89, mask char c

Add support for simple file management associated with identifiers.
For example, minting (and reminting) the noid C<xv8t984> could result in
the creation (and re-creation) of a corresponding canonical directory
C<xv/8t/98/4/>.

=head1 BETA SOFTWARE

This utility is in the beta phase of development.  It is open source
software written in the Perl scripting language with strictest type,
value, and security checking enabled.  While its readiness for
long term application is still being evaluated, it comes with a
growing suite of regression tests (currently about 250).

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2002-2006 UC Regents.  BSD-type open source license.

=head1 BUGS

Under case-insensitive file systems (e.g., Mac OS X), there is a chance
for conflicts between the directory name F<NOID>, script name F<noid>,
and module documentation requested (via perldoc) as F<Noid>.

Not yet platform-independent.

Please report bugs to jak at ucop dot edu.

=head1 FILES

=over 17

=item F<NOID>

directory containing all database files related to a minter

=item F<NOID/noid.bdb>

the BerkeleyDB database file at the heart of a minter

=item F<NOID/README>

the creation record containing minter analysis details

=back

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<dbopen(3)>, L<perl(1)>, L<uuidgen(1)>, L<http://www.cdlib.org/inside/diglib/ark/>

=head1 AUTHORS

John A. Kunze, Michael A. Russell

=head1 PREREQUISITES

Perl Modules: L<Noid>, L<BerkeleyDB>, L<Config>, L<Text::ParseWords>,
L<Getopt::Long>, L<Fcntl>, L<Sys::Hostname>

Script Categories:

=pod SCRIPT CATEGORIES

CGI
UNIX : System_administration
Web

=cut