package Object::Declare;

use 5.006;
use strict;
use warnings;

our $VERSION = '0.24';

sub import
{
    my $class = shift;
    my %args  = ( ( @_ and ref( $_[0] ) ) ? ( mapping => $_[0] ) : @_ )
        or return;
    my $from = caller;

    my $mapping    = $args{mapping} or return;
    my $aliases    = $args{aliases}    || {};
    my $declarator = $args{declarator} || ['declare'];
    my $copula     = $args{copula}     || [ 'is', 'are' ];

    # Both declarator and copula can contain more than one entries;
    # normalize into an arrayref if we only have on entry.
    $mapping    = [$mapping]    unless ref($mapping);
    $declarator = [$declarator] unless ref($declarator);
    $copula     = [$copula]     unless ref($copula);

    if ( ref($mapping) eq 'ARRAY' )
    {
        # rewrite "MyApp::Foo" into simply "foo"
        $mapping = {
            map {
                my $helper = $_;
                $helper =~ s/.*:://;
                ( lc($helper) => $_ );
            } @$mapping
        };
    }

    # Convert mapping targets into instantiation closures
    if ( ref($mapping) eq 'HASH' )
    {
        foreach my $key ( keys %$mapping )
        {
            my $val = $mapping->{$key};
            next if ref($val);    # already a callback, don't bother
            $mapping->{$key} = sub { scalar( $val->new(@_) ) };
        }
    }

    if ( ref($copula) eq 'ARRAY' )
    {
        # add an empty prefix to all copula
        $copula = { map { $_ => '' } @$copula };
    }

    # Install declarator functions into caller's package, remembering
    # the mapping and copula set for this declarator.
    foreach my $sym (@$declarator)
    {
        ## no critic (ProhibitNoStrict)
        no strict 'refs';

        *{"$from\::$sym"} = sub (&) {
            unshift @_, ( $mapping, $copula, $aliases );
            goto &_declare;
        };
        ## use critic
    }

    # Establish prototypes (same as "use subs") so Sub::Override can work
    {
        ## no critic (ProhibitNoStrict)
        no strict 'refs';
        _predeclare(
            ( map { "$from\::$_" } keys %$mapping ),
            ( map { ( "UNIVERSAL::$_", "$_\::AUTOLOAD" ) } keys %$copula ),
        );
        ## use critic
    }
}

# Same as "use sub".  All is fair if you predeclare.
sub _predeclare
{
## no critic (ProhibitNoStrict)
    no strict 'refs';
    no warnings 'redefine';
    foreach my $sym (@_)
    {
        *$sym = \&$sym;
    }
    ## use critic
}

sub _declare
{
    my ( $mapping, $copula, $aliases, $code ) = @_;
    my $from = caller;

    # Table of collected objects.
    my @objects;

    # Establish a lexical extent for overrided symbols; they will be
    # restored automagically upon scope exit.
    my %subs_replaced;
    my $replace = sub {
        ## no critic (ProhibitNoStrict)
        no strict 'refs';
        no warnings 'redefine';
        my ( $sym, $code ) = @_;

        # Do the "use subs" predeclaration again before overriding, because
        # Sub::Override cannot handle empty symbol slots.  This is normally
        # redundant (&import already did that), but we do it here anyway to
        # guard against runtime deletion of symbol table entries.
        _predeclare($sym);

        # Now replace the symbol for real.
        $subs_replaced{$sym} ||= *$sym{CODE};
        *$sym = $code;
        ## use critic
    };

    # In DSL (domain-specific language) mode; install AUTOLOAD to handle all
    # unrecognized calls for "foo is 1" (which gets translated to "is->foo(1)",
    # and UNIVERSAL to collect "is foo" (which gets translated to "foo->is".
    # The arguments are rolled into a Katamari structure for later analysis.
    while ( my ( $sym, $prefix ) = each %$copula )
    {
        $replace->(
            "UNIVERSAL::$sym" => sub {

                # Turn "is some_field" into "some_field is 1"
                my ( $key, @vals ) =
                    ref($prefix) ? $prefix->(@_) : ( $prefix . $_[0] => 1 )
                    or return;

                # If the copula returns a ready-to-use katamari object,
                # don't try to roll it by ourself.
                return $key
                    if ref($key) && ref($key) eq 'Object::Declare::Katamari';
                $key = $aliases->{$key} if $aliases and exists $aliases->{$key};
                unshift @vals, $key;
                bless( \@vals => 'Object::Declare::Katamari' );
            }
        );
        $replace->(
            "$sym\::AUTOLOAD" => sub {

                # Handle "some_field is $some_value"
                shift;

                my $field = our $AUTOLOAD;
                return if $field =~ /DESTROY$/;

                $field =~ s/^\Q$sym\E:://;

                my ( $key, @vals ) =
                    ref($prefix)
                    ? $prefix->( $field, @_ )
                    : ( $prefix . $field => @_ )
                    or return;

                $key = $aliases->{$key} if $aliases and exists $aliases->{$key};
                unshift @vals, $key;
                bless( \@vals, 'Object::Declare::Katamari' );
            }
        );
    }

    my @overridden = map { "$from\::$_" } keys %$mapping;

    # Now install the collector symbols from class mappings
    my $toggle_subs = sub {
        foreach my $sym (@overridden)
        {
            ## no critic (ProhibitNoStrict)
            no strict 'refs';
            no warnings 'redefine';
            ( $subs_replaced{$sym}, *$sym ) =
                ( *$sym{CODE}, $subs_replaced{$sym} );
            ## use critic
        }
    };

    while ( my ( $sym, $build ) = each %$mapping )
    {
        $replace->(
            "$from\::$sym" => _make_object( $build => \@objects, $toggle_subs )
        );
    }

    # Let's play Katamari!
    &$code;

    # Restore overriden subs
    while ( my ( $sym, $code ) = each %subs_replaced )
    {
        ## no critic (ProhibitNoStrict)
        no strict 'refs';
        no warnings 'redefine';
        *$sym = $code;
        ## use critic
    }

    # In scalar context, returns hashref; otherwise preserve ordering
    return ( wantarray ? @objects : {@objects} );
}

# Make a star from the Katamari!
sub _make_object
{
    my ( $build, $schema, $toggle_subs ) = @_;

    return sub {

        # Restore overriden subs
        ## no critic (ProhibitNoStrict)
        no strict 'refs';
        no warnings 'redefine';
        ## use critic

        my $name   = ( ref( $_[0] ) ? undef : shift );
        my $args   = \@_;
        my $damacy = bless(
            sub {
                $toggle_subs->();

                my $rv = $build->(
                    ( $_[0] ? ( name => $_[0] ) : () ),
                    map { $_->unroll } @$args
                );

                $toggle_subs->();

                return $rv;
            } => 'Object::Declare::Damacy'
        );

        if (wantarray)
        {
            return ($damacy);
        }
        else
        {
            push @$schema, $name => $damacy->($name);
        }
    };
}

package Object::Declare::Katamari;

use overload "!" => \&negation, fallback => 1;

sub negation
{
    my @katamari = @{ $_[0] } or return ();
    $katamari[1] = !$katamari[1];
    return bless( \@katamari, ref( $_[0] ) );
}

# Unroll a Katamari structure into constructor arguments.
sub unroll
{
    my @katamari = @{ $_[0] }      or return ();
    my $field    = shift @katamari or return ();
    my @unrolled;

    unshift @unrolled, pop(@katamari)->unroll
        while ref( $katamari[-1] ) eq __PACKAGE__;

    if ( @katamari == 1 )
    {
        # single value: "is foo"
        if ( ref( $katamari[0] ) eq 'Object::Declare::Damacy' )
        {
            $katamari[0] = $katamari[0]->($field);
        }
        return ( $field => @katamari, @unrolled );
    }
    else
    {
        # Multiple values: "are qw( foo bar baz )"
        foreach my $kata (@katamari)
        {
            $kata = $kata->() if ref($kata) eq 'Object::Declare::Damacy';
        }
        return ( $field => \@katamari, @unrolled );
    }
}

1;

__END__

=pod

=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Object::Declare - Declarative object constructor

=head1 VERSION

version 0.25

=head1 SYNOPSIS

    use Object::Declare ['MyApp::Column', 'MyApp::Param'];

    my %objects = declare {

    param foo =>
       !is global,
        is immutable,
        valid_values are qw( more values );

    column bar =>
        field1 is 'value',
        field2 is 'some_other_value',
        sub_params are param( is happy ), param ( is sad );

    };

    print $objects{foo}; # a MyApp::Param object
    print $objects{bar}; # a MyApp::Column object

    # Assuming that MyApp::Column::new simply blesses into a hash...
    print $objects{bar}{sub_params}[0]; # a MyApp::Param object
    print $objects{bar}{sub_params}[1]; # a MyApp::Param object

=head1 DESCRIPTION

This module exports one function, C<declare>, for building named
objects with a declarative syntax, similar to how L<Jifty::DBI::Schema>
defines its columns.

In list context, C<declare> returns a list of name/object pairs in the
order of declaration (allowing duplicates), suitable for putting into a hash.
In scalar context, C<declare> returns a hash reference.

Using a flexible C<import> interface, one can change exported helper
functions names (I<declarator>), words to link labels and values together
(I<copula>), and the table of named classes to declare (I<mapping>):

    use Object::Declare
        declarator  => ['declare'],     # list of declarators
        copula      => {                # list of words, or a map
            is  => '',                  #  from copula to label prefixes,
            are => '',                  #  or to callback that e.g. turns
            has => sub { has => @_ },   #  "has X" to "has is X" and
                                        #  "X has 1" to "has is [X => 1]"
        },
        aliases     => {                # list of label aliases:
            more => 'less',             #  turns "is more" into "is less"
                                        #  and "more is 1" into "less is 1"
        },
        mapping     => {
            column => 'MyApp::Column',  # class name to call ->new to
            param  => sub {             # arbitrary coderef also works
                bless(\@_, 'MyApp::Param');
            },
        };

After the declarator block finishes execution, all helper functions are
removed from the package.  Same-named functions (such as C<&is> and C<&are>)
that existed before the declarator's execution are restored correctly.

=head1 NOTES

If you export the declarator to another package via C<@EXPORT>, be sure
to export all mapping keys as well.  For example, this will work for the
example above:

    our @EXPORT = qw( declare column param );

But this will not:

    our @EXPORT = qw( declare );

The copula are not turned into functions, so there is no need to export them.

=head1 AUTHORS

Audrey Tang E<lt>cpan@audreyt.orgE<gt>

=head1 COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2006, 2007 by Audrey Tang <cpan@audreyt.org>.

This software is released under the MIT license cited below.

=head2 The "MIT" License

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING
FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

=for :stopwords cpan testmatrix url bugtracker rt cpants kwalitee diff irc mailto metadata placeholders metacpan

=head1 SUPPORT

=head2 Websites

The following websites have more information about this module, and may be of help to you. As always,
in addition to those websites please use your favorite search engine to discover more resources.

=over 4

=item *

MetaCPAN

A modern, open-source CPAN search engine, useful to view POD in HTML format.

L<https://metacpan.org/release/Object-Declare>

=item *

RT: CPAN's Bug Tracker

The RT ( Request Tracker ) website is the default bug/issue tracking system for CPAN.

L<https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Object-Declare>

=item *

CPANTS

The CPANTS is a website that analyzes the Kwalitee ( code metrics ) of a distribution.

L<http://cpants.cpanauthors.org/dist/Object-Declare>

=item *

CPAN Testers

The CPAN Testers is a network of smoke testers who run automated tests on uploaded CPAN distributions.

L<http://www.cpantesters.org/distro/O/Object-Declare>

=item *

CPAN Testers Matrix

The CPAN Testers Matrix is a website that provides a visual overview of the test results for a distribution on various Perls/platforms.

L<http://matrix.cpantesters.org/?dist=Object-Declare>

=item *

CPAN Testers Dependencies

The CPAN Testers Dependencies is a website that shows a chart of the test results of all dependencies for a distribution.

L<http://deps.cpantesters.org/?module=Object::Declare>

=back

=head2 Bugs / Feature Requests

Please report any bugs or feature requests by email to C<bug-object-declare at rt.cpan.org>, or through
the web interface at L<https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Bug/Report.html?Queue=Object-Declare>. You will be automatically notified of any
progress on the request by the system.

=head2 Source Code

The code is open to the world, and available for you to hack on. Please feel free to browse it and play
with it, or whatever. If you want to contribute patches, please send me a diff or prod me to pull
from your repository :)

L<https://github.com/shlomif/perl-Object-Declare>

  git clone git://github.com/shlomif/perl-Object-Declare.git

=head1 AUTHOR

Shlomi Fish <shlomif@cpan.org>

=head1 BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website
L<https://github.com/shlomif/perl-Object-Declare/issues>

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a
patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired
feature.

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is Copyright (c) 2006 by Audrey Tang.

This is free software, licensed under:

  The MIT (X11) License

=cut