# PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot
# This glue module is complicated because it connects a complicated
# syntax (Perl) to another complicated syntax (Gnuplot).  Here is a
# quick internal overview to get your bearings, above the usual POD.
# PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot (P:G:G) objects generally are associated with
# an external gnuplot process, and data are passed to the process
# through a pipe.  It is possible to intercept the data going through
# the pipe, either by diverting (dumping) data to stdout instead of
# gnuplot, or by teeing the data to stdout as well as gnuplot.
# Further, you can turn on syntax checking to validate P:G:G itself.
# Syntax checking is performed in a second P:G:G process, since
# screwing up the synchronization between Gnuplot and the P:G:G state
# is hazardous in the event of syntax error.
# The perl P:G:G object attempts to store and manage essentially
# all of the state that is also held inside the gnuplot program.
# This takes the form of:
#      - Terminal options - setup for a given terminal output
#      - Plot options     - setup per-plot
#      - Curve options    - setup per-curve within a plot
# Option handling uses branch tables.  Plot and curve options are
# parsed using the $pOptionsTable and $cOptionsTable respectively -
# these are big global hashes that describe the gnuplot syntax.
# Terminal options are "worser" - the options that are accepted depend
# on the terminal device, so the table $termTab contains a
# description of which terminal options are allowed for each of the
# supported gnuplot terminals.
# All options handling is performed through parsing and emitter
# routines that are pointed to from those three tables.  That is
# handled with _parseOptHash(), which accepts an input parameter and a
# particular option description table, and parses the input according
# to the table.  The opposite (used for command generation) is
# _emitOpts(), which takes a parsed hash and emits an appropriate
# (sub)command into its returned string.
# There are some plot modes that we want to support, and that gnuplot
# itself does not yet support.  These are "mocked up" using data
# prefrobnicators.  Currently there is only one of those - FITS
# imagery.
# The gnuplot syntax is more than a little byzantine, and this is
# reflected in the code - specifically, in the code in plot(), which
# is the main workhorse.
# plot() pulls plot arguments off the front and back of the argument
# list. It relies on its subroutine parseArgs to break the remaining
# parameters into chunks of parameters, each of which represents a
# single curve (including curve options and actual data to be
# plotted).  Because we allow threading, a given batch of curve option
# arguments and data can yield many chunks.  Those chunks are then
# passed through a number of steps back in the main plot() routine,
# and turned into a colllection of gnuplot commands suitable for plot
# generation.
# Because option parsing and handling is slightly more complicated
# than simply interpreting values and assigning defaults, we do not
# use a pre-existing package (such as PDL::Options) for option parsing
# - we use a dual parse table scheme.  Each option set has an "abbrev"
# table that is generated at compile time and resolves unique
# abbreviations; and a "parse" table that indicates what to do with
# each option.  Since this mechanism is near at hand, we use it even
# for routines (such as read_polygon) that could and would use
# PDL::Options in other circumstances.

=head1 NAME

PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot - Gnuplot-based plotting for PDL


 pdl> use PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot;

 pdl> $x = sequence(101) - 50;
 pdl> gplot($x**2);
 pdl> gplot($x**2,{xr=>[0,50]});

 pdl> gplot( {title => 'Parabola with error bars'},
       with => 'xyerrorbars', legend => 'Parabola',
       $x**2 * 10, abs($x)/10, abs($x)*5 );

 pdl> $xy = zeroes(21,21)->ndcoords - pdl(10,10);
 pdl> $z = inner($xy, $xy);
 pdl> gplot({title  => 'Heat map',
             trid   => 1,
             view   => [0,0]
            with => 'image', xvals($z),yvals($z),zeroes($z),$z*2

 pdl> $w = gpwin();                             # constructor
 pdl> $pi    = 3.14159;
 pdl> $theta = zeroes(200)->xlinvals(0, 6*$pi);
 pdl> $z     = zeroes(200)->xlinvals(0, 5);
 pdl> $w->plot3d(cos($theta), sin($theta), $z);
 pdl> $w->terminfo();                           # get information


This module allows PDL data to be plotted using Gnuplot as a backend
for 2D and 3D plotting and image display.  Gnuplot (not affiliated
with the Gnu project) is a venerable, open-source program that
produces both interactive and publication-quality plots on many
different output devices.  It is available through most Linux
repositories, on MacOS, and from its website

It is not necessary to understand the gnuplot syntax to generate
basic, or even complex, plots - though the full syntax is available
for advanced users who want the full flexibility of the Gnuplot

Gnuplot recognizes both hard-copy and interactive plotting devices,
and on interactive devices (like X11) it is possible to pan, scale,
and rotate both 2-D and 3-D plots interactively.  You can also enter
graphical data through mouse clicks on the device window.  On some
hardcopy devices (e.g. "PDF") that support multipage output, it is
necessary to close the device after plotting to ensure a valid file is
written out.

C<PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot> exports two routines by default: a
constructor, C<gpwin()> and a general purpose plot routine,
C<gplot()>.  Depending on options, C<gplot()> can produce line plots,
scatterplots, error boxes, "candlesticks", images, or any overlain
combination of these elements; or perspective views of 3-D renderings
such as surface plots.

A call to C<gplot()> looks like:

 gplot({temp_plot_options}, # optional hash ref
      curve_options, data, data, ... ,
      curve_options, data, data, ... );

The data entries are columns to be plotted.  They are normally
an optional ordinate and a required abscissa, but some plot modes
can use more columns than that.  The collection of columns is called
a "tuple".  Each column must be a separate PDL or an ARRAY ref.  If
all the columns are PDLs, you can add extra dimensions to make threaded
collections of curves.

PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot also implements an object oriented
interface. Plot objects track individual gnuplot subprocesses.  Direct
calls to C<gplot()> are tracked through a global object that stores
globally set configuration variables.

The C<gplot()> sub (or the C<plot()> method) collects two kinds of
options hash: B<plot options>, which describe the overall structure of
the plot being produced (e.g. axis specifications, window size, and
title), and B<curve options>, which describe the behavior of
individual traces or collections of points being plotted.  In
addition, the module itself supports options that allow direct
pass-through of plotting commands to the underlying gnuplot process.

=head2 Basic plotting

Gnuplot generates many kinds of plot, from basic line plots and histograms
to scaled labels.  Individual plots can be 2-D or 3-D, and different sets
of plot styles are supported in each mode.  Plots can be sent to a variety
of devices; see the description of plot options, below.

You can specify what type of graphics output you want, but in most cases
doing nothing will cause a plot to be rendered on your screen: with
X windows on UNIX or Linux systems, with an XQuartz windows on MacOS,
or with a native window on Microsoft Windows.

You select a plot style with the "with" curve option, and feed in columns
of data (usually ordinate followed by abscissa).  The collection of columns
is called a "tuple".  These plots have two columns in their tuples:

 $x = xvals(51)-25; $y = $x**2;
 gplot(with=>'points', $x, $y);  # Draw points on a parabola
 gplot(with=>'lines', $x, $y);   # Draw a parabola
 gplot({title=>"Parabolic fit"},
       with=>"yerrorbars", legend=>"data", $x, $y+(random($y)-0.5)*2*$y/20, pdl($y/20),
       with=>"lines",      legend=>"fit",  $x, $y);

Normal threading rules apply across the arguments to a given plot.

All data are required to be supplied as either PDLs or list refs.
If you use a list ref as a data column, then normal
threading is disabled.  For example:

 $x = xvals(5);
 $y = xvals(5)**2;
 $labels = ['one','two','three','four','five'];

See below for supported curve styles.

=head3 Modifying plots

Gnuplot is built around a monolithic plot model - it is not possible to
add new data directly to a plot without redrawing the entire plot. To support
replotting, PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot stores the data you plot in the plot object,
so that you can add new data with the "replot" command:


For speed, the data are *not* disconnected from their original variables - so
this will plot X vs. sqrt(X):

 $x = xvals(101)/100;
 $y = xvals(101)/100;

=head3 Plotting to an image file or device

PDL:Graphics::Gnuplot can plot to most of the devices supported by
gnuplot itself.  You can specify the file type with the "output"
method or the object constructor "gplot".  Either one will allow you
to name a type of file to produce, and a collection of options speciic to
that type of output file.

=head3 Image plotting

Several of the plot styles accept image data.  The tuple parameters work the
same way as for basic plots, but each "column" is a 2-D PDL rather than a 1-D PDL.
As a special case, the "with image" plot style accepts either a 2-D or a 3-D PDL.
If you pass in 3-D PDL, the extra dimension can have size 1, 3, or 4.  It is interpreted
as running across (R,G,B,A) color planes.

=head3 3-D plotting

You can plot in 3-D by setting the plot option C<trid> to a true value.  Three
dimensional plots accept either 1-D or 2-D PDLs as data columns.  If you feed
in 2-D "columns", many of the common plot styles will generalize appropriately
to 3-D.  For example, to plot a 2-D surface as a line grid, you can use the "lines"
style and feed in 2-D columns instead of 1-D columns.

=head2 Enhanced text

Most gnuplot output devices include the option to markup "enhanced text". That means
text is interpreted so that you can change its font and size, and insert superscripts
and subscripts into labels.  Codes are:

=over 3

=item {}

Text grouping - enclose text in braces to group characters, as in LaTeX.

=item ^

Superscript the next character or group (shrinks it slightly too where that is supported).

=item _

Subscript the next character or group (shrinks it slightly too where that is supported).

=item @

Phantom box (occupies no width; controls height for super- and subscripting)

=item &

Controllable-width space, e.g. &amp;{template-string}

=item ~

overstrike -- e.g. ~a{0.8-} overprints '-' on 'a', raised by 0.8xfontsize.

=item {/[fontname][=fontsize | *fontscale] text}

Change font to (optional) fontname, and optional absolute font size or relative font scale ("fontsize" and "fontscale" are numbers).  The space after the size parameter is not rendered.

=item \

Backslash escapes control characters to render them as themselves.


=head2 Color specification

There are several contexts where you can specify color of plot elements.  In those
places, you can specify colors exactly as in the Gnuplot manual, or more tersely.
In general, a color spec can be any one of the following:

=over 3

=item - an integer

This specifies a recognizable unique color in the same order as used by the plotting engine.

=item - the name of a color

(e.g. "blue").  Supported color names are listed in the variable C<@Alien::Gnuplot::colors>.

=item - an RGB value string

Strings have the form C<#RRGGBB>, where the C<#> is literal and the RR, GG, and BB are hexadecimal bytes.

=item - the word "palette"

"palette" indicates that color is to be drawn from the scaled colorbar
palette (which you can set with the "clut" plot option), by lookup
using an additional column in the associated data tuple.

=item - the word "variable"

"variable" indicates that color is to be drawn from the integer
plotting colors used by the plotting engine, indexed by an additional
column in the associated data tuple.

=item - the phrase "rgb variable"

"rgb variable" indicates that color is to be directly specified by a
24 bit integer specifying 8-bit values for (from most significant byte
to least significant byte) R, G, and B in the output color.  The
integer is drawn from an additional column in the associated data tuple.


=head2 Plot styles supported

Gnuplot itself supports a wide range of plot styles, and all are supported by
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot.  Most of the basic plot styles collect tuples of 1-D columns
in 2-D mode (for ordinary plots), or either 1-D or 2-D "columns" in 3-D mode (for
grid surface plots and such).  Image modes always collect tuples made of 2-D "columns".

You can pass in 1-D columns as either PDLs or ARRAY refs.  That is important for
plot types (such as "labels") that require a collection of strings rather than
numeric data.

Each plot style can by modified to support particular colors or line
style options.  These modifications get passed in as curve options (see
below). For example, to plot a blue line you can use
C<with=E<gt>'lines',lc=E<gt>'blue'>.  To match the autogenerated style of a
particular line you can use the C<ls> curve option.

The GNuplot plot styles supported are:

=over 3

=item * C<boxerrorbars> - combo of C<boxes> and C<yerrorbars>, below (2D)

=item * C<boxes> - simple boxes around regions on the plot (2D)

=item * C<boxxyerrorbars> - Render X and Y error bars as boxes (2D)

=item * C<candlesticks> - Y error bars with inner and outer limits (2D)

=item * C<circles> - circles with variable radius at each point: X/Y/radius (2D)

=item * C<dots> - tiny points ("dots") at each point, e.g. for scatterplots (2D/3D)

=item * C<ellipses> - ellipses.  Accepts X/Y/major/minor/angle (2D)

=item * C<filledcurves> - closed polygons or axis-to-line filled shapes (2D)

=item * C<financebars> - financial style plot. Accepts date/open/low/high/close (2D)

=item * C<fsteps> - square bin plot; delta-Y, then delta-X (see C<steps>, C<histeps>) (2D)

=item * C<histeps> - square bin plot; plateaus centered on X coords (see C<fsteps>, C<steps>) (2D)

=item * C<histogram> - binned histogram of dataset (not direct plot; see C<newhistogram>) (2D)

=item * C<fits> - (PDL-specific) renders FITS image files in scientific coordinates

=item * C<image> - Takes (i), (x,y,i), or (x,y,z,i).  See C<rgbimage>, C<rgbalpha>, C<fits>. (2D/3D)

=item * C<impulses> - vertical line from axis to the plotted point (2D/3D)

=item * C<labels> - Text labels at specified locations all over the plot (2D/3D)

=item * C<lines> - regular line plot (2D/3D)

=item * C<linespoints> - line plot with symbols at plotted points (2D/3D)

=item * C<newhistogram> - multiple-histogram-friendly histogram style (see C<histogram>) (2D)

=item * C<points> - symbols at plotted points (2D/3D)

=item * C<rgbalpha> - R/G/B color image with variable transparency (2D/3D)

=item * C<rgbimage> - R/G/B color image (2D/3D)

=item * C<steps> - square bin plot; delta-X, then delta-Y (see C<fsteps>, C<histeps>) (2D)

=item * C<vectors> - Small arrows: (x,y,[z]) -> (x+dx,y+dy,[z+dz]) (2D/3D)

=item * C<xerrorbars> - points with X error bars ("T" form) (2D)

=item * C<xyerrorbars> - points with both X and Y error bars ("T" form) (2D)

=item * C<yerrorbars> - points with Y error bars ("T" form) (2D)

=item * C<xerrorlines> - line plot with X errorbars at each point.  (2D)

=item * C<xyerrorlines> - line plot with XY errorbars at each point. (2D)

=item * C<yerrorlines> - line plot with Y error limits at each point. (2D)

=item * C<pm3d> - three-dimensional variable-position surface plot


=head2 Options arguments

The plot options are parameters that affect the whole plot, like the title of
the plot, the axis labels, the extents, 2d/3d selection, etc. All the plot
options are described below in L<"Plot Options"|/"PLOT OPTIONS">.  Plot options can be set
in the plot object, or passed to the plotting methods directly.  Plot options can
be passed in as a leading interpolated hash, as a leading hash ref, or as a trailing
hash ref in the argument list to any of the main plotting routines (C<gplot>, C<plot>,
C<image>, etc.).

The curve options are parameters that affect only one curve in particular. Each
call to C<plot()> can contain many curves, and options for a particular curve
I<precede> the data for that curve in the argument list. The actual type of curve
(the "with" option) is persistent, but all other curve options and modifiers
are not.  An example:

 gplot( with => 'points',  $x, $a,
        {axes=> x1y2},     $x, $b,
        with => 'lines',   $x, $c );

This plots 3 curves: $a vs. $x plotted with points on the main y-axis (this is
the default), $b vs. $x plotted with points on the secondary y axis, and $c
vs. $x plotted with lines on the main y-axis (the default). Note that the curve
options can be supplied as either an inline hash or a hash ref.

All the curve options are described below in L<"Curve Options"|/"CURVE OPTIONS">.

If you want to plot multiple curves of the same type without setting
any curve options explicitly, you must include an empty hash ref
between the tuples for subsequent lines, as in:

 gplot( $x, $a, {}, $x, $b, {}, $x, $c );

=head2 Data arguments

Following the curve options in the C<plot()> argument list is the
actual data being plotted. Each output data point is a "tuple" whose
size varies depending on what is being plotted. For example if we're
making a simple 2D x-y plot, each tuple has 2 values; if we're making
a 3d plot with each point having variable size and color, each tuple
has 5 values (x,y,z,size,color). Each tuple element must be passed
separately.  For ordinary 2-D plots, the 0 dim of the tuple elements
runs across plotted point.  PDL threading is active, so you can plot
multiple curves with similar curve options on a normal 2-D plot, just
by stacking data inside the passed-in PDLs.  (An exception is that
threading is disabled if one or more of the data elements is a list

=head3 PDLs vs list refs

The usual way to pass in data is as a PDL -- one PDL per column of data
in the tuple.  But strings, in particular, cannot easily be hammered into
PDLs.  Therefore any column in each tuple can be a list ref containing
values (either numeric or string).  The column is interpreted using the
usual polymorphous cast-behind-your-back behavior of Perl.  For the sake
of sanity, if even one list ref is present in a tuple, then threading is
disabled in that tuple: everything has to have a nice 1-D shape.

=head3 Implicit domains

When making a simple 2D plot, if exactly 1 dimension is missing,
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot will use C<sequence(N)> as the domain. This is
why code like C<plot(pdl(1,5,3,4,4) )> works. Only one PDL is given
here, but the plot type ("lines" by default) requires 2 elements per
tuple. We are thus exactly 1 piddle short; C<sequence(5)> is used as
the missing domain PDL.  This is thus equivalent to
C<plot(sequence(5), pdl(1,5,3,4,4) )>.

If plotting in 3d or displaying an image, an implicit domain will be
used if we are exactly 2 piddles short. In this case,
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot will use a 2D grid as a domain. Example:

 my $xy = zeros(21,21)->ndcoords - pdl(10,10);
 gplot({'3d' => 1},
        with => 'points', inner($xy, $xy));
 gplot( with => 'image',  sin(rvals(51,51)) );

Here the only given piddle has dimensions (21,21). This is a 3D plot, so we are
exactly 2 piddles short. Thus, PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot generates an implicit
domain, corresponding to a 21-by-21 grid.

C<PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot> requires explicit separators between tuples
for different plots, so it is always clear from the arguments you pass
in just how many columns you are supplying. For example,
C<plot($a,$b)> will plot C<$b> vs. C<$a>.  If you actually want to
plot an overlay of both C<$a> and C<$b> against array index, you want
C<plot($a,{},$b)> instead.  The C<{}> is a hash ref containing a
collection of all the curve options that you are changing between
the two curves -- in this case, zero of them.

=head2 Images

PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot supports four styles of image plot, via the "with" curve option.

The "image" style accepts a single image plane and displays it using
the palette (pseudocolor map) that is specified in the plot options
for that plot.  As a special case, if you supply as data a (3xWxH) or
(WxHx3) PDL it is treated as an RGB image and displayed with the
"rgbimage" style (below), provided there are at least 5 pixels in each of the
other two dimensions (just to be sure).  For quick image display there
is also an "image" method:

 use PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot qw/image gplot/;
 $im = sin(rvals(51,51)/2);
 image( $im );                # display the image
 gplot( with=>'image', $im );  # display the image (longer form)

The colors are autoscaled in both cases.  To set a particular color range, use
the 'cbrange' plot option:

 image( {cbrange=>[0,1]}, $im );

You can plot rgb images directly with the image style, just by including a
3rd dimension of size 3 on your image:

 $rgbim = pdl( xvals($im), yvals($im),rvals($im)/sqrt(2));
 image( $rgbim );                # display an RGB image
 gplot( with=>'image', $rgbim ); # display an RGB image (longer form)

Some additional plot styles exist to specify RGB and RGB transparent forms
directly.  These are the "with" styles "rgbimage" and "rgbalpha".  For each
of them you must specify the channels as separate PDLs:

 gplot( with=>'rgbimage', $rgbim->dog );               # RGB  the long way
 gplot( with=>'rgbalpha', $rgbim->dog, 255*($im>0) );  # RGBA the long way

According to the gnuplot specification you can also give X and Y
values for each pixel, as in

 gplot( with=>'image', xvals($im), yvals($im), $im )

but this appears not to work properly for anything more complicated
than a trivial matrix of X and Y values.

PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot provides a "fits" plot style that interprets
World Coordinate System (WCS) information supplied in the header of
the scientific image format FITS. The image is displayed in rectified
scientific coordinates, rather than in pixel coordinates.  You can plot
FITS images in scientific coordinates with

 gplot( with=>'fits', $fitsdata );

The fits plot style accepts a modifier "resample" (which may be
abbreviated), that allows you to downsample and/or rectify the image
before it is passed to the Gnuplot back-end.  This is useful either to
cut down on the burden of transferring large blocks of image data or
to rectify images with nonlinear WCS transformations in their headers.
(gnuplot itself has a bug that prevents direct rendering of images in
nonlinear coordinates).

 gplot( with=>'fits res 200', $fitsdata );
 gplot( with=>'fits res 100,400',$fitsdata );

to specify that the output are to be resampled onto a square 200x200
grid or a 100x400 grid, respectively.  The resample sizes must be
positive integers.

=head2 Interactivity

Several of the graphical backends of Gnuplot are interactive, allowing
you to pan, zoom, rotate and measure the data interactively in the plot
window. See the Gnuplot documentation for details about how to do
this. Some terminals (such as C<wxt>) are persistently interactive. Other
terminals (such as C<x11>) maintain their interactivity only while the
underlying gnuplot process is active -- i.e. until another plot is
created with the same PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot object, or until the perl
process exits (whichever comes first).  Still others (the hardcopy
devices) aren't interactive at all.

Some interactive devices (notably C<wxt> and C<x11>) also support
mouse input: you can write PDL scripts that accept and manipulate
graphical input from the plotted window.


Gnuplot controls plot style with "plot options" that configure and
specify virtually all aspects of the plot to be produced.   Plot
options are tracked as stored state in the PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot
object.  You can set them by passing them in to the constructor, to an
C<options> method, or to the C<plot> method itself.

Nearly all the underlying Gnuplot plot options are supported, as well
as some additional options that are parsed by the module itself for

There are many, many plot options.  For convenience, we've grouped
them by general category below.  Each group has a heading "POs for E<lt>fooE<gt>",
describing the category.  You can skip below them all if you want to
read about curve options or other aspects of PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot.

=head2 POs for Output: terminal, termoption, output, device, hardcopy

You can send plots to a variety of different devices; Gnuplot calls
devices "terminals".  With the object-oriented interface, you must set
the output device with the constructor C<PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::new>
(or the exported constructor C<gpwin>) or the C<output> method.  If you
use the simple non-object interface, you can set the output with the
C<terminal>, C<termoption>, and C<output> plot options.

C<terminal> sets the output device type for Gnuplot, and C<output> sets the
actual output file or window number.

C<device> and C<hardcopy> are for convenience. C<device> offers a
PGPLOT-style device specifier in "filename/device" format (the "filename"
gets sent to the "output" option, the "device" gets sent to the "terminal"
option). C<hardcopy> takes an output file name, attempts to parse out a
file suffix and infer a device type. C<hardcopy> also uses a common set of
terminal options needed to fill an entire letter page with a plot.

For finer grained control of the plotting environment, you can send
"terminal options" to Gnuplot.  If you set the terminal directly with
plot options, you can include terminal options by interpolating them
into a string, as in C<terminal jpeg interlace butt crop>, or you can
use the constructor C<new> (also exported as C<gpwin>), which parses
terminal options as an argument list.

The routine C<PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::terminfo> prints a list of all
available terminals or, if you pass in a terminal name, options accepted
by that terminal.

=head2 POs for Titles

The options described here are


=item title

=item xlabel

=item x2label

=item ylabel

=item y2label

=item zlabel

=item cblabel

=item key


Gnuplot supports "enhanced" text escapes on most terminals; see "text",

The C<title> option lets you set a title for the whole plot.

Individual plot components are labeled with the C<label> options.
C<xlabel>, C<x2label>, C<ylabel>, and C<y2label> specify axis titles
for 2-D plots.  The C<zlabel> works for 3-D plots.  The C<cblabel> option
sets the label for the color box, in plot types that have one (e.g.
image display).

(Don't be confused by C<clabel>, which doesn't set a label at all, rather
specifies the printf format used by contour labels in contour plots.)

C<key> controls where the plot key (that relates line/symbol style to label)
is placed on the plot.  It takes a scalar boolean indicating whether to turn the
key on (with default values) or off, or a list ref containing any of the following
arguments (all are optional) in the order listed:

=over 3

=item * ( on | off ) - turn the key on or off

=item * ( inside | outside | lmargin | rmargin | tmargin | bmargin | at <pos> )

These keywords set the location of the key -- "inside/outside" is
relative to the plot border; the margin keywords indicate location in
the margins of the plot; and at <pos> (where <pos> is a comma-delimited string
containing (x,y): C<key=E<gt>[at=E<gt>"0.5,0.5"]>) is an exact location to place the key.

=item * ( left | right | center ) ( top | bottom | center ) - horiz./vert. alignment

=item * ( vertical | horizontal ) - stacking direction within the key

=item * ( Left | Right ) - justification of plot labels within the key (note case)

=item * [no]reverse - switch order of label and sample line

=item * [no]invert - invert the stack order of the labels

=item * samplen <length> - set the length of the sample lines

=item * spacing <dist> - set the spacing between adjacent labels in the list

=item * [no]autotitle - control whether labels are generated when not specified

=item * title "<text>" - set a title for the key

=item * [no]enhanced - override terminal settings for enhanced text interpretation

=item * font "<face>,<size>" - set font for the labels

=item * textcolor <colorspec>

=item * [no]box linestyle <ls> linetype <lt> linewidth <lw> - control box around the key


=head2 POs for axes, grids, & borders

The options described here are


=item grid

=item xzeroaxis

=item x2zeroaxis

=item yzeroaxis

=item y2zeroaxis

=item zzeroaxis

=item border


Normally, tick marks and their labels are applied to the border of a plot,
and no extra axes (e.g. the y=0 line) nor coordinate grids are shown.  You can
specify which (if any) zero axes should be drawn, and which (if any)
borders should be drawn.

The C<border> option controls whether the plot itself has a border
drawn around it.  You can feed it a scalar boolean value to indicate
whether borders should be drawn around the plot -- or you can feed in a list
ref containing options.  The options are all optional but must be supplied
in the order given.

=over 3

=item * <integer> - packed bit flags for which border lines to draw

The default if you set a true value for C<border> is to draw all border lines.
You can feed in a single integer value containing a bit mask, to draw only some
border lines.  From LSB to MSB, the coded lines are bottom, left, top, right for
2D plots -- e.g. 5 will draw bottom and top borders but neither left nor right.

In three dimensions, 12 bits are used to describe the twelve edges of
a cube surrounding the plot.  In groups of three, the first four
control the bottom (xy) plane edges in the same order as in the 2-D
plots; the middle four control the vertical edges that rise from the
clockwise end of the bottom plane edges; and the last four control the
top plane edges.

=item * ( back | front ) - draw borders first or last (controls hidden line appearance)

=item * linewidth <lw>, linestyle <ls>, linetype <lt>

These are Gnuplot's usual three options for line control.


The C<grid> option indicates whether gridlines should be drawn on
each axis.  It takes a list ref of arguments, each of which is either "no" or "m" or "",
followed by an axis name and "tics" --
e.g. C<< grid=>["noxtics","ymtics"] >> draws no X gridlines and draws
(horizontal) Y gridlines on Y axis major and minor tics, while
C<< grid=>["xtics","ytics"] >> or C<< grid=>["xtics ytics"] >> will draw both
vertical (X) and horizontal (Y) grid lines on major tics.

vTo draw a coordinate grid with default values, set C<< grid=>1 >>.  For more
control, feed in a list ref with zero or more of the following parameters, in order:

The C<zeroaxis> keyword indicates whether to actually draw each axis
line at the corresponding zero along its indicated dimension.  For
example, to draw the X axis (y=0), use C<< xzeroaxis=>1 >>.  If you just
want the axis turned on with default values, you can feed in a Boolean
scalar; if you want to set its parameters, you can feed in a list ref
containing linewidth, linestyle, and linetype (with appropriate
parameters for each), e.g.  C<< xzeroaxis=>[linewidth=>2] >>.

=head2 POs for axis range and mode

The options described here are


=item xrange

=item x2range

=item yrange

=item y2range

=item zrange

=item rrange

=item cbrange

=item trange

=item urange

=item vrange

=item autoscale

=item logscale


Gnuplot accepts explicit ranges as plot options for all axes.  Each option
accepts a list ref with (min, max).  If either min or max is missing, then
the opposite limit is autoscaled.  The x and y ranges refer to the usual
ordinate and abscissa of the plot; x2 and y2 refer to alternate ordinate and
abscissa; z if for 3-D plots; r is for polar plots; t, u, and v are for parametric
plots.  cb is for the color box on plots that include it (see "color", below).

C<rrange> is used for radial coordinates (which
are accessible using the C<mapping> plot option, below).

C<cbrange> (for 'color box range') sets the range of values over which
palette colors (either gray or pseudocolor) are matched.  It is valid
in any color-mapped plot (including images or palette-mapped lines or
points), even if no color box is being displayed for this plot.

C<trange>, C<urange>, and C<vrange> set ranges for the parametric coordinates
if you are plotting a parametric curve.

By default all axes are autoscaled unless you specify a range on that
axis, and partially (min or max) autoscaled if you specify a partial
range on that axis.  C<autoscale> allows more explicit control of how
autoscaling is performed, on an axis-by-axis basis.  It accepts a hash
ref, each element of which specifies how a single axis should be
autoscaled.  Each keyword contains an axis name followed by one of
"fix", "min", "max", "fixmin", or "fixmax".  You can set all the axes at
once by setting the keyword name to ' '.  Examples:


There is an older list ref syntax which is deprecated but still accepted.

To not autoscale an axis at all, specify a range for it. The fix style of
autoscaling forces the autoscaler to use the actual min/max of the data as
the limit for the corresponding axis -- by default the axis gets extended
to the next minor tic (as set by the autoticker or by a tic specification, see

C<logscale> allows you to turn on logarithmic scaling for any or all
axes, and to set the base of the logarithm.  It takes a list ref, the
first element of which is a string mushing together the names of all
the axes to scale logarithmically, and the second of which is the base
of the logarithm: C<< logscale=>[xy=>10] >>.  You can also leave off the
base if you want base-10 logs: C<< logscale=>['xy'] >>.

=head2 POs for Axis tick marks

The options described here are


=item xtics

=item x2tics

=item ytics

=item y2tics

=item ztics

=item cbtics

=item mxtics

=item mx2tics

=item mytics

=item my2tics

=item mztics

=item mcbtics


Axis tick marks are called "tics" within Gnuplot, and they are extensively
controllable via the "{axis}tics" options.  In particular, major and minor
ticks are supported, as are arbitrarily variable length ticks, non-equally
spaced ticks, and arbitrarily labelled ticks.  Support exists for time formatted
ticks (see C<POs for time data values> below).

By default, gnuplot will automatically place major and minor ticks.
You can turn off ticks on an axis by setting the appropriate {foo}tics
option to a defined, false scalar value (e.g. C<< xtics=>0 >>).  If you
want to set major tics to happen at a regular specified intervals, you can set the
appropriate tics option to a nonzero scalar value (e.g. C<< xtics=>2 >> to
specify a tic every 2 units on the X axis).  To use default values for the
tick positioning, specify an empty hash or array ref (e.g. C<< xtics=>{} >>), or
a string containing only whitespace (e.g. C<< xtics=>' ' >>).

If you prepend an 'm' to any tics option, it affects minor tics instead of
major tics (major tics typically show units; minor tics typically show fractions
of a unit).

Each tics option can accept a hash ref containing options to pass to
Gnuplot.  You can also pass in a snippet of gnuplot command, as either
a string or an array ref -- but those techniques are deprecated and may
disappear in a future version of C<PDL:Graphics::Gnuplot>.

The keywords are case-insensitive and may be abbreviated, just as with
other option types.  They are:

=over 2

=item * axis - set to 1 to place tics on the axis (the default)

=item * border - set to 1 to place tics on the border (not the default)

=item * mirror - set to 1 to place mirrored tics on the opposite axis/border (the default, unless an alternate axis interferes -- e.g. y2)

=item * in - set to 1 to draw tics inward from the axis/border

=item * out - set to 1 to draw tics outward from the axis/border

=item * scale - multiplier on tic length compared to the default

If you pass in undef, tics get the default length.  If you pass in a scalar, major tics get scaled.  You can pass in an array ref to scale minor tics too.

=item * rotate - turn label text by the given angle (in degrees) on the drawing plane

=item * offset - offset label text from default position, (units: characters; requires array ref containing x,y)

=item * locations - sets tic locations.  Gets an array ref: [incr], [start, incr], or [start, incr, stop].

=item * labels - sets tic locations explicitly, with text labels for each. If you specify both C<locations> and C<labels>, you get both sets of tics on the same axis.

The labels should be a nested list ref that is a collection of duals
or triplets.  Each dual or triplet should contain [label, position, minorflag],
as in C<< labels=>[["one",1,0],["three-halves",1.5,1],["two",2,0]] >>.

=item * format - printf-style format string for tic labels.  There are
some extensions to the gnuplot format tags -- see the gnuplot manual.
Gnuplot 4.8 and higher have C<%h>, which works like C<%g> but uses
extended text formatting if it is available.

=item * font - set font name and size (system font name)

=item * rangelimited - set to 1 to limit tics to the range of values actually present in the plot

=item * textcolor - set the color of the tick labels (see L</"Color specification">)


For example, to turn on inward mirrored X axis ticks with diagonal Arial 9 text, use:

 xtics => {axis=>1,mirror=>1,in=>1,rotate=>45,font=>'Arial,9'}


 xtics => ['axis','mirror','in','rotate by 45','font "Arial,9"']

=head2 POs for time data values

The options described here are


=item xmtics

=item x2mtics

=item ymtics

=item y2mtics

=item zmtics

=item cbmtics

=item xdtics

=item x2dtics

=item ydtics

=item y2dtics

=item zdtics

=item cbdtics

=item xdata

=item x2data

=item ydata

=item y2data

=item zdata

=item cbdata


Gnuplot contains support for plotting absolute time and date on any of its axes,
with conventional formatting. There are three main methods, which are mutually exclusive
(i.e. you should not attempt to use two at once on the same axis).

=over 3

=item B<Plotting timestamps using UNIX times>

You can set any axis to plot timestamps rather than numeric values by
setting the corresponding "data" plot option to "time",
e.g. C<< xdata=>"time" >>.  If you do so, then numeric values in the
corresponding data are interpreted as UNIX time (seconds since the
UNIX epoch, neglecting leap seconds).  No provision is made for
UTC<->TAI conversion.  You can format how the times are plotted with
the "format" option in the various "tics" options(above).  Output
specifiers should be in UNIX strftime(3) format -- for example,
C<< xdata=>"time",xtics=>{format=>"%Y-%b-%dT%H:%M:%S"} >>
will plot UNIX times as ISO timestamps in the ordinate.

Due to limitations within gnuplot, the time resolution in this mode is
limited to 1 second - if you want fractional seconds, you must use numerically
formatted times (and/or create your own tick labels using the C<labels> suboption
to the C<?tics> option.

B<Timestamp format specifiers>

Time format specifiers use the following printf-like codes:

=over 3

=item * B<Year A.D.>: C<%Y> is 4-digit year; C<%y> is 2-digit year (1969-2068)

=item * B<Month of year>: C<%m>: 01-12; C<%b> or C<%h>: abrev. name; C<%B>: full name

=item * B<Week of year>: C<%W> (week starting Monday); C<%U> (week starting Sunday)

=item * B<Day of year>: C<%j> (1-366; boundary is midnight)

=item * B<Day of month>: C<%d> (01-31)

=item * B<Day of week>: C<%w> (0-6, Sunday=0), %a (abrev. name), %A (full name)

=item * B<Hour of day>: C<%k> (0-23); C<%H> (00-23); C<%l> (1-12); C<%I> (01-12)

=item * B<Am/pm>: C<%p> ("am" or "pm")

=item * B<Minute of hour>: C<%M> (00-60)

=item * B<Second of minute>: C<%S> (0-60)

=item * B<Total seconds since start of 2000 A.D.>: C<%s>

=item * B<Timestamps>: C<%T> (same as C<%H:%M:%S>); C<%R> (same as C<%H:%M>); C<%r> (same as C<%I:%M:%S %p>)

=item * B<Datestamps>: C<%D> (same as C<%m/%d/%y>); C<%F> (same as C<%Y-%m-%d>)

=item * B<ISO timestamps>: use C<%DT%T>.


=item B<day-of-week plotting>

If you just want to plot named days of the week, you can instead use
the C<dtics> options set plotting to day of week, where 0 is Sunday and 6
is Saturday; values are interpreted modulo 7.  For example, C<<
xmtics=>1,xrange=>[-4,9] >> will plot two weeks from Wednesday to
Wednesday. As far as output format goes, this is exactly equivalent to
using the C<%w> option with full formatting - but you can treat the
numeric range in terms of weeks rather than seconds.

=item B<month-of-year plotting>

The C<mtics> options set plotting to months of the year, where 1 is January and 12 is
December, so C<< xdtics=>1, xrange=>[0,4] >> will include Christmas through Easter.
This is exactly equivalent to using the C<%d> option with full formatting - but you
can treat the numeric range in terms of months rather than seconds.


=head2 POs for location/size

The options described here are


=item tmargin

=item bmargin

=item lmargin

=item rmargin

=item offsets

=item origin

=item size

=item justify

=item clip


Adjusting the size, location, and margins of the plot on the plotting
surface is something of a null operation for most single plots -- but
you can tweak the placement and size of the plot with these options.
That is particularly useful for multiplots, where you might like to
make an inset plot or to lay out a set of plots in a custom way.

The margin options accept scalar values -- either a positive number of
character heights or widths of margin around the plot compared to the
edge of the device window, or a string that starts with "at screen "
and interpolates a number containing the fraction of the plot window
offset.  The "at screen" technique allows exact plot placement and is
an alternative to the C<origin> and C<size> options below.

The C<offsets> option allows you to put an empty boundary around the
data, inside the plot borders, in an autosacaled graph.  The offsets
only affect the x1 and y1 axes, and only in 2D plot commands.
C<offsets> accepts a list ref with four values for the offsets, which
are given in scientific (plotted) axis units.

The C<origin> option lets you specify the origin (lower left corner)
of an individual plot on the plotting window.  The coordinates are
screen coordinates -- i.e. fraction of the total plotting window.

The size option lets you adjust the size and aspect ratio of the plot,
as an absolute fraction of the plot window size.  You feed in fractional
ratios, as in C<< size=>[$xfrac, $yfrac] >>.  You can also feed in some keywords
to adjust the aspect ratio of the plot.  The size option overrides any
autoscaling that is done by the auto-layout in multiplot mode, so use
with caution -- particularly if you are multiplotting.  You can use
"size" to adjust the aspect ratio of a plot, but this is deprecated
in favor of the pseudo-option C<justify>.

C<justify> sets the scientific aspect ratio of a 2-D plot.  Unity
yields a plot with a square scientific aspect ratio.  Larger
numbers yield taller plots.

C<clip> controls the border between the plotted data and the border of the plot.
There are three clip types supported:   points, one, and two.  You can set them
independently by passing in booleans with their names: C<< clip=>[points=>1,two=>0] >>.

=head2 POs for Color: colorbox, palette, clut, pseudocolor, pc, perceptual, pcp

Color plots are supported via RGB and pseudocolor.  Plots that use pseudcolor or
grayscale can have a "color box" that shows the photometric meaning of the color.

The colorbox generally appears when necessary but can be controlled manually
with the C<colorbox> option.  C<colorbox> accepts a scalar boolean value indicating
whether or no to draw a color box, or a list ref containing additional options.
The options are all, well, optional but must appear in the order given:

=over 3

=item ( vertical | horizontal ) - indicates direction of the gradient in the box

=item ( default | user ) - indicates user origin and size

If you specify C<default> the colorbox will be placed on the right-hand side of the plot; if you specify C<user>, you give the location and size in subsequent arguments:

 colorbox => [ 'user', 'origin'=>"$x,$y", 'size' => "$x,$y" ]

=item ( front | back ) - draws the colorbox before or after the plot

=item ( noborder | bdefault | border <line style> ) - specify border

The line style is a numeric type as described in the gnuplot manual.


The C<palette> option offers many arguments that are not fully
documented in this version but are explained in the gnuplot manual.
It offers complete control over the pseudocolor mapping function.

For simple color maps, C<clut> gives access to a set of named color
maps.  (from "Color Look Up Table").  A few existing color maps are:
"default", "gray", "sepia", "ocean", "rainbow", "heat1", "heat2", and
"wheel".  To see a complete list, specify an invalid table,
e.g. C<< clut=>'xxx' >>.  C<clut> is maintained but is superseded
by C<pc> and C<pcp> (below), which give access to a better variety
of color tables, and have better support for scientific images.

C<pseudocolor> (synonym C<pc>) gives access to the color tables built
in to the C<PDL::Transform::Color> package, if that package is
available.  It takes either a color table name or a list ref which 
is a collection of arguments that get sent to the 
C<PDL::Transform::Color::t_pc> transform definition method. Sending
the empty string or undef will generate a list of allowable color
table names.  Many of the color tables are "photometric" and 
will render photometric data correctly without gamma correction.

C<perceptual> (synonym C<pcp>) gives the same access to 
C<PDL::Transform::Color> as does C<pseudocolor>, but the 
"equal-perceptual-difference" scaling is used -- i.e. input
values are gamma-corrected by the module so that uniform
shifts in numeric value yield approximately uniform perceptual

If you use C<pseudocolor> or C<perceptual>, and if
C<PDL::Transform::Color> can be loaded, then the external module
is used to define a custom Gnuplot palette by linear interpolation
across 256 values.  That palette is then used to translate your
monochrome data to a color image.  The Gnuplot output is assumed
to be sRGB.  This is probably OK for most output devices.

=head2 POs for 3D: trid, view, pm3d, hidden3d, dgrid3d, surface, xyplane, mapping

If C<trid> or its synonym C<3d> is true, Gnuplot renders a 3-D plot.
This changes the default tuple size from 2 to 3.  This
option is used to switch between the Gnuplot "plot" and "splot"
command, but it is tracked with persistent state just as any other

The C<view> option controls the viewpoint of the 3-D plot.  It takes a
list of numbers: C<< view=>[$rot_x, $rot_z, $scale, $scale_z] >>.  After
each number, you can omit the subsequent ones.  Alternatively,
C<< view=>['map'] >> represents the drawing as a map (e.g. for contour
plots) and C<< view=>[equal=>'xy'] >> forces equal length scales on the X
and Y axes regardless of perspective, while C<< view=>[equal=>'xyz'] >>
sets equal length scales on all three axes.

The C<pm3d> option accepts several parameters to control the pm3d plot style,
which is a palette-mapped 3d surface.  They are not documented here in this
version of the module but are explained in the gnuplot manual.

C<hidden3d> accepts a list of parameters to control how hidden surfaces are
plotted (or not) in 3D. It accepts a boolean argument indicating whether to hide
"hidden" surfaces and lines; or a list ref containing parameters that control how
hidden surfaces and lines are handled.  For details see the gnuplot manual.

C<xyplane> sets the location of that plane (which is drawn) relative
to the rest of the plot in 3-space.  It takes a single string: "at" or
"relative", and a number.  C<< xyplane=>[at=>$z] >> places the XY plane at the
stated Z value (in scientific units) on the plot.  C<< xyplane=>[relative=>$frac] >>
places the XY plane $frac times the length of the scaled Z axis *below* the Z
axis (i.e. 0 places it at the bottom of the plotted Z axis; and -1 places it
at the top of the plotted Z axis).

C<mapping> takes a single string: "cartesian", "spherical", or
"cylindrical".  It determines the interpretation of data coordinates
in 3-space. (Compare to the C<polar> option in 2-D).

=head2 POs for Contour plots - contour, cntrparam

Contour plots are only implemented in 3D.  To make a normal 2D contour
plot, use 3-D mode, but set the view to "map" - which projects the 3-D
plot onto its 2-D XY plane. (This is convoluted, for sure -- future
versions of this module may have a cleaner way to do it).

C<contour> enables contour drawing on surfaces in 3D.  It takes a
single string, which should be "base", "surface", or "both".

C<cntrparam> manages how contours are generated and smoothed.  It
accepts a list ref with a collection of Gnuplot parameters that are
issued one per line; refer to the Gnuplot manual for how to operate

=head2 POs for Polar plots - polar, angles, mapping

You can make 2-D polar plots by setting C<polar> to a true value.  The
ordinate is then plotted as angle, and the abscissa is radius on the plot.
The ordinate can be in either radians or degrees, depending on the
C<angles> parameter

C<angles> takes either "degrees" or "radians" (default is radians).

C<mapping> is used to set 3-D polar plots, either cylindrical or spherical
(see the section on 3-D plotting, above).

=head2 POs for Markup - label, arrow, object

You specify plot markup in advance of the plot command, with plot
options (or add it later with the C<replot> method).  The options give
you access to a collection of (separately) numbered descriptions that
are accumulated into the plot object.  To add a markup object to the
next plot, supply the appropriate options as a list ref or as a single
string.  To specify all markup objects at once, supply the appropriate
options for all of them as a nested list-of-lists.

To modify an object, you can specify it by number, either by appending
the number to the plot option name (e.g. C<arrow3>) or by supplying it
as the first element of the option list for that object.

To remove all objects of a given type, supply undef (e.g. C<< arrow=>undef >>).

For example, to place two labels, use the plot option:

 label => [["Upper left",at=>"10,10"],["lower right",at=>"20,5"]];

To add a label to an existing plot object, if you don't care about what
index number it gets, do this:

 $w->options( label=>["my new label",at=>[10,20]] );

If you do care what index number it gets (or want to replace an existing label),
do this:

 $w->options( label=>[$n, "my replacement label", at=>"10,20"] );

where C<$w> is a Gnuplot object and C<$n> contains the label number
you care about.

=head3 label - add a text label to the plot.

The C<label> option allows adding small bits of text at arbitrary
locations on the plot.

Each label specifier list ref accepts the following suboptions, in
order.  All of them are optional -- if no options other than the index
tag are given, then any existing label with that index is deleted.

For examples, please refer to the Gnuplot 4.4 manual, p. 117.

=over 3

=item <tag> - optional index number (integer)

=item <label text> - text to place on the plot.

You may supply double-quotes inside the string, but it is not
necessary in most cases (only if the string contains just an integer
and you are not specifying a <tag>.

=item at <position> - where to place the text (sci. coordinates)

The <position> should be a string containing a gnuplot position specifier.
At its simplest, the position is just two numbers separated by
a comma, as in C<< label2=>["foo",at=>"5,3"] >>, to specify (X,Y) location
on the plot in scientific coordinates.  Each number can be preceded
by a coordinate system specifier; see the Gnuplot 4.4 manual (page 20)
for details.

=item ( left | center | right ) - text placement rel. to position

=item rotate [ by <degrees> ] - text rotation

If "rotate" appears in the list alone, then the label is rotated 90 degrees
CCW (bottom-to-top instead of left-to-right).  The following "by" clause is

=item font "<name>,<size>" - font specifier

The <name>,<size> must be double quoted in the string (this may be fixed
in a future version), as in


=item noenhanced - turn off gnuplot enhanced text processing (if enabled)

=item ( front | back ) - rendering order (last or first)

=item textcolor <colorspec>

=item (point <pointstyle> | nopoint ) - control whether the exact position is marked

=item offset <offset> - offfset from position (in points).


=head3 arrow - place an arrow or callout line on the plot

Works similarly to the C<label> option, but with an arrow instead of text.

The arguments, all of which are optional but which must be given in the order listed,

=over 3

=item from <position> - start of arrow line

The <position> should be a string containing a gnuplot position specifier.
At its simplest, the position is just two numbers separated by
a comma, as in C<< arrow2=>["foo",at=>"5,3"] >>, to specify (X,Y) location
on the plot in scientific coordinates.  Each number can be preceded
by a coordinate system specifier; see the Gnuplot 4.4 manual (page 20)
for details.

=item ( to | rto ) <position>  - end of arrow line

These work like C<from>.  For absolute placement, use "to".  For placement
relative to the C<from> position, use "rto".

=item (arrowstyle | as) <arrow_style>

This specifies that the arrow be drawn in a particular predeclared numerical
style.  If you give this parameter, you should omit all the following ones.

=item ( nohead | head | backhead | heads ) - specify arrowhead placement

=item size <length>,<angle>,<backangle> - specify arrowhead geometry

=item ( filled | empty | nofilled ) - specify arrowhead fill

=item ( front | back ) - specify drawing order ( last | first )

=item linestyle <line_style> - specify a numeric linestyle

=item linetype <line_type> - specify numeric line type

=item linewidth <line_width> - multiplier on the width of the line


=head3 object - place a shape on the graph

C<object>s are rectangles, ellipses, circles, or polygons that can be placed
arbitrarily on the plotting plane.

The arguments, all of which are optional but which must be given in the order listed, are:

=over 3

=item <object-type> <object-properties> - type name of the shape and its type-specific properties

The <object-type> is one of four words: "rectangle", "ellipse", "circle", or "polygon".

You can specify a rectangle with C<< from=>$pos1, [r]to=>$pos2 >>, with C<< center=>$pos1, size=>"$w,$h" >>,
or with C<< at=>$pos1,size=>"$w,$h" >>.

You can specify an ellipse with C<< at=>$pos, size=>"$w,$h" >> or C<< center=>$pos, size=>"$w,$h" >>, followed
by C<< angle=>$a >>.

You can specify a circle with C<< at=>$pos, >> or C<< center=>$pos, >>, followed
by C<< size=>$radius >> and (optionally) C<< arc=>"[$begin:$end]" >>.

You can specify a polygon with C<< from=>$pos1,to=>$pos2,to=>$pos3,...to=>$posn >> or with
C<< from=>$pos1,rto=>$diff1,rto=>$diff2,...rto=>$diffn >>.

=item ( front | back | behind ) - draw the object last | first | really-first.

=item fc <colorspec> - specify fill color

=item fs <fillstyle> - specify fill style

=item lw <width> - multiplier on line width


=head2 POs for appearance tweaks - bars, boxwidth, isosamples, pointsize, style

B<C<bars>> sets the width and behavior of the tick marks at the ends of error bars.
It takes a list containing at most two elements, both of which are optional:

=over 3

=item * A width specifier, which should be a numeric size multiplier times the usual
width (which is about one character width in the default font size), or the word
C<fullwidth> to make the ticks the same width as their associated boxes in boxplots
and histograms.

=item * the word "front" or "back" to indicate drawing order in plots that might contain
filled rectangles (e.g. boxes, candlesticks, or histograms).


If you pass in the undefined value you get no ticks on errorbars; if you pass in the
empty list ref you get default ticks.

B<C<boxwidth>> sets the width of drawn boxes in boxplots, candlesticks, and histograms.  It
takes a list containing at most two elements:

=over 3

=item * a numeric width

=item * one of the words C<absolute> or C<relative>.


Unless you set C<relative>, the numeric width sets the width of boxes
in X-axis scientific units (on log scales, this is measured at x=1 and
the same width is used throughout the plot plane).  If C<relative> is
included, the numeric width is taken to be a multiplier on the default

B<C<isosamples>> sets isoline density for plotting functions as
surfaces.  You supply one or two numbers.  The first is the number of
iso-u lines and the second is the number of iso-v lines.  If you only
specify one, then the two are taken to be the same.  From the gnuplot
manual: "An isoline is a curve parameterized by one of the surface
parameters while the other surface parameter is fixed.  Isolines
provide a simple means to display a surface.  By fixing the u
parameter of surface s(u,v), the iso-u lines of the form c(v) =
s(u0,v) are produced, and by fixing the v parameter, the iso-v lines
of the form c(u)=s(u,v0) are produced".

B<C<pointsize>> accepts a single number and scales the size of points used in plots.

B<C<style>> provides a great deal of customization for individual plot styles.
It is not (yet) fully parsed by PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot; please refer to the Gnuplot
manual for details (it is pp. 145ff in the Gnuplot 4.6.1 maual).  C<style> accepts
a hash ref whose keys are plot styles (such as you would feed to the C<with> curve option),
and whose values are list refs containing keywords and other parameters to modify how each
plot style should be displayed.

=head2 POs for locale/internationalization - locale, decimalsign

C<locale> is used to control date stamp creation.  See the gnuplot manual.

C<decimalsign>  accepts a character to use in lieu of a "." for the decimalsign.
(e.g. in European countries use C<< decimalsign=>',' >>).

C<globalwith> is used as a default plot style if no valid 'with' curve option is present for
a given curve.

If set to a nonzero value, C<timestamp> causes a time stamp to be
placed on the side of the plot, e.g. for keeping track of drafts.

C<zero> sets the approximation threshold for zero values within gnuplot.  Its default is 1e-8.

C<fontpath> sets a font search path for gnuplot.  It accepts a collection of file names as a list ref.

=head2 POs for advanced Gnuplot tweaks: topcmds, extracmds, bottomcmds, binary, dump, tee

Plotting is carried out by sending a collection of commands to an underlying
gnuplot process.  In general, the plot options cause "set" commands to be
sent, configuring gnuplot to make the plot; these are followed by a "plot" or
"splot" command and by any cleanup that is necessary to keep gnuplot in a known state.

Provisions exist for sending commands directly to Gnuplot as part of a plot.  You
can send commands at the top of the configuration but just under the initial
"set terminal" and "set output" commands (with the C<topcmds> option), at the bottom
of the configuration and just before the "plot" command (with the C<extracmds> option),
or after the plot command (with the C<bottomcmds> option).  Each of these plot
options takes a list ref, each element of which should be one command line for

Most plotting is done with binary data transfer to Gnuplot; however, due to
some bugs in Gnuplot binary handling, certain types of plot data are sent in ASCII.
In particular, time series and label data require transmission in ASCII (as of Gnuplot 4.4).
You can force ASCII transmission of all but image data by explicitly setting the
C<< binary=>0 >> option.

C<dump> is used for debugging. If true, it writes out the gnuplot commands to
STDOUT I<instead> of writing to a gnuplot process. Useful to see what commands
would be sent to gnuplot. This is a dry run. Note that if the 'binary' option is
given (see below), then this dump will contain binary data. If this binary data
should be suppressed from the dump, set C<< dump => 'nobinary' >>.

C<tee> is used for debugging. If true, writes out the gnuplot commands to STDERR
I<in addition> to writing to a gnuplot process. This is I<not> a dry run: data
is sent to gnuplot I<and> to the log. Useful for debugging I/O issues. Note that
if the 'binary' option is given (see below), then this log will contain binary
data. If this binary data should be suppressed from the log, set C<< tee =>
'nobinary' >>.


The curve options describe details of specific curves within a plot.
They are in a hash, whose keys are as follows:

=over 2

=item legend

Specifies the legend label for this curve

=item axes

Lets you specify which X and/or Y axes to plot on.  Gnuplot supports
a main and alternate X and Y axis.  You specify them as a packed string
with the x and y axes indicated: for example, C<x1y1> to plot on the main
axes, or C<x1y2> to plot using an alternate Y axis (normally gridded on
the right side of the plot).

=item with

Specifies the plot style for this curve. The value is passed to gnuplot
using its 'with' keyword, so valid values are whatever gnuplot
supports.  See above ("Plot styles supported") for a list of supported
curve styles.

The following curve options in this list modify the plot style further.
Not all of them are applicable to all plot styles -- for example, it makes
no sense to specify a fill style for C<< with=>lines >>.

For historical reasons, you can supply the with modifier curve options
as a single string in the "with" curve option.  That usage is deprecated
and will disappear in a future version of PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot.

=item linetype (abbrev 'lt')

This is a numeric selector from the default collection of line styles.
It includes automagic selection of dash style, color, and width from the
default set of linetypes for your current output terminal.

=item dashtype (abbrev 'dt')

This is can be either a numeric type selector (0 for no dashes) or 
an ARRAY ref containing a list of up to 5 pairs of (dash length,
space length).  The C<dashtype> curve option is only supported for 
Gnuplot versions 5.0 and above.  

If you don't specify a C<dashtype> curve option, the default behavior
matches the behavior of earlier gnuplots: many terminals support a
"dashed" terminal/output option, and if you have set that option (with
the constructor or with the C<output> method) then lines are uniquely
dashed by default.  To make a single curve solid, specify C<dt=>0> as
a curve option for it; or to make all curves solid, use the constructor
or the C<output> method to set the terminal option C<dashed=>0>.

If your gnuplot is older than v5.0, the dashtype curve option is 
ignored (and causes a warning to be emitted).

=item linestyle (abbrev 'ls')

This works exactly like C<< linetype >> above, except that you can modify
individual line styles by setting the C<< style line <num> >> plot option.
That is handy for a custom style you might use across several curves either
a single plot or several plots.

=item linewidth (abbrev 'lw')

This is a numeric multiplier on the usual default line width in your current

=item linecolor (abbrev 'lc')

This is a color specifier for the color of the line.  See L</"Color specification">.
You can feed in a standard color name (they're listed in the
package-global variable C<@PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::colornames>), a
small integer to index the standard linetype colors, the word
"variable" to indicate that the line color is a standard linetype
color to be drawn from an additional column of data, a string of the
form #RRGGBB, where the # is literal and the RR, GG, and BB are
hexadecimal bytes, the words "rgbcolor variable" to specify an
additional column of data containing 24-bit packed integers with RGB
color values, C<< [palette=>'frac',<val>] >> to specify a single
fractional position (scaled 0-1) in the current palette, or C<<
[palette=>'cb',<val>] >> to specify a single value in the scaled

There is no C<< linecolor=>[palette=>variable] >> due to Gnuplot's
non-orthogonal syntax.  To draw line color from the palette, via an
additional data column, see the separate "palette" curve option

=item textcolor (abbrev 'tc')

For plot styles like C<labels> that specify text, this sets the color
of the text.  It has the same format as C<linecolor> (above).

=item pointtype (abbrev 'pt')

Selects a point glyph shape from the built-in list for your terminal,
for plots that render points as small glyphs (like C<points> and

=item pointsize (abbrev 'ps')

Selects a fractional size for point glyphs, relative to the default size
on your terminal, for plots that render points as small glyphs.

=item fillstyle (abbrev 'fs')

Specify the way that filled regions should be colored, in plots that
have fillable areas (like C<boxes>).  Unlike C<linestyle> above,
C<fillstyle> accepts a full specification rather than an index into a
set of predefined styles. You can feed in: C<< 'empty' >> for no fill;
C<< 'transparent solid <density>' >> for a solid fill with optional
<density> from 0.0 to 1.0 (default 1.0); C<< 'transparent pattern <n>'
>> for a pattern fill--plotting multiple datasets causes the pattern
to cycle through all available pattern types, starting from pattern
<n> (be aware that the default <n>=0 may be equivalent to 'empty');
The 'transparent' portions of the strings are optional, and are only
effective on terminals that support transparency. Be aware that the
quality of the visual output may depend on terminal type and rendering

Any of those fill style specification strings can have a border
specification string appended to it.  To specify a border, append
C<'border'>, and then optionally either C<< 'lt=><type>' >> or C<<
'lc=><colorspec>' >> to the string.  To specify no border, append

=item nohidden3d

If you are making a 3D plot and have used the plot option C<hidden3d> to get
hidden line removal, you can override that for a particular curve by setting
the C<nohidden3d> option to a true value.  Only the single curve with C<nohidden3d>
set will have its hidden points rendered.

=item nocontours

If you are making a contour 3D plot, you can inhibit rendering of
contours for a particular curve by setting C<nocontours> to a true

=item nosurface

If you are making a surface 3D plot, you can inhibit rendering of the
surface associated with a particular curve, by setting C<nosurface> to
a true value.

=item palette

Setting C<< palette => 1 >> causes line color to be drawn from an additional
column in the data tuple.  This column is always the very last column in the
tuple, in case of conflict (e.g. if you set both C<< pointsize=>variable >> and
C<< palette=>1 >>, then the palette column is the last column and the pointsize
column is second-to-last).

=item tuplesize

Specifies how many values represent each data point.  Normally you
don't need to set this as individual C<with> styles implicitly set a
tuple size (which is automatically extended if you specify additional
modifiers such as C<palette> that require more data); this option
lets you override PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot's parsing in case of irregularity.

=item cdims

Specifies the dimensions of of each column in this curve's tuple.  It must
be 0, 1, or 2.   Normally you don't need to set this for most plots; the
main use is to specify that a 2-D data PDL is to be interpreted as a collection
of 1-D columns rather than a single 2-D grid (which would be the default
in a 3-D plot). For example:

    $r2 = rvals(21,21)**2;
    $w->plot3d( wi=>'lines', xvals($r2), yvals($r2), $r2 );

will produce a grid of values on a paraboloid. To instead plot a collection
of lines using the threaded syntax, try

    $w->plot3d( wi=>'lines', cd=>1, xvals($r2), yvals($r2), $r2 );

which will plot 21 separate curves in a threaded manner.


=head1 RECIPES

Most of these come directly from Gnuplot commands. See the Gnuplot docs for

=head2 2D plotting

If we're plotting a piddle $y of y-values to be plotted sequentially (implicit
domain), all you need is


If we also have a corresponding $x domain, we can plot $y vs. $x with

  gplot($x, $y);

=head3 Simple style control

To change line thickness:

  gplot(with => 'lines',linewidth=>4, $x, $y);
  gplot(with => 'lines', lw=>4, $x, $y);

To change point size and point type:

  gplot(with => 'points',pointtype=>8, $x, $y);
  gplot(with => 'points',pt=>8, $x, $y);

=head3 Errorbars

To plot errorbars that show $y +- 1, plotted with an implicit domain

  gplot(with => 'yerrorbars', $y, $y->ones);

Same with an explicit $x domain:

  gplot(with => 'yerrorbars', $x, $y, $y->ones);

Symmetric errorbars on both x and y. $x +- 1, $y +- 2:

  gplot(with => 'xyerrorbars', $x, $y, $x->ones, 2*$y->ones);

To plot asymmetric errorbars that show the range $y-1 to $y+2 (note that here
you must specify the actual errorbar-end positions, NOT just their deviations
from the center; this is how Gnuplot does it)

  gplot(with => 'yerrorbars', $y, $y - $y->ones, $y + 2*$y->ones);

=head3 More multi-value styles

Plotting with variable-size circles (size given in plot units, requires Gnuplot >= 4.4)

  gplot(with => 'circles', $x, $y, $radii);

Plotting with a variably-sized arbitrary point type (size given in multiples of
the "default" point size)

  gplot(with => 'points', pointtype=>7, pointsize=>'variable',
        $x, $y, $sizes);

Color-coded points

  gplot(with => 'points', palette=>1,
        $x, $y, $colors);

Variable-size AND color-coded circles. A Gnuplot (4.4.0) bug make it necessary to
specify the color range here

  gplot(cbmin => $mincolor, cbmax => $maxcolor,
        with => 'circles', palette=>1,
        $x, $y, $radii, $colors);

=head2 3D plotting

General style control works identically for 3D plots as in 2D plots.

To plot a set of 3d points, with a square aspect ratio (squareness requires
Gnuplot >= 4.4):

  splot(square => 1, $x, $y, $z);

If $xy is a 2D piddle, we can plot it as a height map on an implicit domain


Complicated 3D plot with fancy styling:

  my $pi    = 3.14159;
  my $theta = zeros(200)->xlinvals(0, 6*$pi);
  my $z     = zeros(200)->xlinvals(0, 5);

  splot(title => 'double helix',

        { with => 'linespoints',
          legend => 'spiral 1' },
        { legend => 'spiral 2' },

        # 2 sets of x, 2 sets of y, single z
        PDL::cat( cos($theta), -cos($theta)),
        PDL::cat( sin($theta), -sin($theta)),

        # pointsize, color
        0.5 + abs(cos($theta)), sin(2*$theta) );

3D plots can be plotted as a heat map.

  splot( extracmds => 'set view 0,0',
         with => 'image',
         $xy );

=head2 Hardcopies

To send any plot to a file, instead of to the screen, one can simply do

  gplot(hardcopy => 'output.pdf',
        $x, $y);

The C<hardcopy> option is a shorthand for the C<terminal> and
C<output> options. The output device is chosen from the file name

If you want more (any) control over the output options (e.g. page
size, font, etc.) then you can specify the output device using the
C<output> method or the constructor itself -- or the corresponding plot
options in the non-object mode. For example, to generate a PDF of a
particular size with a particular font size for the text, one can do

  gplot(terminal => 'pdfcairo solid color font ",10" size 11in,8.5in',
        output   => 'output.pdf',
        $x, $y);

This command is equivalent to the C<hardcopy> shorthand used previously, but the
fonts and sizes can be changed.

Using the object oriented mode, you could instead say:

  $w = gpwin();
  $w->plot( $x, $y );
  $w->output( pdfcairo, solid=>1, color=>1,font=>',10',size=>[11,8.5,'in'] );

Many hardcopy output terminals (such as C<pdf> and C<svg>) will not
dump their plot to the file unless the file is explicitly closed with a
change of output device or a call to C<reset>, C<restart>, or C<close>.
This is because those devices support multipage output and also require
and end-of-file marker to close the file.

=head1 Plotting examples

=head2 A simple example

   my $win = gpwin('x11');
   $win->plot( sin(xvals(45)) * 3.14159/10 );

Here we just plot a simple function.  The default plot style is a
line.  Line plots take a 2-tuple (X and Y values).  Since we have
supplied only one element, C<plot()> understands it to be the Y value
(abscissa) of the plot, and supplies value indices as X values -- so
we get a plot of just over 2 cycles of the sine wave over an X range
across X values from 0 to 44.

=head2 A not-so-simple example

   $win = gpwin('x11');
   $pi = 3.14159;
   $win->plot( {with => line}, xvals(10)**2, xvals(10),
               {with => circles}, 2 * xvals(50), 2 * sin(xvals(50) * $pi / 10), xvals(50)/20

This plots sqrt(x) in an interesting way, and overplots some circles of varying size.
The line plot accepts a 2-tuple, and we supply both X and Y.  The circles plot accepts
a 3-tuple: X, Y, and R.

=head2 A complicated example:

   $pi    = 3.14159;
   $theta = xvals(201) * 6 * $pi / 200;
   $z     = xvals(201) * 5 / 200;

   gplot( {trid => 1, title => 'double helix',cbr=>[0,1]},
         {with => 'linespoints',
          legend => ['spiral 1','spiral 2'],
         pdl( cos($theta), -cos($theta) ),       # x
         pdl( sin($theta), -sin($theta) ),       # y
         $z,                                     # z
         (0.5 + abs(cos($theta))),               # pointsize
         sin($theta/3),                          # color
         { with=>'points',
         zeroes(6),                         # x
         zeroes(6),                         # y
         xvals(6),                          # z
         xvals(6)+1                         # point size

This is a 3d plot with variable size and color. There are 5 values in
the tuple.  The first 2 piddles have dimensions (N,2); all the other
piddles have a single dimension. The "cdim=>1" specifies that each column
of data should be one-dimensional. Thus the PDL threading generates 2
distinct curves, with varying values for x,y and identical values for
everything else.  To label the curves differently, 2 different sets of
curve options are given.  Omitting the "cdim" curve option would yield
a 201x2 grid with the "linespoints" plotstyle, rather than two separate

In addition to the threaded pair of linespoints curves, there are six
variable size points plotted as filled squares, as a secondary curve.

Plot options are passed in in two places:  as a leading hash ref, and as
a trailing hash ref.  Any other hash elements or hash refs must be curve

Curves are delimited by non-data arguments.  After the initial hash
ref, curve options for the first curve (the threaded pair of spirals)
are passed in as a second hash ref.  The curve's data arguments are
ended by the first non-data argument (the hash ref with the curve
options for the second curve).



package PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot;

use strict;
use warnings;
use PDL;
use List::Util qw(first);
use Storable qw(dclone);
use IPC::Open3;
use IPC::Run;
use IO::Select;
use Symbol qw(gensym);
use Time::HiRes qw(gettimeofday tv_interval);
use Safe::Isa;
use Carp;

use Alien::Gnuplot 4.4;  # Ensure gnuplot exists and is recent, and get ancillary info about it.
if($Alien::Gnuplot::VERSION < 1.031) {
    # Have to check explicitly since we use the version hack to check the *gnuplot* version.
    die "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot requires Alien::Gnuplot version 1.031 or higher\n (v$Alien::Gnuplot::VERSION found). You can pull the latest from CPAN.\n";

our $gnuplot_dep_v = 4.6; # Versions below this are deprecated.
our $gnuplot_req_v = 4.4; # Versions below this are not supported.

# Compile time config flags...
our $check_syntax = 0;
our $MS_io_braindamage = ($^O =~ m/MSWin32/i || $ENV{CYGWIN});    # Do some different things on Losedows
our $echo_eating = 0;                             # Older versions of gnuplot on windows echo commands
our $debug_echo = 0;                              # If set, mock up Losedows half-duplex pipes

our $VERSION = '2.013';

our $gp_version = undef;   # eventually gets the extracted gnuplot(1) version number.

my $did_warn_non_numeric_patchlevel; # whether we already warned about this

use base 'Exporter';
our @EXPORT_OK = qw(plot plot3d line lines points image terminfo reset restart replot);
our @EXPORT = qw(gpwin gplot greplot greset grestart);

# when testing plots with binary i/o, this is the unit of test data
my $testdataunit_binary = "........"; # 8 bytes - length of an IEEE double

# globalPlot holds state when methods are called with non-object
# syntax.  (If you want more than one plot at once, you have to use
# the object syntax).
our $globalPlot;

# get a list of all the -- options that this gnuplot supports
our %gnuplotFeatures = _getGnuplotFeatures();

# Declare the parse tables for plot and curve options.  (They're populated below).
our($pOpt, $cOpt);

# This is a magic string that's used to separate curve blocks when assembling the
# plot command.
our $cmdFence = "cmdFENCEcmd";

# Constructor(s)
# gpwin & new - constructor
# DESTROY - destructor kills gnuplot task
# _startGnuplot - helper for new


=head2 gpwin

=for usage

 use PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot;
 $w = gpwin( @options );
 $w->plot( @plot_args );

=for ref

gpwin is the PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot exported constructor.  It is
exported by default and is a synonym for "new
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot(...)".  If given no arguments, it creates a
plot object with the default terminal settings for your gnuplot.  You
can also give it the name of a Gnuplot terminal type (e.g. 'x11') and
some terminal and output options (see "output").


sub gpwin { return new("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot",@_); }


=head2 new

=for usage

    $w = new PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot;
    $w->plot( @plot_args );
    # Specify plot options alone
    $w = new PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot( {%plot_options} );
    # Specify device and device options (and optional default plot options)
    $w = new PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot( device, %device_options, {%plot_options} );
    $w->plot( @plot_args );

=for ref

Creates a PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot persistent plot object, and connects it to gnuplot.

For convenience, you can specify the output device and its options
right here in the constructor.  Because different gnuplot devices
accept different options, you must specify a device if you want to
specify any device configuration options (such as window size, output
file, text mode, or default font).

If you don't specify a device type, then the Gnuplot default device
for your system gets used.  You can set that with an environment
variable (check the Gnuplot documentation).

Gnuplot uses the word "terminal" for output devices; you can see a
list of terminals supported by PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot by invoking
C<PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::terminfo()> (for example in the perldl shell).

For convenience, you can provide default plot options here.  If the last
argument to C<new()> is a trailing hash ref, it is treated as plot options.

After you have created an object, you can change its terminal/output
device with the C<output> method, which is useful for (e.g.) throwing
up an interactive plot and then sending it to a hardcopy device. See
C<output> for a description of terminal options and how to format

Normally, the object connects to the command "gnuplot" in your path,
using the C<Alien::Gnuplot> module.  If you need to specify a binary
other than this default, check the C<Alien::Gnuplot> documentation.

=for example

  my $plot = PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot->new({title => 'Object-oriented plot'});
  $plot->plot( legend => 'curve', sequence(5) );


our $termTab;

sub new
  my $classname;

  # DWIM if we call this like gpwin(). That usage is deprecated but tolerated.
  if(UNIVERSAL::isa('PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot',$_[0])) {
      $classname = shift;
  } else {
      $classname = "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot";

  # Declare & bless minimal object to hold everything.
  my $this = { t0          => [gettimeofday],   # last access
	       options     => {multiplot=>0},   # multiplot option actually holds multiplotting state flag
	       replottable => 0,                # small amount of state...
	       interactive => 0,

  # start up a gnuplot
  _startGnuplot($this,'syntax') if($check_syntax);

  # Parse and process all remaining parameters using output(), below.
  output($this, @_);

  _logEvent($this, "startGnuplot() finished") if ($this->{options}{tee});

  return $this;

# output - set output terminal and options.


=head2 output

=for usage

    $window->output( $device );
    $window->output( $device, %device_options );
    $window->output( $device, %device_options, {plot_options} );
    $window->output( %device_options, {plot_options} );
    $window->output( %device_options );

=for ref

Sets the output device and options for a Gnuplot object. If you omit
the C<$device> name, then you get the gnuplot default device (generally
C<x11>, C<wxt>, or C<aqua>, depending on platform).

You can control the output device of a PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot object on
the fly.  That is useful, for example, to replot several versions of the
same plot to different output devices (interactive and hardcopy).

Gnuplot interprets terminal options differently per device.
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot attempts to interpret some of the more common
ones in a common way.  In particular:

=over 3

=item size

Most drivers support a "size" option to specify the size of the output
plotting surface.  The format is [$width, $height, $unit]; the
trailing unit string is optional but recommended, since the default
unit of length changes from device to device.

The unit string can be in, cm, mm, px, char, or pt.  Pixels are taken
to be 1 point in size (72 pixels per inch) and dimensions are computed
accordingly.  Characters are taken to be 12 point in size (6 per

=item output

This option actually sets the object's "output" option for most terminal
devices; that changes the file to which the plot will be written.  Some
devices, notably X11 and Aqua, don't make proper use of "output"; for those
devices, specifying "output" in the object constructor actually sets the
appropriate terminal option (e.g. "window" in the X11 terminal).
This is described as a "plot option" in the Gnuplot manual, but it is
treated as a setup variable and parsed with the setup/terminal options here
in the constructor.

If you don't specify an output device, plots will go to sequentially-numbered
files of the form C<Plot-E<lt>nE<gt>.E<lt>sufE<gt>> in your current working
directory.  In that case, PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot will report (on STDERR)
where the plot ended up.

=item enhanced

This is a flag that indicates whether to enable Gnuplot's enhanced text
processing (e.g. for superscripts and subscripts).  Set it to a false
value for plain text, to a true value for enhanced text (which includes
LaTeX-like markup for super/sub scripts and fonts).

=item aa

For certain pixel-grid terminals (currently only C<pncairo> and
C<png>, as of v2.012), you can specify an antialiasing factor for the
output.  The output is rendered oversized by a factor of C<aa>, then
scaled down using C<PDL::Transform>.  Fixed font sized, line widths,
and point sizes are autoscaled -- but you must handle variable ones

Antialiasing is done in the gamma=2.2 approximation, to match the sRGB
coding that most pixel image files use.  (See PDL::Transform::Color
for more information).


For a brief description of the terminal options that any one device supports,
you can run PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::terminfo().

As with plot options, terminal options can be abbreviated to the shortest
unique string -- so (e.g.) "size" can generally be abbreviated "si" and
"monochrome" can be abbreviated "mono" or "mo".


sub output {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);

    # Check if the last passed-in parameter is a hash ref -- if it is, then it is plot options
    my $poh;
    if( (0+@_) && ref($_[$#_]) eq 'HASH') {
	$poh = pop @_;
    # parse plot options (if any)
    if($poh) {

    # If there are no arguments, we're not setting the terminal - so we need to
    # ask gnuplot what it thinks the terminal is.  Then we run it through the usual
    # setting logic, to make sure we've got our terminal options parsing and
    # other switches set right (e.g. does the default terminal support mouse input?)
    my $terminal = "";
    unless(@_ && (@_ % 2)) {
	_printGnuplotPipe($this, "main","show terminal\n");
	my $show = _checkpoint($this, "main");
	unless($show =~ s/^\s*terminal type is ((\w+)(.*[^\s])?)\s*$/$1/) {
	    barf "You seem to be using the default terminal, but gnuplot was unwilling to report it!"
	} else {
	    unshift(@_, $2);

    if(@_) {
	# Check that, if there is at least one more argument, it is recognizable as a terminal
	my $terminal;
	$terminal = lc(shift);

	# Check the terminal list here!
	if(!exists($this->{valid_terms}->{$terminal})) {
	    my $s;
	    our $termTabSource;

	    if(exists($this->{unknown_terms}->{$terminal})) {
		$s = <<"FOO";
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: Your gnuplot has terminal '$terminal' but it is not supported.
        $terminal: $this->{unknown_terms}->{$terminal}

	    elsif(exists($termTab->{$terminal})) {
		$s = <<"FOO";
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: your gnuplot appears not to support the terminal '$terminal'.
        $terminal: $termTabSource->{$terminal}->{desc} [not in reported list from gnuplot]
	    else {
		$s = "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: neither this module nor your gnuplot support '$terminal'.\n";
		if(exists($termTabSource->{$terminal})) {
		    $s .= "        $terminal: $termTabSource->{$terminal}\n";
		} else {
		    $s .= "        $terminal: doesn't appear to be a gnuplot terminal name\n";

	    $s .= "\nYou can use the 'terminfo' method for a list of available terminals.\n\n";

	# Generate abbrevs on first invokation for each terminal type.
	unless($termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}->[1]) {
	    $termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}->[1] = _gen_abbrev_list(keys %{$termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}[0]});
	    $termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}->[0]->{__unit__} = ['s','-']; # Hack so we can stash the unit string in there later.

	my $termOptions = {};

	# parse "terminal" options
	if($termTab->{$terminal} && $termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}) {

	    # Stuff the default output filename into the options hash (will be overwritten if
	    # the user specified an "output" option)
	    $termOptions->{'output'} = $termTab->{$terminal}->{default_output};

	    # Stuff the default size unit into the options hash, so that the parser has access to it.
	    $termOptions->{'__unit__'} = $termTab->{$terminal}->{unit};

	    _parseOptHash( $termOptions, $termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}, @_ );

	    # Default the 'persist' option to 0, so that interactive windows behave nicely unless
	    # asked to stay.
	    if(exists($termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}->[0]->{persist})  and
	       !defined($termOptions->{persist}) ) {
		$termOptions->{persist} = 0;

	    # Default the 'dashed' option to 1.
	    if(exists($termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}->[0]->{dashed})  and
	       !defined($termOptions->{dashed}) ) {
		$termOptions->{dashed} = 1;

	    # Although 'output' is strictly speaking a terminal option, gnuplot treats it as a plot option -- so
	    # we copy it into the main plot options hash to be emitted as part of the plot operation.
	    $this->{options}->{output} = $termOptions->{output};
	    $this->{wait} = $termOptions->{wait} if defined $termOptions->{wait};

	    ### Deal with anti-aliasing scaling factors
	    if( defined $termOptions->{aa}) {
		$this->{aa}   = $termOptions->{aa}                     
	    } else {
		$this->{aa} = 1;

	    ### Set a default font size for better control
	    unless(defined $termOptions->{font}) {
		    $termOptions->{font} = ',10';

	    ### Terminals that support anti-aliasing all broadcast their format so that rpic can handle them.
	    if( defined $termTab->{terminal}->{image_format}) {
		$this->{image_format}= $termTab->{$terminal}->{image_format};
	    } else {

	    delete $termOptions->{output};

	    ## Emit the terminal options line for this terminal.
	    $this->{options}->{terminal} = join(" ", ($terminal, _emitOpts( $termOptions, $termTab->{$terminal}->{opt} )));
	    $this->{terminal} = $terminal;
	    $this->{mouse} = $termTab->{$terminal}->{mouse} || 0;
	} else {
	    barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot doesn't support the device '$terminal', sorry\n\n     Run PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::terminfo() for a list of devices.\n\n";

    return $this;

# DESTROY - required to make sure the subprocess is gone.
# (no POD since it's not part of the usual API)

  my $this = shift;


=head2 close

=for usage


=for ref

Close gnuplot process (actually just a synonym for restart)

Some of the gnuplot terminals (e.g. pdf) don't write out a file
promptly.  The close method closes the associated gnuplot subprocess,
forcing the file to be written out.  It is implemented as a simple
restart operation.

The object preserves the plot state, so C<replot> and similar methods
still work with the new subprocess.


sub close
    my $this = shift;
    if(defined $this->{aa} && $this->{aa} && $this->{aa} != 1 && $this->{aa_ready}) {
	eval "use PDL::Transform; use PDL::IO::Pic;";  # load when needed
	my $im = rpic($this->{options}->{output},{FORMAT=>$this->{image_format}});
	if($im->ndims==3) {
	    $im = $im->mv(0,-1);
	# gamma-correct before scaling, and put back after.
	my $imf = ((float $im)/255.0)->clip(0,1) ** 2.2;
	$imf = $imf->match( [ $im->dim(0)/$this->{aa}, $im->dim(1)/$this->{aa} ], {method=>'h',blur=>0.5});
	$im = byte(($imf ** (1/2.2)) * 255);
	    $im = $im->mv(-1,0);
	wpic($im, $this->{options}->{output}, {FORMAT=>$this->{image_format}});
    $this->{aa_ready} = 0;


=head2 restart

=for usage


=for ref

Restart the gnuplot backend for a plot object

Occasionally the gnuplot backend can get into an unknown state.
C<restart> kills the gnuplot backend and starts a new one, preserving
state in the object.  (i.e. C<replot> and similar functions work even
with the new subprocess).

Called with no arguments, C<restart> applies to the global plot object.


# reset - tops and restarts the underlying gnuplot process for an object
*grestart = \&restart;
sub restart {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    my $dumpswitch = shift;
    my $localdumpvar = $this->{options}->{dump};
	# We restart the process when the dump option is switched on or off.
	# Since _killGnuplot uses _printGnuplotPipe, we have
	# to hold the old state briefly while the old process is killed.
	local($this->{options}->{dump}) =
	    ($dumpswitch ? $this->{dumping} : $localdumpvar);

    # When starting Gnuplot we use the {options}->{dump} flag as it should be.
    _startGnuplot($this,'syntax') if($check_syntax);
    $this->{options}->{multiplot} = 0;
    undef $PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::last_plotcmd;
    undef $PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::last_testcmd;
    undef $this->{last_plotcmd};
    undef $this->{last_testcmd};


=head2 reset

=for usage


=for ref

Clear state from the gnuplot backend

Clears all plot option state from the underlying object.  All plot
options except "terminal", "termoptions", "output", and "multiplot"
are cleared.  This is similar to the "reset" command supported by
gnuplot itself, and in fact it also causes a "reset" to be sent to


*greset = \*reset;
sub reset {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
     for my $k(keys %{$this->{options}}) {
	unless ( $k =~ m/(terminal|output|termoptions|multiplot)/ ) {
	    delete $this->{options}->{$k};
    my $checkpointMessage;
    if($check_syntax) {
	# Send multiple newlines to avoid bugs in certain gnuplots, which
	# appear to lose a character after reset.
	_printGnuplotPipe( $this, "syntax", "reset\n\n\n"); 
	$checkpointMessage = _checkpoint($this,"syntax");
    _printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", "reset\n\n\n");
    $checkpointMessage = _checkpoint($this, "main");

    $this->{replottable} = 0;
    delete $this->{last_plot};
    return $this;

# Options setting routines


=head2 options

=for usage

  $w = new PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot();
  $w->options( globalwith=>'lines' );
  print %{$w->options()};

=for ref

Set/get persistent plot options for a plot object

The options method parses plot options into a gnuplot object on a
cumulative basis, and returns the resultant options hash.

If called as a sub rather than a method, options() changes the
global gnuplot object.


*option = \&options;
sub options {
    my($me) = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    $me->{options} = {} unless defined($me->{options});
    _parseOptHash($me->{options}, $pOpt, @_);
    if($me->{last_plot} && $me->{last_plot}->{options}) {
	_parseOptHash($me->{last_plot}->{options}, $pOpt, @_);
    return $me->{options};

# plot - the main API function to generate a plot.


=head2 gplot

=for ref

Plot method exported by default (synonym for "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::plot")

=head2 plot

=for ref

This is the main plotting routine in PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot.

Each C<plot()> call creates a new plot from whole cloth, either creating
or overwriting the output for that device.

If you want to add features to an existing plot, use C<replot>.

C<plot()> understands the PDL bad value mechanism.  Bad values are omitted
from the plot.

=for usage

 $w->plot({temp_plot_options},                 # optional
      curve_options, data, data, ... ,      # curve_options are optional for the first plot
      curve_options, data, data, ... ,

Most of the arguments are optional.

All of the extensive array of gnuplot plot styles are supported, including images and 3-D plots.

=for example

 use PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot qw(plot);
 my $x = sequence(101) - 50;

See main POD for PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot for details.

You can pass plot options into plot as either a leading or trailing hash ref, or both.
If you pass both, the trailing hash ref is parsed last and overrides the leading hash.

For debugging and curiosity purposes, the last plot command issued to gnuplot
is maintained in a package global: C<$PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::last_plotcmd>, and also
in each object as the {last_plotcmd} field.


*gplot = \&plot;
sub plot
    barf( "Plot called with no arguments") unless @_;

    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);

    delete $this->{last_dashtype}; # implement dashtype state function for gnuplot>=5.0
    # Parse optional plot options - must be an array or hash ref, if present.
    # Cheesy but hopefully effective method (from Dima): parse as plot options
    # and if that throws an error treat 'em as curve options instead.
    # This is additionally complicated by the desire to make these *temporary*
    # options -- so we don't accumulate the options in the main object options
    # hash.
    # The temporariness is accomplished by localizing $this->{options} and replacing
    # it with either itself or the parsed copy of itself.
    # As an additional DWIM to make Dima happy, we parse initial options as plot
    # options until encountering something that could conceivably be a curve option -
    # whereupon we switch to curve options.  The DWIMming is done by checking individual
    # option names to see if they (A) are NOT curve options and (B) are plot options.
    # We snarf up all such options and put 'em into a hash ref like they should have been.
	my $dwim_plot_options = [];
	while( 0+@_ and !(ref $_[0]) ) {
	    my ($kk,$knum);

	    ($kk,$knum) = eval { _expand_abbrev($_[0], $cOpt->[1], $cOpt->[2]) };

	    if($@) {
		($kk,$knum) = eval { _expand_abbrev($_[0], $pOpt->[1], $pOpt->[2]) };

		if(!$@) {
		    # It's a plot option and not a curve option -- pull it, and its argument, from the arg list and put them
		    # into $dwim_plot_options.
		    push(@{$dwim_plot_options}, shift);
		    push(@{$dwim_plot_options}, shift);
		} else {
	    } else {
	if( 0+@{$dwim_plot_options} ) {
	    unshift(@_, $dwim_plot_options);

    # Any option parsing we do is ephemeral, so we have to localize the options hash, so we dclone it at
    # the start.  If we're replotting, start with the last_plot options - which gets the same treatment even
    # though it will be overwritten with its own clone on successful completion.  That is so, if we fail,
    # the last_plot hash options hash remains unchanged in the object.
    my $o;
    if($this->{replotting}) {
	$o = dclone($this->{last_plot}->{options});
	$o->{terminal} = $this->{options}->{terminal};
	$o->{output}   = $this->{options}->{output};
    } else {
	$o = dclone($this->{options});

    # Now parse the initial hash of plot options (if there is one)
    if(  (ref $_[0]) =~ m/^(HASH|ARRAY)/ ) {
	my $oo = dclone($o);
	eval { _parseOptHash( $oo, $pOpt, $_[0] ); };
	if($@ =~ m/^No /) {
	    # Found an unrecognized keyword -- clear the error and keep going.
	    # (not a set of plot options)
	    $@ = "";
	} elsif($@) {
	    # Some other actual exception -- pass it down the line.  Oops.
	    barf $@ . "   (while parsing presumed extra plot options at start of plot command)\n";
	} else {
	    # worked!
	    $o = $oo;
	    shift @_;  # pull argument off the start.

    # Now look for and parse a trailing hash of plot options (if there is one)
    if( $#_ >= 1  and   ((ref $_[-1])=~ /^(HASH)/)) {
	my $oo = dclone($o);
	eval { _parseOptHash( $oo, $pOpt, $_[-1] ); };
	if($@ =~ m/^No /) {
	    # Found an unrecognized keyword -- clear the error and keep going.
	    # (not a set of plot options)
	    $@ = "";
	} elsif($@) {
	    # Some other actual exception -- pass it down the line.  Oops.
	    barf $@ . "   (while parsing presumed extra plot options at end of plot command)\n";
	} else {
	    # worked!
	    $o = $oo;
	    pop @_;  # pull argument off the end.

    #  Localize the options hash for uniform reference.  Now the
    #  object options has the full parsed options, but it is fully localized --
    #  it will revert to its pre-call state when we exit this block.
    local($this->{options}) = $o;
    local($this->{tmp_options}) = {};

    # Make sure to reset the palette to the gnuplot default if it's not set here
    $this->{options}->{palette} = [] unless($this->{options}->{palette});

    # If we're replotting, then any remaining arguments need to be put
    # *after* the arguments that we used for the last plot.
    if($this->{replotting}) {
	unless( $_[0]->$_isa('PDL') ) {
	    @_ = (@{$this->{last_plot}->{args}},@_);
	} else {
	    @_ = (@{$this->{last_plot}->{args}},{},@_);


    # Set binary mode default. This is a bit complex since
    # we sometimes default to binary and sometimes to ascii.

    unless(defined $this->{options}->{binary}) {
	# The user didn't explicitly set binary or non-binary mode.  Try to guess.
	# Also, under Microsoft Windows binary mode seems to be dicey (Juegen Mueck's hang
	# test), so we default to ascii.
	if($this->{early_gnuplot} or $MS_io_braindamage ) {
	    # Early gnuplot - ASCII mode only (by default)
	    $this->{options}->{binary} = 0;
	} else {
	    # Late-model gnuplot - binary for non time format plots, ASCII for time plots.
	    # (Note: some transfer formats force binary transfer)
		my $using_times = 0;
		for my $k( qw/x x2 y y2 z cb/ ) {
		    if($this->{options}->{$k."data"} and $this->{options}->{$k."data"} =~ m/time/) {
			$using_times = 1;
		$this->{options}->{binary} = !$using_times;
	$this->{binary_flag_defaulted} = 1; # Mark that we set the binary/ascii mode by default rather than user command
    } else {
	$this->{binary_flag_defaulted} = 0;

    # Store the current arguments into the state array for next time.
    # (This has to be done here because plot options need to be stripped out first).
    # Because of all the local-variable shenanigans with overlain configs for this and that,
    # we unfortunately have to make a deep copy of the plot options for the last_plot.
    # The variables we deliberately do *not* deep copy, in case someone wants to use the
    # modify-and-replot trick that is in the gnuplot documentation.  (That trick uses
    # file modification, but in-place modification of PDLs "feels right" too)
    # We don't store the arguments if we're carrying the "ephemeral" flag - that is
    # so we can do ephemeral markup of plots, without adding to the replot list.
    unless($this->{ephemeral}) {
	$this->{last_plot}->{args}  = [@_];
	$this->{last_plot}->{options} = dclone($this->{options});
	if($this->{binary_flag_defaulted}) {
	    delete $this->{last_plot}->{options}->{binary};

    # Now parse the rest of the arguments into chunks.
    # parseArgs is a nested sub at the bottom of this one.
    my($chunks, $Ncurves) = parseArgs($this, @_);

    if( scalar @$chunks == 0)
    { barf "plot() was not given any data"; }

    # Now generate the plot command.
    # This is complicated by the need to generate two separate commands --
    # the main command (which goes into $plotcmd), and a separate test command
    # that is intended to check syntax (and goes into $testcmd).
    # We start by emitting the options string (and re-emitting it with the dumb
    # terminal, for the test command), then emitting a mock-up of each
    # chunk's plot/curve arguments into a single "plot" command line.  This first
    # line doesn't contain the data specifier, only a fence string.
    # Then we cut up the command line into pieces at the fences, so that we can assemble the
    # data specifiers and build a complete command line.

    # Figure per-curve binary/ASCII mode, and fix up some of the option defaults based on context.
    # In particular, gnuplot 4.4-4.6 don't handle image scaling correctly, so unless an xrange/yrange
    # is specified we have to take care of it ourselves.
    # This is complicated in the case when there are multiple chunks, one of which is an image.
    # We can't set an overall range until we scan the whole collection of chunks.

    my ($cbmin,$cbmax) = (undef, undef);
    my $im_ranges = {};
    my $active_axes = {};
    my @axes_by_chunkno = ();

    for my $i(0..$#$chunks) {

	# Allow global binary/ASCII flag to be overridden by per-curve binary/ASCII flag
	$chunks->[$i]->{binaryCurveFlag} = _def($chunks->[$i]->{binaryWith}, $this->{options}->{binary});

	# Figure which axes are active
	my $axis_str = _def($chunks->[$i]->{options}->{axes}, 'x1y1');
	my ($xax,$yax);

	if($axis_str =~ m/x([12])y([12])/i) {
	    my($x,$y) = ($1,$2);
	    ($xax,$yax) = ( ($x==1 ? 'x' : 'x2') , ($y==1 ? 'y' : 'y2'));
	} else {
	    carp "WARNING: axes specifier '$axis_str' doesn't make sense.  Continuing anyway...\n";
	    ($xax,$yax) = ('x','y');
	$axes_by_chunkno[$i] = [$xax,$yax];


	# Everything else in this block is an image fix
	next unless($chunks->[$i]->{imgFlag});

	# Fix up gnuplot color scaling bug/misfeature for RGB images
	# Here, we accumulate min/max color ranges across *all* imagelike chunks,
	# so mixing rgb and palette images will scale right.
	if(!defined( $this->{options}->{cbrange} )) {
	    my $with = $chunks->[$i]->{options}->{with}->[0];

	    my $slice = "-1";
	    $slice = "-3:-1" if($with eq 'rgbimage');
	    $slice = "-4:-2" if($with eq 'rgbalpha');

	    # Sometimes data comes in that has BAD values but they are
	    # not marked as such, which messes up the cbmin &c. calc.
	    if ($PDL::Bad::Status){

	    my $bolus = $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->slice($slice);

	    # Convert NaNs to bad if possible.  This is slow --
	    # need to fix the minmax &c. operators in PDL to ignore NaNs on command;
	    # currently the default behavior is that NaN poisons the whole min/max
	    # operation.
	    my ($cmin, $cmax);
	    ($cmin,$cmax) = $bolus->where(isfinite($bolus))->minmax;

	    $cbmin = $cmin if( !defined($cbmin)   or    $cmin < $cbmin );
	    $cbmax = $cmax if( !defined($cbmax)   or    $cmax < $cbmax );

	# Do image ranging.
	# This is necessary to tighten up the boundaries around images -- gnuplot ranging
	# has a wart in that case, where image boundaries are extended to the nearest round
	# number of pixels by default.
	# We implement that here by accumulating the largest extent covered by images.
	# If there are images and no xrange/yrange was set by the user, we set it to that.

	my $z; # temp. holding space for xrange/yrange for this chunk

	if($chunks->[$i]->{ArrayRec} eq 'array') {
	    $z = [-0.5, $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->dim(1) - 0.5];
	} else {
	    my($xmin,$xmax) = $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->slice("(0)")->minmax;
	    my($dx) = ($xmax-$xmin) / $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->dim(1) * 0.5;
	    $z = [$xmin - $dx, $xmax + $dx];

	$im_ranges->{$xax} = [undef, undef] unless(defined($im_ranges->{$xax}));
	$im_ranges->{$xax}->[0] = $z->[0]  if( !defined( $im_ranges->{$xax}->[0] ) or $z->[0] < $im_ranges->{$xax}->[0] );
	$im_ranges->{$xax}->[1] = $z->[1]  if( !defined( $im_ranges->{$xax}->[1] ) or $z->[1] > $im_ranges->{$xax}->[1] );

	if($chunks->[$i]->{ArrayRec} eq 'array') {
	    $z= [ -0.5, $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->dim(2) - 0.5 ];
	} else {
	    my($ymin,$ymax) = $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->slice("(1)")->minmax;
	    my($dy) = ($ymax-$ymin) / $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->dim(2) * 0.5;
	    $z = [$ymin - $dy, $ymax + $dy];

	$im_ranges->{$yax} = [undef, undef] unless(defined($im_ranges->{$yax}));
	$im_ranges->{$yax}->[0] = $z->[0]  if( !defined( $im_ranges->{$yax}->[0] ) or $z->[0] < $im_ranges->{$yax}->[0] );
	$im_ranges->{$yax}->[1] = $z->[1]  if( !defined( $im_ranges->{$yax}->[1] ) or $z->[1] > $im_ranges->{$yax}->[1] );

    # If image xrange/yrange has been set, check it against the maximum extent of other types of
    # data.  If other types of data exceed the image xrange/yrange, then delete the corresponding
    # element of image xrange/yrange, to allow gnuplot to autoscale.
    # This is complicated (of course) by the fact that the user can omit the ordinate - so we have
    # to detect the missing-ordinate case and use the dimension instead.
    # We don't actually keep the non-image range limits, since we want to fall back to gnuplot's
    # axis estimator in the case where a non-image curve is setting the size of the axis.

    if( 0 + (keys %$im_ranges) ) {
	my $ranges = {};
	for my $i(0..$#$chunks) {
	    next if($chunks->[$i]->{imgFlag});

	    my($cxr, $cyr);

	    if($chunks->[$i]->{ArrayRec} eq 'array') {
		if( $chunks->[$i]->{cdims}==2 ) {
		    $cxr = [0, $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->dim(1)];
		    $cyr = [0, $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[1]->dim(2)];
		} elsif( $chunks->[$i]->{cdims}==1 ) {
		    $cxr = [0, $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->dim(0)];
		    $cyr = [$chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->minmax];
		} else {
		    carp "WARNING: Found an 'impossible' case in autoranging.  Your plot is probably OK.\n\tplease file a bug report for PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot version $VERSION\n";
	    } else {
		$cxr = [ PDL::topdl('PDL',$chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0])->minmax ];
		$cyr = [ PDL::topdl('PDL',$chunks->[$i]->{data}->[1])->minmax ];

	    my $xax = $axes_by_chunkno[$i]->[0];
	    my $yax = $axes_by_chunkno[$i]->[1];

	    $ranges->{$xax} = [undef,undef] unless defined($ranges->{$xax});
	    $ranges->{$xax}->[0] = $cxr->[0] if( !defined( $ranges->{$xax}->[0] ) or $cxr->[0] < $ranges->{$xax}->[0]);
	    $ranges->{$xax}->[1] = $cxr->[1] if( !defined( $ranges->{$xax}->[1] ) or $cxr->[1] > $ranges->{$xax}->[1]);

	    $ranges->{$yax} = [undef,undef] unless defined($ranges->{$yax});
	    $ranges->{$yax}->[0] = $cyr->[0] if( !defined( $ranges->{$yax}->[0] ) or $cyr->[0] < $ranges->{$yax}->[0]);
	    $ranges->{$yax}->[1] = $cyr->[1] if( !defined( $ranges->{$yax}->[1] ) or $cyr->[1] > $ranges->{$yax}->[1]);

	# Having accumulated the max/min values for non-image plots on this axis,
	# if one of them goes past the image, then void the im_range for that axis
	# in that direction (to allow gnuplot to autoscale that axis in that direction).
	for my $ax(keys %$im_ranges) {
	    if(defined($ranges->{$ax})) {
		$im_ranges->{$ax}->[0] = undef if( defined($im_ranges->{$ax}->[0]) and
						   defined($ranges->{$ax}->[0])    and
						   $ranges->{$ax}->[0] < $im_ranges->{$ax}->[0] );

		$im_ranges->{$ax}->[1] = undef if( defined($im_ranges->{$ax}->[1]) and
						   defined($ranges->{$ax}->[1]) and
						   $ranges->{$ax}->[1] > $im_ranges->{$ax}->[1] );

    # Fix up cbrange if necessary.
    if( defined($cbmin)   or   defined($cbmax) ) {
	$cbmin = undef if(defined($cbmin) and "$cbmin" =~ m/nan/i);
	$cbmax = undef if(defined($cbmax) and "$cbmax" =~ m/nan/i);

	if($cbmin==$cbmax) {
	    $cbmin -= 0.1;
	    $cbmax += 0.1;

	$this->{tmp_options}->{cbrange} = [$cbmin, $cbmax];

    # Now reconcile all of the <axis>range stuff for the plot itself,
    # and set it as a temporary plot option.
    # Remember, the purpose of this whole shenanigan is to fix up image ranging.
    # Axes whose values are set by option only or by non-image curves only are just fine.
    # (Maybe it would have been better to just submit a gnuplot patch...)
    for my $k(keys %$im_ranges) {
	my $rkey = $k."range";

	# Calculate the widest-range merge of any supplied plot options and curve options
	# for this axis.
	my $po_range = _def( $this->{options}->{$rkey}, [undef,undef] );
	if( defined( $chunks->[0]->{options}->{$rkey} ) ) {
	    my $z = $chunks->[0]->{options}->{$rkey};
	    $po_range->[0] = $z->[0] if( !defined($po_range->[0]) or (defined($z->[0]) and  $z->[0] < $po_range->[0]) );
	    $po_range->[1] = $z->[1] if( !defined($po_range->[1]) or (defined($z->[1]) and  $z->[1] > $po_range->[1]) );

	# If an image range exists for this axis, use it for any default (undef) values.
	$po_range->[0] = $im_ranges->{$k}->[0] unless(defined($po_range->[0]));
	$po_range->[1] = $im_ranges->{$k}->[1] unless(defined($po_range->[1]));

	# Now we have a merged range value whose limits come from supplied options or existing image "curve"s.
	# Normal curves are not represented and appear as undef, allowing gnuplot to pix the axis range.
	# Create a temporary option representing this.
	$this->{tmp_options}->{$rkey} = $po_range;

    # If we're working with time data, and timefmt isn't set, then default it to '%s'.
    $this->{options}->{timefmt} = '%s'
	if ( !defined($this->{options}->{timefmt}) and
	     grep { _def($this->{options}->{$_."data"}, "") =~ m/^time/i }  qw/x x2 y y2 z cb/ );

    # Now deal with x2/y2 ticks.  By default they don't get turned on (blech).  So if they are
    # active, we turn them on with default values -- and also turn off mirroring for the x/y ticks.
    # (all by default -- if the user sets those options then keep those)
    for my $ax(qw/x y/) {
	my $ax2 = $ax.'2';
	my $axtics = $ax.'tics';
	my $ax2tics = $ax2.'tics';

	if($active_axes->{$ax2}) {
	    # Turn on the axis2 tick marks
	    unless( exists($this->{options}->{$ax2tics} ) ) {
		$this->{tmp_options}->{$ax2tics} = ' ';

	    # Turn off the axis1 mirror marks by default.
	    # Do this with a 'topcmds' command since it will be overridden
	    # by whatever comes below (and axis1 ticks are on by default anyway,
	    # so if the user doesn't want them he will have turned them off).
	    my $tc = _def($this->{options}->{topcmds},"");
	    $tc .= "\nset $axtics nomirror\n";
	    $this->{options}->{topcmds} = $tc;

    # Merge in any temporary options that have been set by the argument parsing.
    # (e.g. prefrobnicators can set plot options via $this->{tmp_options}).  This is OK since
    # we've already localized $this->{options}.
    if(exists($this->{tmp_options})) {
	for my $k(keys %{$this->{tmp_options}}) {
	    $this->{options}->{$k} = $this->{tmp_options}->{$k};

    # Emit the plot options lines that go above the plot command.  We do this
    # twice -- once for the main plot command and once for the syntax test.
    my $plotOptionsString = "";

    if($this->{options}->{multiplot}) {
	# In multiplot we can't issue a "reset", because that would end the multiplot.
	# This should take care of the major view stuff, but state might leak in here!
	$plotOptionsString .= <<'POS';
set size noratio
set view noequal
set view 60,30,1.0,1.0
unset xlabel
unset ylabel
unset cblabel
unset xrange
unset yrange
    } else {
	# In single-plot mode, just issue a reset.  Multiple newlines to work around a gnuplot problem.
	$plotOptionsString .= "reset\n\n\n";

    $plotOptionsString .= _emitOpts($this->{options}, $pOpt);

    my $testOptionsString;
	local($this->{options}->{terminal}) = "dumb";
	local($this->{options}->{output}) = ' ';
	$testOptionsString = _emitOpts($this->{options}, $pOpt);

    # Generate the plot command with the fences in it instead of data specifiers.
    # (The fences are emitted in _emitOpts and contained in the global $cmdFence)
    my $plotcmd =  ($this->{options}->{'3d'} ? "splot " : "plot ") .
	join( ", ",
	      map {
		  _emitOpts($chunks->[$_]->{options}, $cOpt, $this);
	      } (0..$#$chunks)

    # Break up the plot command so we can insert data specifiers in each location
    my @plotcmds = split /$cmdFence/, $plotcmd;
    if(@plotcmds != @$chunks+1) {
	barf "This should never happen, but it did.  That's odd.  I give up.";

    # Rebuild the plot command by inserting the format string and data spec for each piece,
    # instead of the placeholder fence strings.
    # Image-style formats use binary matrix format rather than ordinary binary format and must
    # be handled slightly differently.
    my $testcmd;
	my $fl = shift @plotcmds;
	$plotcmd =  $fl;
	$testcmd =  $fl if($check_syntax);

    for my $i(0..$#plotcmds){
	my($pchunk, $tchunk);

	if( $chunks->[$i]->{cdims} == 2 ) {
	    # It's an image -- always use binary to push the image out.

	    # The map statement ensures the main and test cmd get identical sprintf templates.
	    my $fstr = "%double" x $chunks->[$i]->{tuplesize};
	    ($pchunk, $tchunk) = map {
		sprintf(' "-" binary %s=(%s) format="%s" %s',
	    } ( join(",", ($chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->slice("(0)")->dims)),
		join(",", (("1") x ($chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0]->ndims - 1)))
	    # Mock up test data - just a single data point for each (8 is the size of an IEEE double)
	    $chunks->[$i]->{testdata} = "." x ($chunks->[$i]->{tuplesize} * 8);

	} else {
	    # It's a non-image plot.  Calculate whether binary or ASCII output.
	    # First, check the per-chunk flag (if set).  If it's not, then
	    # use the global flag.

	    if( $chunks->[$i]->{binaryCurveFlag} ) {
		my $fstr = "%double" x $chunks->[$i]->{tuplesize};
		my $first = $chunks->[$i]->{data}->[0];
		# The specifiers are identical, except that one gets a length of 1 and the other gets
		# the correct length.   The map statement ensures the main and test cmd get identical
		# sprintf templates.
		($pchunk, $tchunk) = map {
		    sprintf(" '-' binary %s=(%d) format=\"%s\" %s",
		} (  ((ref($first) eq 'ARRAY') ? 0+@{$first} : $first->dim(0))  , 1);

		# test data is a string containing the data to send -- just garbage. Use '.' to aid
		# byte counting in the test string.
		$chunks->[$i]->{testdata} = $testdataunit_binary x ($chunks->[$i]->{tuplesize});
	    } else {
		# ASCII transfer has been specified - plot command is easier, but the data are in ASCII.
		$pchunk = $tchunk =   " '-' ".$plotcmds[$i];
		$chunks->[$i]->{testdata} = " 1 " x ($chunks->[$i]->{tuplesize}) . "\ne\n";

	$plotcmd .= $pchunk;
	$testcmd .= $tchunk if($check_syntax);


    $plotcmd .= "\n";

    my $postTestplotCheckpoint = 'xxxxxxx Plot succeeded xxxxxxx';
    my $print_checkpoint = "; print \"$postTestplotCheckpoint\"";
    $testcmd .= "$print_checkpoint\n" if($check_syntax);

    # Put data and final checkpointing on the test command
    $testcmd .= join("", map { $_->{testdata} } @$chunks) if($check_syntax);

    # Stash this plot command in the debugging variable

    our $last_plotcmd = $plotOptionsString.$plotcmd;
    $this->{last_plotcmd} = $last_plotcmd;

    our $last_testcmd;
    if($check_syntax) {
	$last_testcmd = $plotOptionsString.$testcmd;
	$this->{last_testcmd} = $last_testcmd;

    if($PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::DEBUG) {
	print "plot command is:\n$plotcmd\n";

    # The commands are assembled.  Now test 'em by sending the test command down the pipe.
    my $checkpointMessage;
    if($check_syntax) {
	_printGnuplotPipe( $this, "syntax", $plotOptionsString.$testcmd );
	$checkpointMessage = _checkpoint($this,"syntax");

	if(defined $checkpointMessage && $checkpointMessage !~ /^$postTestplotCheckpoint/m)
	    $checkpointMessage =~ s/$print_checkpoint//;
	    barf "Gnuplot error: \"$checkpointMessage\" while syntax-checking the plot cmd \"$testcmd\"";

    ##### Send the PlotOptionsString
    _printGnuplotPipe( $this, "main", $plotOptionsString);
    my $optionsWarnings = _checkpoint($this, "main", {printwarnings=>1});

    # Mask out some common useless chatter
    $optionsWarnings =~ s/^Terminal type set to .*$//m;
    $optionsWarnings =~ s/^Options are \'.*$//m;
    $optionsWarnings = '' if($optionsWarnings =~ m/^\s+$/s);

    if($optionsWarnings) {
	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    # MS Windows can yield some chatter on the line, and it's not necessarily an
	    # error.  So we don't barf, we only warn. Blech.
	    carp "WARNING: the gnuplot process gave some unexpected chatter during plot setup:\n$optionsWarnings\n\n";
	} else {
	    # Used to barf here, but now we just issue an announcement, since
	    # some messages are warnings (rather than errors).
	    carp "WARNING: the gnuplot process gave some unexpected chatter:\n$optionsWarnings\n\n";

    ##### Finally..... send the actual plot command to the gnuplot device.
    _printGnuplotPipe( $this, "main", $plotcmd);
    $this->{last_plot}->{command} = $plotcmd;

    my $chunkno = 0;
    for my $chunk(@$chunks){
	my $p;

	# Gnuplot doesn't handle bad values, but it *does* know to
	# omit nans.  If we're running under a PDL that uses the
	# bad value handling stuff, replace bad values with nan in the current chunk.
	if($PDL::Bad::Status) {
	    for my $n(0..$#{$chunk->{data}}) {
		my $dp = $chunk->{data}->[$n];
		next if(ref($dp) eq 'ARRAY');
		if($dp->badflag) {
		    $dp = $chunk->{data}->[$n] = $dp + pdl(0.0);  # force copy and convert to floating point
		    $dp->where($dp->isbad) .= asin(pdl(1.1));     # NaN

	if($chunk->{cdims}==2) {
	    # Currently all images are sent binary
	    $p = $chunk->{data}->[0]->double->sever;
		my $s = " [ ".length(${$p->get_dataref})." bytes of binary image data ]\n";
		$last_plotcmd .= $s;
		$this->{last_plotcmd} .= $s;
	    _printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", ${$p->get_dataref}, {binary => 1, data => 1 } );

	} elsif( $chunk->{binaryCurveFlag}  ) {
	    # Send in binary if the binary flag is set.
	    $p = pdl(@{$chunk->{data}})->mv(-1,0)->double->sever;
		my $s = " [ ".length(${$p->get_dataref})." bytes of binary data ]\n";
		$last_plotcmd .= $s;
		$this->{last_plotcmd} .= $s;
	    _printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", ${$p->get_dataref}, {binary => 1, data => 1 });

	} else {
	    # Not in binary mode - send this chunk in ASCII.  Each line gets one tuple, followed
	    # a line with just "e".

	    # Defining the emitter here lets me keep context inside it instead of breaking it
	    # out, which would probably be a better way to do it.

	    my $emitter;
	    if($MS_io_braindamage) {
		$emitter = sub {
		    my @lines = split /\n/, shift;
		    my $byte;
		    my $pipe = $this->{"err-main"};

		    for my $line(@lines) {
			_printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", $line."\n", {data => 1 });
			if( !$this->{dumping} && $echo_eating ) {
			    do {
				sysread $pipe, $byte, 1;
				if( $byte eq \004 or $byte eq \000 ) {
				    $byte = undef;
			    } until( !defined($byte) or $byte eq '>' );
		    _printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", "e\n", {data => 1} );
	    } else {
		# Under real OSes, we can just send a schwack of stuff - there is no echo.
		$emitter = sub {
		    _printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", shift()."e\n", {data => 1} );

	    # Assemble and dump the ASCII through the just-defined emitter.

	    if( $chunk->{data}->[0]->$_isa('PDL') ) {

		# It's a collection of PDL data only.

		$p = pdl(@{$chunk->{data}})->slice(":,:"); # ensure at least 2 dims
		$p = $p->mv(-1,0);                         # tuple dim first, rows second

		    my $s = " [ ".$p->dim(1)." lines of ASCII data ]\n";
		    $last_plotcmd .= $s;
		    $this->{last_plotcmd} .= $s;

		# Create a set of ASCII lines.  If any of the elements of a given row are NaN or BAD, blank that line.
		my $outbuf = join("\n", map { ($_->isfinite->all) ? join(" ", $_->list) : "" } $p->dog) . "\n";


	    } else {
		# It's a collection of list ref data only.  Assemble strings.

		my $data = $chunk->{data};
		my $last = $#{$chunk->{data}->[0]};
		my $s = "";

		for my $i(0..$last) {
		    for my $j(0..$#$data){
			my $elem = $data->[$j]->[$i];
			if($elem =~ m/[\s\"]/) {    # element contains whitespace or quotes
			    $elem =~ s/\"/\\\"/g;   # Escape quotes
			    $elem =~ s/[\n\r]/ /g;  # Remove any newlines or returns
			    $elem = "\"$elem\"";    # quote the element
			$s .= "$elem ";             # append the element to the output string.
		    $s .= "\n";                     # add newline

		&$emitter( $s );

    my $plotWarnings = _checkpoint($this, "main", {printwarnings=>1});
    if($plotWarnings) {
	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    # MS Windows can yield some chatter on the line, and it's not necessarily an
	    # error.  So we don't barf, we only warn. Blech.
	    carp "WARNING: the gnuplot process gave some unexpected chatter:\n$plotWarnings\n\n";
	} else {
	    barf("the gnuplot process returned an error during plotting: $plotWarnings\n\n");

    # Finally, finally ...  send any required cleanup commands.  This
    # starts with {bottomcmds} and includes several things we don't want to persist,
    # but that do by default.

    my $cleanup_cmd = "";
	my $bc = $this->{options}->{bottomcmds};
	    $cleanup_cmd = (  (ref($bc) eq 'ARRAY') ?
			      join( "\n", @$bc,"" ) :


    # Mark the gnuplot as replottable - we now have a full set of plot parameters stashed away.
    $this->{replottable} = 1;

    if($check_syntax) {
	$PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::last_testcmd .= $cleanup_cmd;
	$this->{last_testcmd} .= $cleanup_cmd;
	_printGnuplotPipe($this, "syntax", $cleanup_cmd);
	$checkpointMessage= _checkpoint($this, "syntax", {printwarnings=>1});
	if($checkpointMessage) {
	    barf "Gnuplot error: \"$checkpointMessage\" after syntax-checking cleanup cmd \"$cleanup_cmd\"\n";

    $PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::last_plotcmd .= $cleanup_cmd;
    $this->{last_plotcmd} .= $cleanup_cmd;
    _printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", $cleanup_cmd);
    $checkpointMessage= _checkpoint($this, "main", {printwarnings=>1});
    if($checkpointMessage) {
	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    # MS Windows can yield some chatter on the line, and it's not necessarily an
	    # error.  So we don't barf, we only warn.  Blech.
	    carp "WARNING: the gnuplot process gave some unexpected chatter after plot cleanup:\n$checkpointMessage\n";
	} else {
	    barf "Gnuplot error: \"$checkpointMessage\" after sending cleanup cmd \"$cleanup_cmd\"\n";

    # Flag the output as rescalable if anti-aliasing is in effect
    if($this->{aa} && $this->{aa} != 1) {
	$this->{aa_ready} = 1;
    # read and report any warnings that happened during the plot
    return $plotWarnings;

    # parseArgs - helper sub nested inside plot
    # This breaks out the parsing of the curve arguments.
    # Each chunk of data to plot appears in the argument list as
    #      plot(options, options, ..., data, data, ....).
    # The options are a hashref or an inline hash and also serve as delimiters between
    # chunks of data.
    # Curve options, with the exception of "legend", are accumulated - each set
    # is used as the default value of the same option for the next one.
    # The data arguments are one-argument-per-tuple-element, but higher
    # dims can be used for threading.  Plot elements that are to be treated
    # as 1-D (non-image) data can be threaded over -- so, e.g., you can pass in
    # a 50 PDL (as X) and a 50x3 PDL (as Y) and you'll get three separate plots with
    # the same options.  As a special case, you can pass an array ref into the
    # "legend" or "color" options in that case, and thereby specify a different legend/color
    # for each of those threaded plots.
    sub parseArgs
	my $this = shift;

	# Parse curve option / data chunks.

	my @args = @_;

	my $is3d = (defined $this->{options}->{'3d'}) ? $this->{options}->{'3d'} : 0;
	my $ND = (('2D','3D')[!!$is3d]);  # mainly for error messages
	my $spec_legends = 0;

	# options were once cumulative.  The 'with' specifier is still kept, but most
	# of that functionality is not present as of 2.003.
	# We keep the lastOptions accumulator around just in case it comes in handy for
	# a little more context.
	my $lastOptions = {};

	my @chunks;
	my $Ncurves  = 0;
	my $argIndex = 0;

	while($argIndex <= $#args)
	    # First, I find and parse the options in this chunk
	    # Array refs are allowed in some curve options, but only as values of key/value
	    # pairs -- so any list refs glommed in with a bunch of other refs are data.
	    my $nextDataIdx = first { (ref $args[$_] ) and
					  (  (ref($args[$_]) =~ m/ARRAY/ and ref($args[$_-1])) or
	    } $argIndex..$#args;

	    last if !defined $nextDataIdx; # no more data. done.

	    my $lastWith = {};
	    $lastWith->{with} = $lastOptions->{with} if($lastOptions->{with});

	    my %chunk;
	    eval {
		$chunk{options} = dclone(
		    _parseOptHash( $lastWith, $cOpt, @args[$argIndex..$nextDataIdx-1] )
		### As of Gnuplot 5.0, some curve options (dashtype) require a default value to maintain legacy
		### behavior in the default case.  This is the place where curve options are parsed, so we
		### hand-tweak a couple of default values here.  

		# dashtype doesn't have to have a defined value it only has to exist in the curve options hash,
		# to trigger emission of a dashtype.
		$chunk{options}{dashtype} = undef unless(defined($chunk{options}{dashtype}));

		## Even worse -- some plot types (notably "with labels") barf in newer gnuplots
		## if you feed them a "dt".  So don't send a dashtype to those.
		my $with = ( 
		    ( ref($chunk{options}{'with'}) =~ m/ARRAY/ ) ? 
		    $chunk{options}{'with'}->[0] : 
		    ) // 
		    $this->{options}->{'globalwith'} //
		if($with =~ m/^label/) {
		    $chunk{options}{dashtype} = "INVALID";
		    barf "$@\n(Did you mix plot options and curve options at the beginning of the arg list?)\n\n";
		barf "$@\n";

	    $chunk{options}->{data}="dummy"; # force emission of the data field

	    # Find the data for this chunk...
	    $argIndex         = $nextDataIdx;
	    my $nextOptionIdx = first { !(ref $args[$_]) or
					!( (ref $args[$_]) eq 'ARRAY' or
	                              } $argIndex..$#args;
	    $nextOptionIdx = @args unless defined $nextOptionIdx;
	    # Make sure we know our "with" style...
	    unless($chunk{options}{with}) {
		$chunk{options}{with} = _def($this->{options}->{'globalwith'},["lines"]);

	    # validate "with" and get imgFlag and tupleSizes.
	    # First, unpack the "with" -- we accept a list of with parameters, but also
	    # unpack them if they are supplied as a single smushed-together string.
	    our $plotStyleProps; # declared below
	    my @with;
	    if(@{$chunk{options}{with}}==1) {
		@with = split /\s+/,$chunk{options}{with}->[0];
		@{$chunk{options}{with}} = @with;
	    } else {
		@with = @{$chunk{options}{with}};
	    if(@with > 1) {
		carp q{
WARNING: deprecated usage of complex 'with' detected.  Use a simple 'with'
specifier and curve options instead.  This will fail in future releases of
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot. (Set $ENV{'PGG_DEP'}=1 to silence this warning.
} unless($ENV{'PGG_DEP'});

	    # Look for the plotStyleProps entry.  If not there, try cleaning up the with style
	    # before giving up entirely.
	    unless( exists( $plotStyleProps->{$with[0]}->[0] ) ) {
		our $plotStylesAbbrevs;

		# Try pluralizing and lc'ing if that works...
		if($with[0] !~ m/s$/i  and  exists( $plotStyleProps->{lc $with[0].'s'} ) ) {
		    $with[0] = lc $with[0].'s';
		    $chunk{options}{'with'}[0] = $with[0];
		} else {
		    # nope.  throw a fit.
		    barf "invalid plotstyle 'with ".($with[0])."' in plot\n";

	    my $psProps = $plotStyleProps->{$with[0]};

	    # Extract the data objects from the argument list.
	    # They should all be either PDLs or array refs.
	    my @dataPiddles = @args[$argIndex..$nextOptionIdx-1] ;

	    # Some plot styles (currently just "fits") are implemented via a
	    # prefrobnicator that processes the data.
	    if( $psProps->[ 4 ] ) {
		@dataPiddles = &{ $psProps->[4] }( \@with, $this, \%chunk, @dataPiddles );
		$psProps = $plotStyleProps->{$with[0]};

	    # Image flag and base tuplesizes allowed for this plot style...
	    my $tupleSizes     = $psProps->[ !!$is3d ];  # index is 0 or 1 depending on truth of 3D flag
	    my $imgFlag        = $psProps->[ 2 ];
	    $chunk{binaryWith} = $psProps->[ 3 ];

	    # If the user wanted binary but this style requires ASCII (or vice
	    # versa) I throw a warning
		 defined $chunk{binaryWith} )
	      # style requires some specific ascii/binary transfer
	      my $got	= $chunk{binaryWith}	     ? "binary" : "ascii";
	      my $asked = $this->{options}->{binary} ? "binary" : "ascii";

	      if( $got ne $asked  and  !($this->{binary_flag_defaulted}))
		carp <<EOF;
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot warning: user asked for $asked data transfer, but
'$with[0]' plots are ALWAYS sent in $got. Ignoring '$asked' request.
Set environment variable PGG_SUPPRESS_BINARY_MISMATCH_WARNING to suppress
this warning.

	    # Reject disallowed plot styles
	    unless(ref $tupleSizes) {
		barf "plotstyle 'with ".($with[0])."' isn't valid in $ND plots\n";

	    # Additional columns are needed for certain 'with' modifiers. Figure 'em, cheesily: each
	    # palette or variable option to 'with' needs an additional column.
	    # The search over @with will disappear with the deprecated compound-with form;
	    # the real one is the second line that scans through curve options.
	    my $ExtraColumns = 0;
	    map { $ExtraColumns++ } grep /(palette|variable)/,map { split /\s+/ } @with;
	    for my $k( qw/linecolor textcolor fillstyle pointsize linewidth/ ) {
		my $v = $chunk{options}{$k};
		next unless defined($v);
		my $s = (ref $v eq 'ARRAY') ? join(" ",@$v) : $v;
		$ExtraColumns++ if($s =~ m/palette|variable/);
	    $ExtraColumns++ if($chunk{options}{palette});

	    # Figure out what size of tuple we have, and check it against the tuple sizes we can take...
	    my $NdataPiddles = @dataPiddles;

	    # Check in case it was explicitly set [not normally needed, but still...]
	    if($chunk{options}->{tuplesize}) {
		if($NdataPiddles != $chunk{options}->{tuplesize}) {
		    barf "You specified a tuple size of ".($chunk{options}->{tuplesize})." but only $NdataPiddles columns of data\n";

	    my (@tuplematch) = (grep ((abs($_)+$ExtraColumns == $NdataPiddles), @$tupleSizes));

	    if( @tuplematch ) {
		# Tuple sizes that require autogenerated dimensions require 'array' in binary mode;
		# all others reqire 'record' in binary mode.   Note that in ascii mode it's slightly
		# different -- an additional "using" column (or two) is needed (see below).
		$chunk{ArrayRec} = ($tuplematch[0] < 0) ? 'array' : 'record';
	    } else {
		# No match -- barf unless you really meant it
		if($chunk{options}->{tuplesize}) {
		    $chunk{ArrayRec} = 'record';
		    carp "WARNING: forced disallowed tuplesize with a curve option...\n";
		} else {
		    my $pl = ($NdataPiddles==1)?"":"s";
		    my $s = "Found $NdataPiddles PDL$pl for $ND plot type 'with ".($with[0])."', which needs ";
		    if(@$tupleSizes==0) {
			barf "Ouch! I'm never supposed to take this path.  Please report a bug.";
		    } elsif(@$tupleSizes==1) {
			$s .= abs($tupleSizes->[0]) + $ExtraColumns;
		    } else {
			$s .= "one of [".join(",",map { abs($_)+$ExtraColumns } @$tupleSizes)."]";
		    if($ExtraColumns) {
			my $pl = ($ExtraColumns==1)?"":"s";
			$s .= " (including the $ExtraColumns extra$pl from your 'with' options).\n";
		    } else {
			$s .= ".\n";
		    barf $s;

	    # Implicit dimensions in 3-D plots require imgFlag to be set...
	    my $cdims;
	    if($chunk{options}->{cdims}) {
		$cdims = $chunk{options}->{cdims};
		if($cdims==1 and $imgFlag) {
		    barf("You specified column dimension of 1 for an image plot type! Not allowed.");
	    } else {
		$cdims = ($imgFlag or ( $is3d && $dataPiddles[0]->ndims >= 2 )) ? 2 : 1;


	    # A little aside:  streamline the common optimization cases --
	    # if the user specified "image" but handed in an RGB or RGBA image,
	    # bust it up into components and update the 'with' accordingly.
	    # This happens if RGB or RGBA is in dim 0 or in dim 2.
	    # The other dimensions have to have at least five elements.
	    if( $cdims==2 ) {
		if($chunk{options}->{with}->[0] eq 'image') {

		    my $dp = $dataPiddles[$#dataPiddles];

		    if($dp->ndims==3) {
			if($dp->dim(1) >= 5) {
			    if($dp->dim(0) ==3 && $dp->dim(1) >= 5 && $dp->dim(2) >= 5) {
				$chunk{options}->{with}->[0] = 'rgbimage';
				pop @dataPiddles;
			    } elsif($dp->dim(2)==3 && $dp->dim(1)>=5 && $dp->dim(0) >= 5) {
				$chunk{options}->{with}->[0] = 'rgbimage';
				pop @dataPiddles;
			    } elsif($dp->dim(0)==4 && $dp->dim(1) >= 5 && $dp->dim(2) >= 5) {
				$chunk{options}->{with}->[0] = 'rgbalpha';
				pop @dataPiddles;
			    } elsif($dp->dim(2)==4 && $dp->dim(0) >= 5 && $dp->dim(1) >= 5) {
				$chunk{options}->{with}->[0] = 'rgbalpha';
				pop @dataPiddles;
				push(@dataPiddles, $dp->mv(2,0)->using(0,1,2,3));
	    $chunk{cdims} = $cdims;

	    $chunk{tuplesize} = @dataPiddles;

	    # Get the threading dims right
	    @dataPiddles = matchDims( @dataPiddles );

	    # Make sure there is a using spec, in case one wasn't given.
	    # If we have one implicit dim in ASCII, we need a different using spec
	    # (blech).  If we have implicit dims in 3-D, imgFlag is set (see just above),
	    # and we will be sending the data in binary anyway (see the emission code in plot itself).
	    unless(exists($chunk{options}->{using})) {
		    defined($this->{options}->{binary}) and !$this->{options}->{binary} and
		    !$imgFlag and
		    $chunk{ArrayRec} eq 'array'
		    # ASCII mode, not an image.  Add the requisite implicit columns.
		    if($is3d) {
			# Two implicit columns.  The first is column 0, the second is all zeroes since
			# we'd have to be sending an image to make it otherwise.  We sleaze up the
			# y=0 column by multipling column 0 by 0.
			$chunk{options}->{using} = join(":",0,'($0*0)',1..$chunk{tuplesize});
		    } else {
			# one implicit column.  It is column 0.
			$chunk{options}->{using} = join(":",0..$chunk{tuplesize});

		} else {
		    # Binary mode and/or is an image.  Omit the implicit columns since they'll be
		    # added by gnuplot.
		    $chunk{options}->{using} = join(":",1..$chunk{tuplesize});

	    # Check number of lines threaded into this tupleset; make sure everything
	    # is consistent...
	    my $ncurves;

		if($dataPiddles[0]->dims < 2) {
		    barf "Image plot types require at least a 2-D input PDL\n";

	    # For the image case glom everything together into one 3-dimensional PDL,
	    # pre-inverted so that the 0 dim runs across column.
	    if($cdims==2) {
		# Surfaces never get a label unless one is explicitly set
		$chunk{options}->{legend} = undef unless( exists($chunk{options}->{legend}) );
		$spec_legends = 1;

		my $p = pdl(@dataPiddles);

		# Coerce up to 3 dimensions, with (col, ix, iy).
		if( $p->dims == 2) {
		    $p = $p->dummy(0,1);
		} else {
		    $p = $p->mv(-1,0);

		if( ($p->dims > 3) ) {
		    barf("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::plot: I can't make sense of this dimensional mix -- \n  I ended up with (".join("x",$p->dims).") data after combining everything. \n   (Did you mix list and PDL-stack formulations, or try to thread 2-D columns?)\n");

		# Place the PDL onto the argument stack.
		@dataPiddles = ($p);

		$chunk{tuplesize} = $p->dim(0);
		$ncurves = 1;

		$chunk{data}      = \@dataPiddles;
		$chunk{imgFlag} = 1;
		push @chunks, \%chunk;

	    } elsif( $dataPiddles[0]->$_isa('PDL') ) {
		# Non-image case: check that the legend count agrees with the
		# number of curves we found, and break up compound chunks (with multiple
		# curves) into separate chunks of one curve each.

		$ncurves = $dataPiddles[0]->slice("(0)")->nelem;

		# Speed bump for weird case
		our $bigthreads;
		if($ncurves >= 100 and !$bigthreads) {
		    carp <<"FOO"
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: WARNING - you seem to be plotting $ncurves
curves in a single threaded collection.  This could be because you fed
in a 2-D (or higher) data set when you meant to plot a single curve.
If so, you may want to flatten your data and try again. (To disable
this message, set \$PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::bigthreads to be true).
If you are trying to plot a surface, you might try setting 'trid=>1'
in the plot options.

		if($chunk{options}->{legend} and
		   @{$chunk{options}->{legend}} and
		   @{$chunk{options}->{legend}} != $ncurves
		    ) {
		    my $ent = (0+@{$chunk{options}->{legend}} == 1) ? "y" : "ies";
		    my $pl = ($ncurves==1)?"":"s";
		    barf "Legend has ".(0+@{$chunk{options}->{legend}})." entr$ent; but ".($ncurves)." curve$pl supplied!";

		# Ensure legend appears in the options parsing (to emit "notitle" if necessary)
		$chunk{options}->{legend} = undef unless(exists($chunk{options}->{legend}));

		$spec_legends = 1 if($chunk{options}->{legend});

		$chunk{tuplesize} = $NdataPiddles;

		if($ncurves==1) {
		    # The chunk is OK.
		    $chunk{data}      = \@dataPiddles;
		    push @chunks, \%chunk;
		} else {
		    # The chunk needs splitting, options and all.
		    for my $i(0..$ncurves - 1) {
			my $chk = dclone(\%chunk);
			$chk->{data} = [ map { $_->slice(":,($i)") } @dataPiddles ];

			if(exists($chk->{options}->{legend})) {
			    $chk->{options}->{legend} = [$chk->{options}->{legend}->[$i]];

			push(@chunks, $chk);
	    } else {
		# Non-image case, with array refs instead of PDLs -- we required the chunk to be
		# simple in matchDims, so just push it.
		$ncurves = 1;
		$chunk{data} = \@dataPiddles;
		$chunk{imgFlag} = 0;
		# Ensure legend appears in the options parsing (to emit "notitle" if necessary)
		$chunk{options}->{legend} = undef unless(exists($chunk{options}->{legend}));

		push @chunks, \%chunk;

	    $Ncurves += $ncurves;
	    $chunk{imageflag} = $imgFlag;

	    $argIndex = $nextOptionIdx;

	return (\@chunks, $Ncurves);
    } # end of ParseArgs nested sub

    # matchDims: nested sub inside plot - kludge up thread style matching across
    # the data arguments to a given chunk.
    sub matchDims
	my @data = @_;

	my $nonPDLCount = 0;
	map { $nonPDLCount++ unless( $_->$_isa('PDL') ) } @data;

	# In the case where all data are PDLs, we match dimensions.
	unless($nonPDLCount) {
	    # Make sure the domain and ranges describe the same number of data points,
	    # and that all PDLs have at least one dim.
	    # ( This is complicated by the need/desire to preserve threading rules.  Here,
	    # we accumulate thread dimensions manually and then match 'em using dummy
	    # dimensions...  --CED )
	    my @data_dims = (1);  # ensure at least 1 dim with at least 1 element

	    # Assemble the thread-rules dim list
	    for my $i(0..$#data) {
		my @ddims = $data[$i]->dims;
		for my $i(0..$#ddims) {
		    if( (!defined($data_dims[$i])) || ($data_dims[$i] <= 1) ) {
			$data_dims[$i] = $ddims[$i];
		    elsif( ( $ddims[$i]>1) && ($ddims[$i] != $data_dims[$i] )) {
			barf "plot(): mismatched arguments in tuple (position $i)\n";

	    # Now pad each data element out, by slicing, to match the full dim list.  If the
	    # dim matches, mark a ':'; if not, put in the correct dummy dim to make it match.
	    # Don't bother slicing unless at least one dummy dim is needed.
	    for my $i(0..$#data) {
		my @ddims = $data[$i]->dims;
		my @s = ();
		my $slice_needed = 0;

		for my $id(0..$#data_dims) {
		    if((!defined($ddims[$id])) || !$ddims[$id]) {
			$slice_needed = 1;
		    elsif($data_dims[$id] == $ddims[$id]) {
		    elsif( $ddims[$id]==1 ) {
			push(@s,"(0), *$data_dims[$id]");
			$slice_needed = 1;
		    } else {
			# should never happen
			barf "plot(): problem with dim assignments. This is a bug."; # no newline

		if($slice_needed) {
		    my $s = join(",",@s);
		    $data[$i] = $data[$i]->slice( join(",",@s) );
	    return @data;
	} else {
	    # At least one of the data columns is a non-PDL.  Force them to be simple columns, and
	    # require exact dimensional match.
	    # Also, convert any contained PDLs to list refs.

	    my $nelem;
	    my @out = ();

	    for(@data) {
		barf "plot(): only 1-D PDLs are allowed to be mixed with array ref data\n"
		    if( $_->$_isa('PDL')   and   $_->ndims > 1 );

		if((ref $_) eq 'ARRAY') {
		    barf "plot(): row count mismatch:  ".(0+@$_)." != $nelem\n"
			if( (defined $nelem) and (@$_ != $nelem) );
		    $nelem = @$_;

		    for (@$_) {
			barf "plot(): nested references not allowed in list data\n"
			    if( ref($_) );

		    push(@out, $_);

		} elsif(  $_->$_isa('PDL')  ) {
		    barf "plot(): nelem disagrees with row count: ".$_->nelem." != $nelem\n"
			if( (defined $nelem) and ($_->nelem != $nelem) );
		    $nelem = $_->nelem;

		    push(@out, [ $_->list ]);

		} else {
		    barf "plot(): problem with dim checking.  This should never happen.";

	    return @out;
    } # end of matchDims (nested in plot)
}  # end of plot

# convenience wrappers for plot


=head2 replot

=for ref

Replot the last plot (possibly with new arguments).

C<replot> is similar to gnuplot's "replot" command - it allows you to
regenerate the last plot made with this object.  You can change the
plot by adding new elements to it, modifying options, or even (with the
"device" method) changing the output device.  C<replot> takes the same
arguments as C<plot>.

If you give no arguments at all (or only a plot object) then the plot
is simply redrawn.  If you give plot arguments, they are added to the
new plot exactly as if you'd included them in the original plot
element list, and maintained for subsequent replots.

(Compare to 'markup').


sub replot {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    if($this->{replottable}) {
	local($this->{replotting}) = 1;
    } else {
	die "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::replot: you must have already plotted something!\n";


=head2 markup

=for ref

Add ephemeral markup to the last plot.

C<markup> works exactly the same as C<replot>, except that any
new arguments are not added to the replot list - so you can
add temporary markup to a plot and regenerate the plot later
without it.


sub markup {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    if($this->{replottable}) {
	local($this->{replotting}) = 1;
	local($this->{ephemeral}) = 1;
    } else {
	die "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::markup: you must have already plotted something!\n";


=head2 plot3d

=for ref

Generate 3D plots. Synonym for C<plot(trid =E<gt> 1, ...)>



=head2 splot

=for ref

Generate 3D plots.  Synonym for C<plot(trid =E<gt> 1, ...)>


*splot = \&plot3d;
sub plot3d {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    local($this->{options}->{'3d'}) = 1;


=head2 lines

=for ref

Generates plots with lines, by default. Shorthand for C<plot(globalwith =E<gt> 'lines', ...)>


*line = \&lines;
sub lines {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    local($this->{options}->{'globalwith'}) = ['lines'];


=head2 points

=for ref

Generates plots with points, by default. Shorthand for C<plot(globalwith =E<gt> 'points', ...)>


sub points {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    local($this->{options}->{'globalwith'}) = ['points'];


=head2 image

=for ref

Displays an image (either greyscale or RGB).  Shorthand for C<plot(globalwith =E<gt> 'image', ...)>


sub image {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    local($this->{options}->{'globalwith'}) = ["image"];
    plot($this, @_);


=head2 imag

=for ref

Synonym for "image", for people who grew up with PDL::Graphics::PGPLOT and can't remember the closing 'e'


*imag = \&image;


=head2 fits

=for ref

Displays a FITS image.  Synonym for C<plot(globalwith =E<gt> 'fits', ...)>.


sub fits {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    local($this->{options}->{'globalwith'}) = ["fits"];

# Multiplot support


=head2 multiplot

=for example

 $a = (xvals(101)/100) * 6 * 3.14159/180;
 $b = sin($a);

 $w->plot({title=>"lines"}, with=>"lines", $a,$b);
 $w->plot({title=>"image"}, with=>"image", $a->(*1) * $b );

=for ref

Plot multiple plots into a single page of output.

The C<multiplot> method enables multiplot mode in gnuplot, which permits
multiple plots on a single pane.  Plots can be lain out in a grid,
or can be lain out freeform using the C<size> and C<origin> plot
options for each of the individual plots.

It is not possible to change the terminal or output device when in
multiplot mode; if you try to do that, by setting one of those plot
options, PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot will throw an error.

The options hash will accept:

=over 3

=item layout - define a regular grid of plots to multiplot

C<layout> should be followed by an ARRAY ref that contains at least
number of columns ("NX") followed by number of rows ("NY).  After
that, you may include any of the "rowsfirst", "columnsfirst",
"downwards", or "upwards" keywords to specify traversal order through
the grid.  Only the first letter is examined, so (e.g.) "down" or even
"dog" works the same as "downwards".

=item title - define a title for the entire page

C<title> should be followed by a single scalar containing the title string.

=item scale - make gridded plots larger or smaller than their allocated space

C<scale> takes either a scalar or a list ref containing one or two
values.  If only one value is supplied, it is a general scale factor
of each plot in the grid.  If two values are supplied, the first is an
X stretch factor for each plot in the grid, and the second is a Y
stretch factor for each plot in the grid.

=item offset - offset each plot from its grid origin

C<offset> takes a list ref containing two values, that control placement
of each plot within the grid.


=head2 end_multi

=for usage


=for ref

Ends a multiplot block (i.e. a block of plots that are meant to render to a single page).


# This table describes gnuplot option parsing for the multiplot command.
# Its format is the same as the $plotOptionsTable, below.

our $mpOptionsTable = {
    'layout' => [sub { my($old, $new, $h) = @_;
		       my ($nx,$ny);
		       my @dirs=("","");
		       if(!ref($new)) {
			   $nx = $ny = $new;
		       } elsif(ref($new) eq 'ARRAY') {
			   $new = [1] if(@$new == 0);
			   $nx = shift @$new;
			   $ny = (@$new) ? shift @$new : $nx;
			   while($_ = shift @$new) { # assignment
			       $dirs[0]="rowsfirst"    if(m/^r/i);
			       $dirs[0]="columnsfirst" if(m/^c/i);
			       $dirs[1]="downwards"    if(m/^d/i);
			       $dirs[1]="upwards"      if(m/^u/i);
		       } else {
			   barf "multiplot: layout option needs a scalar or array ref value\n";
		       return join(" ",("$ny,$nx",$dirs[0],$dirs[1]));
    'title' => ['s','cq',undef,2,''],
    'scale' => ['l','c,',undef,3,''],
    'offset'=> ['l','c,',undef,4,'']
our $mpOptionsAbbrevs = _gen_abbrev_list(keys %$mpOptionsTable);
our $mpOpt = [$mpOptionsTable, $mpOptionsAbbrevs, "multiplot option"];

sub multiplot {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    my @params = @_;

    if($this->{options}->{multiplot}) {
	carp "Warning: multiplot: object is already in multiplot mode!\n  Exiting multiplot mode first...\n";

    my $mp_opts = _parseOptHash( undef, $mpOpt, @_ );

    # Assemble the command.

    my $command = "set multiplot " . _emitOpts($mp_opts, $mpOpt) . "\n";
    my $preamble = _emitOpts({ 'terminal'   => $this->{options}->{terminal},
			       'output'     => $this->{options}->{output},
			       'termoption' => $this->{options}->{termoption}

    my $checkpointMessage;
	my $test_preamble = "set terminal dumb\nset output \" \"\n";
	$PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::last_testcmd = $test_preamble . $command;
	$this->{last_testcmd} = $test_preamble . $command;
	_printGnuplotPipe( $this, "syntax", $test_preamble . $command);
	$checkpointMessage = _checkpoint($this, "syntax");
	if($checkpointMessage) {
	    if($MS_io_braindamage) {
		carp "WARNING: unexpected chatter while sending multiplot command:\n$checkpointMessage\n\n";
	    } else {
		barf("Gnuplot error: \"$checkpointMessage\" while sending multiplot command.");

    $PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::last_plotcmd = $preamble . $command;
    $this->{last_plotcmd} = $preamble.$command;
    _printGnuplotPipe( $this, "main", $preamble . $command);
    $checkpointMessage = _checkpoint($this,"main");
	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    carp "WARNING: unexpected chatter while sending final multiplot command:\n$checkpointMessage\n\n";
	} else {
	    barf("Gnuplot error: \"$checkpointMessage\" while sending final multiplot command.");

    $this->{options}->{multiplot} = 1;


sub end_multi {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);

    unless($this->{options}->{multiplot}) {
	barf("end_multi: you can't, you're not in multiplot mode\n");
    my $checkpointMessage;
	_printGnuplotPipe( $this, "syntax", "unset multiplot\n");
	$checkpointMessage = _checkpoint($this, "syntax");
	if($checkpointMessage) {
	    barf("Gnuplot error: unset multiplot failed on syntax check!\n$checkpointMessage");

    _printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", "unset multiplot\n");
    $checkpointMessage = _checkpoint($this, "main");
    if($checkpointMessage) {
	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    carp "WARNING: unexpected chatter after unset multiplot:\n$checkpointMessage\n";
	} else {
	    barf("Gnuplot error: unset multiplot failed!\n$checkpointMessage");
    $this->{options}->{multiplot} = 0;

## Input support


=head2 read_mouse

=for usage

  ($x,$y,$char,$modstring) = $w->read_mouse($message);
  $hash = $w->read_mouse($message);

=for ref

Get a mouse click or keystroke from the active interactive plot window.

For interactive devices (e.g. x11, wxt, aqua), read_mouse lets you accept a
keystroke or mouse button input from the gnuplot window.  In list context, it
returns four arguments containing the reported X, Y, keystroke character, and
modifiers packed in a string.  In scalar context, it returns a hash ref containing
those things.

read_mouse blocks execution for input, but responds gracefully to interrupts.


my $mouse_serial = 0;
sub read_mouse {
    my $this = shift;
    my $message = _def(shift(), "Click mouse or press key in plot to continue...");

    unless($this->{mouse}) {
	my $s = "read_mouse: This plot uses the '$this->{terminal}' terminal, which doesn't support mousing\n";
	my @terms = ();
	for my $k(sort keys %$termTab) {
	    push(@terms, $k) if($termTab->{$k}->{mouse} );
	if(@terms==0) {
	    $s .= "Sorry, your gnuplot engine doesn't have any mousing terminal types.\n";
	} elsif(@terms==1) {
	    $s .= "Your gnuplot supports mousing only on the $terms[0] device.\n";
	} else {
	    $s .= "Your gnuplot supports mousing on these devices: ".join(", ", @terms)."\n";

	barf $s."\n";

    barf "read_mouse: no existing plot to mouse on!\n"

    my $string = _checkpoint($this, "main", {notimeout=>1});

    print STDERR $message;


    ## Pre-4.7, Gnuplot reported MOUSE_BUTTON on a mouse button.  That changed in 4.7.
    if($gp_version < 4.7) {
	_printGnuplotPipe($this, "main", <<"EOC"	    );
pause mouse any
if( (exists("MOUSE_BUTTON") * exists("MOUSE_X") * exists("MOUSE_Y")) )  print "Key: -1 at xy:",MOUSE_X,",",MOUSE_Y," button:",MOUSE_BUTTON," shift:",MOUSE_SHIFT," alt:",MOUSE_ALT," ctrl:",MOUSE_CTRL; else print "Key: ",MOUSE_KEY;

	$string = _checkpoint($this, "main", {notimeout=>1});

	$string =~ m/Key: (\-?\d+)( +at xy:([^\s\,]+)\,([^\s\,]+)? button:(\d+)? shift:(\d+) alt:(\d+) ctrl:(\d+))?\s*$/
	    || barf "read_mouse: string $string doesn't look right - doesn't match parse regexp.\n";

	($ch,$x,$y,$b,$sft,$alt,$ctl) = map { _def($_,"") } ($1,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);


    ## Gnuplot 4.7 runs button input into the Key indicator.
    elsif($gp_version >= 4.7) {
pause mouse any
if( (exists("MOUSE_KEY")) )                   print "Key:",MOUSE_KEY;             else print "Key:";
if( (exists("MOUSE_X") * exists("MOUSE_Y")) ) print "at xy:",MOUSE_X,",",MOUSE_Y; else print "at xy:-1,-1";
if( (exists("MOUSE_SHIFT") ) )                print "shift:",MOUSE_SHIFT;         else print "shift:";
if( (exists("MOUSE_ALT")))                    print "alt:",MOUSE_ALT;             else print "alt:";
if( (exists("MOUSE_CTRL")) )                  print "ctrl:",MOUSE_CTRL;           else print "ctrl:";
	$string = _checkpoint($this, "main", {notimeout=>1});
	$string =~ s/[\r\n]/ /sg;

	$string =~ m/Key:(\-?\d+)( +at xy:([^\s\,]+)\,([^\s\,]+) shift:(\d+) alt:(\d+) ctrl:(\d+))?/
	    || barf "read_mouse: string $string doesn't look right - doesn't match parse regexp.\n";

	($ch,$x,$y,$sft,$alt,$ctl) = map { _def($_, "") } ($1,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7);

	if($ch == 1063) {
	    $b = 1;
	    $ch = -1;
	} elsif($ch == 2) {
	    $b = 2;
	    $ch = -1;
	} elsif($ch == 65406) {
	    $b = 3;
	    $ch = -1;

    if(wantarray) {
	return ($x,$y, ($ch>=32)?chr($ch):undef,
    } else {
	return {
	    'x' => $x,
	    'y' => $y,
            'b' => $b,
	    'k' => ($ch<0) ? "" : ($ch > 32 && $ch != 127) ? chr($ch) : sprintf("#%3.3d",$ch),
	    'm' => ($sft?"S":"").($alt?"A":"").($ctl?"C":"")


=head2 read_polygon

=for usage

  $points = $w->read_polygon(%opt)

=for ref

Read in a polygon by accepting mouse clicks.  The polygon is returned as a 2xN PDL of ($x,$y) values in scientific units. Acceptable options are:

=over 3

=item message - what to print before collecting points

There are some printf-style escapes for the prompt:

* C<%c> - expands to "an open" or "a closed"

* C<%n> - number of points currently in the polygon

* C<%N> - number of points expected for the polygon

* C<%k> - list of all keys accepted

* C<%%> - %

=item prompt  - what to print to prompt the user for the next point

C<prompt> uses the same escapes as C<message>.

=item n_points - number of points to accept (or 0 for indefinite)

With 0 value, points are accepted until the user presses 'q' or 'ESC' on the keyboard with focus
on the graph.  With other value, points are accepted until that happens *or* until the number
of points is at least n_points.

=item actions - hash of callback code refs indexed by character for action

You can optionally call a callback routine when any particular
character is pressed.  The actions table is a hash ref whose keys are
characters and whose values are either code refs (to be called on the
associated keypress) or array refs containing a short description
string followed by a code ref.  Non-printable characters (e.g. ESC,
BS, DEL) are accessed via a hash followed by a three digit decimal
ASCII code -- e.g. "#127" for DEL. Button events are indexed with the
strings "BUTTON1", "BUTTON2", and "BUTTON3", and modifications must be
entered as well for shift, control, and

The code ref receives the arguments ($obj, $c, $poly,$x,$y,$mods), where:

=over 2

=item C<$obj> is the plot object

=item C<$c> is the character (or "BUTTONC<n>" string),

=item C<$poly> is a scalar ref; $$poly is the current polygon before the action,

=item C<$x> and C<$y> are the current scientific coordinates, and

=item C<$mods> is the modifier string.

You can't override the 'q' or '#027' (ESC) callbacks.  You *can* override
the BUTTON1 and DEL callbacks, potentially preventing the user from entering points
at all!  You should do that with caution.

=item closed - (default false): generate a closed polygon

This works by duplicating the initial point at the end of the point list.

=item markup - (default 'linespoints'): style to use to render the polygon on the fly

If this is set to a true value, it should be a valid 'with' specifier (curve option).
The routine will call markup after each click.




# This table describes option parsing for read_polygon.  Its format is the same as for the large
# $plotOptionsTable, below.  Full Gnuplot options parsing is perhaps a bit overblown for this
# application, but it's present in the module so what the heck...

our $rpOptionsTable = {
    map { ( $_->[0] => ['s',undef,undef,undef,$_->[1]] ) }
    ( ['message'  =>  "Message to print before reading in polygon"    ],
      ['prompt'   =>  "Message to print for each point",              ],
      ['n_points' =>  "Number of points (or 0 for indefinite)"        ],
      ['closed',   =>  "Flag: close polygon by copying first point"    ],
      ['markup'   =>  "Plot option for rendering, or undefined for none" ]
    ) };
$rpOptionsTable->{actions} = ['H',undef,undef,undef,"Action table entries"];

our $rpOpt = [$rpOptionsTable, _gen_abbrev_list(keys %$rpOptionsTable), "read_polygon option"];

sub read_polygon {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);

    barf "read_polygon: $this->{terminal} terminal doesn't support mousing\n"

    my $poly = zeroes(2,0); # list of zero 2-D points
    local($this->{quit}) = 0;

    my $opt = {
	message  => <<'EOMSG'
Click points on the plot to form %c polygon.  Use keys in window:
	prompt   => "(%n points in polygon) Waiting for plot input....",
        n_points => 0,
	closed    => 0,
	markup   => "linespoints",

    $opt->{actions} = {
	    # These defaults can be overridden.
	    'd'        => ['Delete last point (or DEL or backspace or shift-button)', \&__del],
	    '#010'     => \&__quit, # NEWLINE (ENTER)
	    '#013'     => \&__quit, # RETURN
	    "#127"     => \&__del,  # DEL
	    "#008"     => \&__del,  # BS
	    'BUTTON1S' => \&__del,  # shift-click
	    'BUTTON1'  => ['Add a point',\&__add],
    print "\@_ is ".join(", ",@_)."\n";
    _parseOptHash( $opt, $rpOpt, @_ );

    print "actions table has keys: ",join(", ",sort keys %{$opt->{actions}}),"\n";

    my $a = $opt->{actions};
    $a->{"q"}    = ['Quit / finish entry (or ESC)', \&__quit ];
    $a->{"#027"} = \&__quit;

    ### Parsing is complete, actions are in place.

    my $pstring = sub {
	my $s = shift;
	my $z = ($opt->{closed}) ? "a closed" : "an open";
	$s =~ s/\%c/$z/g;

	$z = $poly->dim(1);
	$s =~ s/\%n/$z/g;

	$z = $opt->{n_points} || "indefinite";
	$s =~ s/\%N/$z/g;

	if($s =~ m/\%k/) {
	    $z = "INPUT ACTIONS:\n";
	    for my $k(sort { (length($a) <=> length($b))  ||  ($a cmp $b) } keys %$a) {
		if(ref($a->{$k}) eq 'ARRAY') {
		    $z .= sprintf("%10s: %s\n",$k,$a->{$k}->[0]);
	    $s =~ s/\%k/$z/g;

	$s =~ s/\%\%/\%/g;
	return $s;

    print &$pstring($opt->{message});

    my $h;
    do {
	$h = $this->read_mouse(&$pstring($opt->{prompt}));
	my $key = $h->{'b'} ? "BUTTON".$h->{'b'}.$h->{'m'} : $h->{'k'};

	if(ref $a->{$key}) {
	    my $z = (ref($a->{$key}) eq 'CODE') ? $a->{$key} : $a->{$key}->[1];
	    &$z($this, $key, \$poly, $h->{x}, $h->{y}, $h->{'m'});
	} else {
	    print "$key! ";
	print "\n";

	if($opt->{markup}) {
		$this->markup( with => $opt->{markup},$poly->mv(-1,0)->dog);

    } while(($h->{'b'} || $h->{'k'}) and !$this->{quit} and ($opt->{n_points}==0  or $poly->dim(1)<$opt->{n_points}));

    print "\n";

    if($opt->{'closed'}) {
	$poly = $poly->glue(1,$poly->slice(":,(0)"));
	if($opt->{markup}) {
	    if($poly->dim(1)>0) {
		$this->markup( with => $opt->{markup},$poly->mv(-1,0)->dog);

    return $poly;

use PDL::NiceSlice;
    sub __del { my($w, $c, $p) = @_;
	   return unless( ($$p)->$_isa('PDL')  and  (($$p)->dim(1)>0) );
	   $$p = $$p->(:,xvals($$p->dim(1)-1))->sever;

    sub __quit { $_[0]->{quit} = 1; }

    sub __add { my($w,$c,$p,$x,$y,$m) = @_;
		$$p = $$p->glue(1,pdl($x,$y));

no PDL::NiceSlice;


##### Parsing routines
##### The task of parsing input parameters is nontrivial.  It is
##### pushed off to several internal routines, which are here.

# parsing helpers...

# _gen_abbrev_list breaks a collection of keywords out into a hash linking
# unique abbreviations to the expanded keyword, for _expand_abbrev below.
# Cheesy and also awful as an added bonus.
sub _gen_abbrev_list {
    my @keys = @_;
    my $hash = {};
    for my $k(@keys) {
	for my $i(0..length($k)-2) {
	    my $s = substr($k,0,$i+1);
	    if(exists($hash->{$s})) {
		    unless($hash->{$s}->[0] eq $s);  # exact matches override abbrevs
	    } else {
		$hash->{$s} = [$k];
	$hash->{$k}=[$k];  # exact match always matches only the exact match
    return $hash;

sub _expand_abbrev {
    my $s = _def(shift(),"");
    my $sl = lc($s);
    my $abbrevs = shift;
    my $name = shift;

    my $snum = undef;

    unless(exists($abbrevs->{$sl})) {
	if($sl =~ s/(\d+)\s*$//) {
	    $snum = $1;

    if(exists($abbrevs->{$sl})) {
	if(@{$abbrevs->{$sl}}>1) {
	    barf "Error: ambiguous $name: '$s' could be one of { ".join(", ",@{$abbrevs->{$sl}})." }\n";
	} else {
	    if(wantarray) {
		return ($abbrevs->{$sl}->[0],$snum);
	    } else {
		return $abbrevs->{$sl}->[0];
    } else {
	die "No $name found that matches '$s'\n";
    barf "This can't happen";

# pOptionsTable - describes valid plot options and their allowed value types
# The keywords are the option name (from the Gnuplot 4.6 manual); the values are
# a list ref containing:
#   - value type:
#     * list ref for a single value with options (first is default)
#     * "b" for boolean flag (actually ternary: true/false/undef)
#     * "n" for number
#     * "s" for a scalar string
#     * "l" for a list of options; none required; passing in a number yields a boolean, or undef deletes.
#     * "ln" for a list of options; none required; passing in a number copies to list, or undef deletes.
#     * "C" for cumulative list of options; scalar values OK
#     * "H" for a hash list of options
#     * "N" for multivalue with optional first-parameter index
#            (NOTE this is explicitly hardwired into _parseOptHash to accept trailing numbers
#             in the keyword itself, to enable passing multiple multivalue numbers with different labels
#             in a hash ref -- search for "HARDWIRED-N" to find the place)
#     * code ref for code checker: gets ($old-val, $new-param, $hash); returns new values
#               (with possible side effects on the object, e.g. for "device")
#   - output form:
#     * nothing: output single value or all list values on a single line
#     * ",":     output list values as a comma-separated list on a single line (default is with spaces)
#     * "1":     output list values one per line
#     * "H":     output hash-of-lists, one list per line, with leading key
#     * "N":     output list-of-lists, one list per line, with leading index
#     * code ref for code emitter: accepts key, value, source options hash, and object; returns
#                                  (potentially multiline) string of commands.
#     * hash ref for value context switch: keys are
#        accepted/understood keywords, values are output form for further keywords.
#        This is only valid with options lists ('l' input), and is used to keep track of
#        (e.g.) which keywords should be auto-quoted.
#     * array ref is not allowed in pOptionsTable but *is* allowed in cOptionsTable below.
#   - sort-after:
#     * nothing: can appear in no particular order
#     * list ref: options later than which this option should be presented
#   - sort-order
#     * a number: numbered options, if present appear at the beginning of the option dump, in numerical order.
#   - documentation-string (optional)
# keywords with capital-letter value types are recognized even with a trailing number in the keyword;
# this is to allow multiple values to be set in a single hash.  In the default scalar output, the
# empty string causes "unset" to be emitted, while undef causes nothing to be emitted.
our $palettesTab;

# suffix => terminal type, options
our $hardCopySuffixes = {
    'pdf'=>'pdfcairo solid color font ",10" size 11in,8.5in',
    'ps'=>'postscript solid color landscape 10 size 11in,8.5in',
    'eps'=>'postscript eps',

our $pOptionsTable =
    # Start with pseudo-options we use internally.
    '3d'        => ['s', sub { "" }, undef, undef,
		    '[pseudo] Make the current plot 3d (gnuplot "splot" command).'  ],
    'trid'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{'3d'}=$n; return undef}, sub { "" }, undef, undef,
		    '[pseudo] Make the current plot 3d (synonym for "3d").'   ],
    'binary'    => ['b', sub {""}, undef, undef,
                    '[pseudo] Communicate with gnuplot in binary mode (default on non-Microsoft platforms).'    ],
    'ascii'     => [sub { my($old, $new, $hash) = @_;
			  $hash->{binary} = !$new;
		    }, sub {""}, undef, undef,
                    '[pseudo] Antonym for "binary" (default is 0 for non-Microsoft platforms).'    ],
    'device'     => [ sub { my ($old, $new, $hash) = @_;
			    barf "Can't set device while in multiplot mode!\n" if($hash->{multiplot});
			    if( $new =~ m/^(.*)\/([^\/]*)$/ ) {
				$hash->{terminal} = $2;
				$hash->{output}   = $1 || undef;
			    } else {
				barf("Device option format: [<filename>]/<terminal-type>\n");
			    return undef;
		      sub { "" }, undef, undef,
		      '[pseudo] Shorthand for device spec.: "dev=>\'<output/<terminal>\'".'    ],

    'hardcopy'  => [ sub { my ($old, $new, $hash) = @_;
			   barf "Can't set hardcopy while in multiplot mode!\n" if($hash->{multiplot});
			   if( $new =~ m/\.([a-z]+)$/i) {
			       my $suffix = lc $1;
			       if($hardCopySuffixes->{$suffix}) {
				   $hash->{terminal} = $hardCopySuffixes->{$suffix};
				   $hash->{output} = $new;
				   return undef;
			       } else {
				   die "hardcopy: couldn't identify file type from '$new'\n";
			   } else {
			       die "hardcopy: need a file suffix to infer file type\n";
		     }, sub {""},undef,undef,
		     '[pseudo] Shorthand for device spec.: standard image formats inferred by suffix'    ],

    'dump'      => [
	sub { my $newval = $_[1];
	      if($newval && !$_[2]->{dump}) {
		  carp "WARNING - dumping ON - gnuplot commands go to the terminal only.\n";
	      } elsif($_[2]->{dump} && !$newval) {
		  carp "WARNING - dumping OFF - gnuplot commands will be used for plotting.\n";
	      return $newval;
	                 sub { "" },undef, undef,
	            '[pseudo] Redirect gnuplot commands to stdout for inspection'

    'tee'       => [ sub { $_[1]; }, sub { "" }, undef, undef,
		    '[pseudo] Tee gnuplot commands to stdout (set to "nobinary" for viewing)'    ],

    'silent'      => ['b', sub { "" }, undef, undef,
		    '[pseudo] Be silent about gnuplot errors'    ],

      # topcmds/extracmds/bottomcmds: contain explicit strings for gnuplot.
      # topcmds go just below the "set term", "set termoption", and "set output" commands;
      # extracmds go after all the auto-generated commands and just before the plot lines
      # bottomcmds comes after everything -- useful for cleanup after the plot command
      #is sent.
    'topcmds'   => ['l', sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
			       return (ref $v eq 'ARRAY') ? join("\n",(@$v,"")) : $v."\n"; },
		    undef, 10,
		    '[pseudo] extra gnuplot commands at the top of the command block'    ],

    'extracmds' => ['l', sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
			       return (ref $v eq 'ARRAY') ? join("\n",(@$v,"")) : $v."\n"; },
		       ,undef, 1001,
		    '[pseudo] extra gnuplot commands between plot options and the plots'    ],
			# bottomcmds is implemented by special hook in plot().
    'bottomcmds' => ['l', sub {""}, undef, undef,
		     '[pseudo] extra gnuplot commands after all plot commands'    ],

    'globalwith'=> ['l', sub { "" }, undef, undef,
		    '[pseudo] default plot style (overridden by "with" in curve options)'    ],

    'perceptual'=>[sub { my($old,$new,$this) = @_;
			  eval "use PDL::Transform::Color";
			  barf("pseudocolor option requires PDL::Transform::Color, which is not present")
			  return $new;
		    sub { my($k, $v, $h) = @_;
			  my $s = "";
			  my $t;
			  return unless (defined($v));
			  eval {
			      if(ref($v) eq 'ARRAY') {
				  $t = PDL::Transform::Color::t_pcp(@$v);
			      } else {
				  $t = PDL::Transform::Color::t_pcp($v);
			      my $a=$@;
			      $a =~ s/Usage\:.*\.\)//s;
			      # not barf -- no traceback
			      die("PDL::Transform::Color palettes for the 'perceptual'/'pcp' plot option are:\n  (palettes marked 'phot' respond differently with the 'perceptual' option;\n  Append the suffix '-c<n>', n in [0..5], to a name to get RGB combinatorics.)\n".$a."\n");
			  my $grey = xvals(2049)/2048;
			  my $rgb = $grey->apply($t);

			      no warnings;			      
			      my @s = map {
				  sprintf(" %d '#%2.2X%2.2X%2.2X'", $_, $rgb->slice('x',[$_,,0])->list);
			      } (0..$grey->dim(0)-1);

			      $s .= "set palette defined ( ".join(",", @s)." )\n";
		    '[pseudo] Use PDL::Transform::Color photometric palette: "pseudocolor=>\'heat\'"' ],

    'pseudocolor'=>[sub { my($old,$new,$this) = @_;
			  eval "use PDL::Transform::Color";
			  barf("pseudocolor option requires PDL::Transform::Color, which is not present")
			  return $new;
		    sub { my($k, $v, $h) = @_;
			  my $s = "";
			  my $t;
			  return unless(defined($v));
			      print STDERR "Warning: 'perceptual'/'pcp' pseudocolor option overriding 'pseudocolor'/'pc'\n";
			  eval {
			      if(ref($v) eq 'ARRAY') {
				  $t = PDL::Transform::Color::t_pc(@$v);
			      } else {
				  $t = PDL::Transform::Color::t_pc($v);
			      my $a = $@;
			      $@ = undef;
			      $a =~ s/Usage\:.*value\)//s;
			      # die not barf - no traceback.
			      die("PDL::Transform::Color palettes for the 'pseudocolor'/'pc' plot option are:\n  (palettes marked 'phot' respond differently with the 'perceptual' option)\n".$a."\n");

			  my $grey = xvals(2049)/2048;
			  my $rgb = $grey->apply($t);

			  my $last_str = "";
			  my @s = ();
			  for(0..$grey->dim(0)-1) {
# Turn off warnings to prevent "redundant argument" warnings on certain sprintfs
no warnings;				  
			      my $this_str = sprintf("'#%2.2X%2.2X%2.2X'",$rgb->slice('x',[$_,,0])->list);
use warnings;
			      if($_ == $grey->dim(0)-1   or   $this_str ne $last_str) {
                                  push(@s,sprintf(" %d %s",$_,$this_str));
				  $last_str = $this_str;

			  $s .= "set palette defined ( ".join(",", @s)." )\n";
		    '[pseudo] Use PDL::Transform::Color photometric palette: "pseudocolor=>\'heat\'"' ],
    'clut'      => [sub { my($old, $new, $this) = @_;
			  $new = ($new ? lc $new : "default");
			  if($palettesTab->{$new}) {
			      return $new;
			  } else {
			      my $s = "Unknown lookup table name passed as a 'clut' option.  Acceptable values are:\n";
			      for my $k(sort
					{$a eq 'default' ? $b : $a eq 'default' ? $b : $a cmp $b}
					keys %$palettesTab
				  ) {
				  $s .= sprintf("   %10.10s (%s)\n",$k, $palettesTab->{$k}->[2]);
		    sub { my($k, $v, $h) = @_;
			  my $s = "";
			  return unless(defined($v));
			  if(defined($h->{'pseudocolor'}) || defined($h->{'perceptual'})) {
			      print "Warning: 'pseudocolor'/'pc' or 'perceptual'/'pcp' plot option overriding 'clut'\n";
			  unless($palettesTab->{$v}) { die "Color table lookup failed -- this should never happen" }
			  if(defined($palettesTab->{$v}->[0])) {
			      $s .= "set palette model $palettesTab->{$v}->[0]\n";
			  $s .= "set palette $palettesTab->{$v}->[1]\n";
		    '[pseudo] Use named color look-up table for palette: "clut=>\'heat2\'"'    ],

    'globalPlot'=> ['l',sub { return '' },undef,undef,
		    '[pseudo] marker for the global plot object'    ],

    'justify'   => [sub { my($old,$new,$opt) = @_;
			      return undef;
			  if($new > 0) {
			      $opt->{'size'} = ["ratio ".(-$new)];
			      return undef;
			  } elsif($new<0) {
			      die "justify: positive value needed\n";
			  } else {
			      if(defined($opt->{'size'}) and $opt->{'size'}->[0] =~ m/ratio/) {
				  $opt->{'size'} = undef;
			      return undef;
		    sub { '' }, undef, undef,
		    '[pseudo] Set aspect ratio (equivalent to: size=>["ratio",<r>])'    ],
    'square'    => [sub { my($old, $new, $opt) = @_;
			  if($new) {
			      $opt->{'size'} = ["ratio -1"];
			      $opt->{'view'} = [] unless defined($opt->{'view'});
			      @{$opt->{'view'}}[2..5] = ($new, $new, "equal", "xyz");
			      return undef;
                          } else {
			      delete($opt->{'size'}) if(exists($opt->{'size'}));
			      delete $opt->{'view'} if(exists($opt->{'view'}));
                    sub { return '' }, undef, undef,
		    '[pseudo] Set aspect ratio to square (equivalent to: size=["ratio",1])'    ],
    # These are all the "plot" (top-level) options recognized by gnuplot 4.4.
    'angles'    => [['degrees','radians'],'s',undef,undef,
		    '(radians or degrees): sets unit in which angles will be specified'    ],
    'arrow'     => ['N','N',undef,undef,
		    'allows specification of arrows to be drawn on subsequent plots'    ],
    'autoscale' => ['lh','H2',undef,undef,
		    'autoscaling style: autoscale=>{ (x|y|z|cb|x2|y2|xy) => (0|" "|fix|fixmin|fixmax|min|max) }.'    ],
    'bars'      => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'errorbar ticsize: bars=> {(small|large|fullwidth|<size>) => (0|" "|front|back) }."'    ],
    'bmargin'   => ['s','s',undef,undef,
		    'bottom margin (chars); bmargin=>"at screen <frac>" for pane-rel. size'    ],
    'border'    => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'specify border around the plot (see gnuplot manual)'    ],
    'boxwidth'  => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'default width of boxes in those plot styles that have them'    ],
    'cbdata'    => ['s','bt',    ['colorbox'], undef,
		    'cbdata=>"time" to use time stamps on color box data axis (see timefmt)'    ],
    'cbdtics'   => ['b','b',    ['colorbox'], undef,
		    'cbdtics=>1 to use days-of-week tick labels on the color box axis'    ],
    'cblabel'   => ['l','ql',  ['colorbox'], undef,
		    'sets the label on the color box axis'    ],
    'cbmtics'   => ['b','b',    ['colorbox'], undef,
		    'cbmtics=>1 to use months-of-year tick labels on the color box axis'    ],
    'cbrange'   => ['lr','range',['colorbox'], undef,
		    'controls rendered range of color data values: cbrange=>[<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'cbmin'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{cbrange}->[0]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets minimum end of cbrange'    ],
    'cbmax'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{cbrange}->[1]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets maximum end of cbrange'    ],
    'cbtics'    => ['lt','lt',  ['colorbox'], undef,
		    'controls major (labelled) ticks on the color box axis (see docs)'    ],
    'clabel'    => ['s','q',undef,undef,
		    'Contour level legend format for contour plots (default "%8.3g")'    ],
    'clip'      => ['H','H',undef,undef,
		    'control filtering near boundary: clip=>{points=>1,one=>0,two=>1}'    ],
    'cntrparam' => ['l','1',undef,undef,
		    'control contour plotting parameters (see docs)'    ],
    'colorbox'  => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'set color box options for pm3d and image; set to undef to remove box'    ],
    'contour'   => ['s','s',undef,undef,
		    'control 3d contour plots: contour=>("base"|"surface"|"both"|undef)'    ],
    'datafile'  => ['H','H',undef,undef,
		    'control how gnuplot interprets data files (not recommended)'    ],
		    'control character used for decimal point in labels'    ],
    'dgrid3d'   => ['l','l',undef, undef,
		    'set up interpolation of scattered datapoints onto a regular grid'    ],
    'dummy'     => ['l',',', undef, undef,
		    'change name of dummy variable for parametric plots (not recommended)'    ],
    'encoding'  => ['s','s', undef, undef,
		    'change locale of character encoding (not recommended)'    ],
    'fit'       => [sub { die "set fit: not (yet) implemented in PDL Gnuplot interface\n";}],
    'fontpath'  => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'set directories to search when looking for fonts (PostScript only)'    ],
    'format'    => ['H','H',undef,undef,
		    'Fine-grained control over formatting of axis labels'    ],
    'function'  => [sub { die "'set function' is deprecated by gnuplot and not allowed here\n"; }    ],
    'grid'      => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'draw grid lines on the plot (see docs)'    ],
    'hidden3d'  => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'control whether and how hidden lines are removed in 3d (see docs)'    ],
    'isosamples'=> ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'control isoline density for plotting functions as surfaces'    ],
    'key'       => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'enable key/legend and control its position and appearance (see docs)'    ],
    'label'     => ['N','NL',undef,undef,
		    'Define text labels to be rendered in plot (numeric index; see docs)'    ],
    'lmargin'   => ['s','s',undef,undef,
		    'left margin (chars); lmargin=>"at screen <frac>" for pane-rel. size'    ],
    'loadpath'  => [sub { die "loadpath not supported\n"; }],
    'locale'    => ['s','q',undef,undef,
		    'set named locale for date/month formatting'    ],
    'logscale'  => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'set log scaling and base: e.g. logscale=>["xyx2cb",10]'    ],
    'macros'    => [sub { die "macros: not supported\n"; } ],
    'mapping'   => [['cartesian','cylindrical','spherical'],'s',undef,undef,
		    'set coordinates for 3d plots: "cartesian","spherical", or "cylindrical"'    ],
    # multiplot: this is not emitted as part of any plot command, only by the special multiplot method.
    'multiplot' => [sub { die "multiplot: use the 'multiplot' method, don't set this directly\n" },sub { ""},undef,undef,undef]  ,
    'mxtics'    => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'set and control minor ticks on the X axis: mxtics=><freq>'    ],
    'mx2tics'   => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'set and control minor ticks on the X2 axis: mx2tics=><freq>'    ],
    'mytics'    => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'set and control minor ticks on the Y axis: mytics=><freq>'    ],
    'my2tics'   => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'set and control minor ticks on the Y2 axis: my2tics=><freq>'    ],
    'mztics'    => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'set and control minor ticks on the Z axis: mztics=><freq>'    ],
    'object'    => ['N','NO',undef,undef,
		    'define objects to be overlain on plot (numeric index; see docs)'    ],
    'offsets'   => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'define inside-axis blank margin (science units): [<l>,<r>,<t>,<b>]'    ],
    'origin'    => ['l',',',undef,undef,
		    'set 2-D origin of the plotting surface in relative screen coordinates'    ],
    'output'    => [sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
			  unless(defined($h) and $h->{globalPlot}) {barf("Don't set output as a plot option; use the constructor\n");}
			  return $v;
		    sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
			  return "" unless((defined($v) and !($h->{multiplot})));
			  return "unset $k\n" unless(length($v));
			  my $vv = $v;
			  $vv =~ s/(^|[^\%])\%s/${1}Plot-/;
			  if($vv =~ m/(^|[^\%])\%d/) {
			      my $fnum = 0;
			      my $vvn;
			      do {
				  $vvn = $vv;
				  $vvn =~ s/(^|[^\%])\%d/${1}${fnum}/;
			      } while( -e $vvn);
			      $vv = $vvn;
			  if($vv ne $v) {
			      carp "INFO: Plotting to '$vv'\n";
			  $vv = quote_escape($vv);
			  return "set $k \"$vv\"\n";
		    'set output file or label for plot (see "terminal", "device")'    ],
    'parametric'=> ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'sets parametric mode for plotting parametric curves (boolean)'    ],
    'pm3d'      => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'sets up color palette-mapped 3d surface plots (see docs)'    ],
    'palette'   => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'sets up color palette for color mapped plots (see docs and "clut")'    ],
    'pointsize' => ['s','s',undef,undef,
		    'sets the size of plotted point symbols (multiplier on base size)'    ],
    'polar'     => ['b','b',['angles'],undef,
		    'sets 2-D plots into polar coordinates.  (see also "angles")'    ],
    'rmargin'   => ['s','s',undef,undef,
		    'right margin (chars); rmargin=>"at screen <frac>" for pane-rel. size'    ],
    'rrange'    => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'radial coordinate range in polar mode: rrange=>[<lo>,<hi>]'    ],
    'size'      => ['l','l',['view'],undef,
		    'sets the size of the plot pane relative to the main window (see also "justify")'    ],
    'style'     => ['H','H',undef,undef,
		    'Set various aspects of plot style by keyword (see docs)'    ],
    'surface'   => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'Turn on/off surface drawing in 3-d plots (boolean)'    ],
    'table'     => [sub { die "table not supported - use Perl's 'print' instead\n" }    ],
    'terminal'  => [sub { my($k,$v,$h)=@_;
			  unless(defined($h) and $h->{globalPlot}) {barf("Don't set terminal as a plot option; use the constructor or output().\n")}
			  return $v;
		    'Set the output device type and device dependent options (see docs)\n'    ],
    'termoption'=> ['H','HNM',undef,2,
		    'Set certain options for the terminal driver, by keyword'    ],
    'tics'      => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'Control tick mark formatting (deprecated; <axis>tics recommended instead)'    ],
    'timestamp' => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'creates a timestamp in the left margin of the plot (see docs)'    ],
    'timefmt'   => [sub { carp "Warning: timefmt doesn't work well in formats other than '%s'.  Proceed with caution!\n"
			      if(  defined($_[1])   and    $_[1] ne '%s');
			  return ( (defined $_[1]) ? "$_[1]" : undef );
		    'Sets format for interpreting time data (leave as "%s"; see docs)'    ],
    'title'     => ['l','ql',undef,undef,
		    'Set title for the plot.  See docs for size/color/font options'    ],
    'tmargin'   => ['s','s',undef,undef,
		    'top margin (chars); tmargin=>"at screen <frac>" for pane-rel. size'     ],
    'trange'    => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'range for indep. variable in parametric plots: trange=>[<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'urange'    => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'range for indep. variable "u" in 3-d parametric plots: [<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'view'      => ['l', sub { my($k,$v,$h)=@_;
			       return "" unless defined($v);
			       return "set view 60,30,1.0,1.0\nset view noequal\n" unless( ref $v eq 'ARRAY' ); # default value from manual
			       my @numbers = ();
			       my @v = @$v;

			       while( @v && (_def($v[0],"") =~ m/^(\s*\-?((\d+\.?\d*)|(\d*\.\d+))([eE][\+\-]\d*)?\s*)?$/ )) {
				   push(@numbers, _def(shift(@v),""));
			       my $s = "";
			       $s .= "set view ".join(",",@numbers)."\n" if(@numbers);
			       while(@v) {
				   if($v[0] eq 'equal' and $v[1] =~ m/xyz?/) {
				       $s .= sprintf("set view %s %s\n",splice(@v,0,2));
				   } else {
				       $s .= sprintf("set view %s\n",shift @v);
			       return $s;
		    '3-d view: [r_x, r_z, scale, sc_z,"map","noequal","equal (xy|xyz)"]'    ],
    'vrange'    => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'range for indep. variable "v" in 3-d parametric plots: [<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'x2data'    => ['s','bt',undef,undef,
		    'x2data=>"time" to use time stamps on X2 axis (see timefmt)'    ],
    'x2dtics'   => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'x2dtics=>1 to use days-of-week tick labels on X2 axis'    ],
    'x2label'   => ['l','ql',undef,undef,
		    'sets label for the X2 axis.  See docs for size/color/font options'    ],
    'x2mtics'   => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'x2mtics=>1 to use months-of-year tick labels on the X2 axis'    ],
    'x2min'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{x2range}->[0]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets minimum end of x2range'    ],
    'x2max'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{x2range}->[1]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets maximum end of x2range'    ],
    'x2range'   => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'set range of X2 axis: x2range=>[<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'x2tics'    => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'Control tick mark formatting (X2 axis; see docs)'    ],
    'x2zeroaxis'=> ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'If set, draw a vertical line at X2=0; see docs for formatting'    ],
    'xdata'     => ['s','bt',undef,undef,
		    'xdata=>"time" to use time stamps on X axis (see timefmt)'    ],
    'xdtics'    => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'xdtics=>1 to use days-of-week tick labels on X axis'    ],
    'xlabel'    => ['l','ql',undef,undef,
		    'sets label for the X axis.  See docs for size/color/font options'    ],
    'xmtics'    => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'xmtics=>1 to use months-of-year tick labels on the X axis'    ],
    'xmin'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{xrange}->[0]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets minimum end of xrange'    ],
    'xmax'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{xrange}->[1]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets maximum end of xrange'    ],
    'xrange'    => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'set range of X axis: xrange=>[<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'xtics'     => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'Control tick mark formatting (X axis; see docs)'    ],
    'xyplane'   => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'Sets location of the XY plane in 3-D plots; see docs'    ],
    'xzeroaxis' => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'if set, draw a vertical line at X=0; see docs for formatting'    ],
    'y2data'    => ['s','bt',undef,undef,
		    'y2data=>"time" to use time stamps on Y2 axis (see timefmt)'    ],
    'y2dtics'   => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'y2dtics=>1 to use days-of-week tick labels on Y2 axis'    ],
    'y2label'   => ['l','ql',undef,undef,
		   'sets label for the Y2 axis.  See docs for size/color/font options'    ],
    'y2mtics'   => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'y2mtics=>1 to use months-of-year tick labels on Y2 axis'    ],
    'y2min'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{y2range}->[0]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets minimum end of y2range'    ],
    'y2max'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{y2range}->[1]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets maximum end of y2range'    ],
    'y2range'   => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'set range of Y2 axis: y2range=>[<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'y2tics'    => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'Control tick mark formatting (Y2 axis; see docs)'    ],
    'y2zeroaxis'=> ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'if set, draw a horizontal line at Y2=0; see docs for formatting'    ],
    'ydata'     => ['s','bt',undef,undef,
		    'ydata=>"time" to use time stamps on Y axis (see timefmt)'    ],
    'ydtics'    => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'ydtics=>1 to use days-of-week tick labels on Y axis'    ],
    'ytics'     => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'Control tick mark formatting (Y axis; see docs)'    ],
    'ylabel'    => ['l','ql',undef,undef,
		    'sets label for the Y axis.  See docs for size/color/font options'    ],
    'ymtics'    => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'ymticks=>1 to use months-of-year tick labels on Y axis'    ],
    'ymin'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{yrange}->[0]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets minimum end of yrange'    ],
    'ymax'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{yrange}->[1]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets maximum end of yrange'    ],
    'yrange'    => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'set range of Y axis: yrange=>[<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'yzeroaxis' => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'if set, draw a horizontal line at Y=0; see docs for formatting'    ],
    'zdata'     => ['s','bt',undef,undef,
		    'zdata=>"time" to use time stamps on Z axis (see timefmt)'    ],
    'zdtics'    => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'zdtics=>1 to use days-of-week tick labels on Z axis'    ],
    'zlabel'    => ['l','ql',undef,undef,
		    'sets label for the Z axis.  See docs for size/color/font options'    ],
    'zmtics'    => ['b','b',undef,undef,
		    'zmtics=>1 to use months-of-year tick labels on Z axis'    ],
    'zmin'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{zrange}->[0]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets minimum end of zrange'    ],
    'zmax'      => [sub { my($o,$n,$h)=@_; $h->{zrange}->[1]=$n; return undef},sub{''},undef,undef,
		    'sets maximum end of zrange'    ],
    'zrange'    => ['lr','range',undef,undef,
		    'set range of Z axis: zrange=>[<min>,<max>]'    ],
    'zzeroaxis' => ['l','l',undef,undef,
		    'if set, draw a line through (X=0,Y=0) on a 3-D plot.  See docs'    ],
    'zero'      => ['s','s',undef,undef,
		    'Sets the default threshold for values approaching 0.0'    ],
    'ztics'     => ['lt','lt',undef,undef,
		    'Control tick mark formatting (Z axis; see docs)'    ]
our $pOptionsAbbrevs = _gen_abbrev_list(keys %$pOptionsTable);
$pOptionsAbbrevs->{'term'} = ['terminal'];         # frequently-used case
$pOptionsAbbrevs->{'time'} = ['timestamp'];        # compat. with gnuplot's alt. spelling
$pOptionsAbbrevs->{'pc'}   = ['pseudocolor'];
$pOptionsAbbrevs->{'pcp'}  = ['perceptual'];

$pOpt = [$pOptionsTable, $pOptionsAbbrevs, "plot option"];

# cOptionsTable - describes valid curve options and their allowed value types
# The output types are different so that they can all be interpolated into the same
# master table.  Curve option output routines have a 'c' in front of the name.

our $cOptionsTable = {
         # data is here so that it gets sorted properly into each chunk -- but it doesn't get specified this way.
         # the output string just specifies STDIN.   The magic output string gets replaced post facto with the test and
         # real output format specifiers.
    'cdims'     => [sub { my $s = _def($_[1], 0);  # Number of dimensions in a column
			  if($s==0 or $s==1 or $s==2) {
			      return $s;
			  } else {
			      barf "Curve option 'cdims' must be one of 0, 1, or 2\n";
		    sub { return ""}],
    'data'     => [sub { barf "mustn't specify data as a curve option...\n" },
		   sub { return " $cmdFence "; },
    'using'    => ['l','cl',undef,6],        # using clauses in order (straight passthrough)
# legend is a special case -- it gets parsed as a list but emitted as a quoted scalar.
    'legend'   => ['l', sub { if(defined($_[1]) and defined $_[1]->[0]) {return "title \"$_[1]->[0]\"";} else {return "notitle"}},
		   undef, 7],
    'axes'     => [['(x[12])(y[12])'],'cs',undef,8],
    'smooth'   => ['s','cs',undef,8.1],
    'with'     => ['l', 'cl', undef, 9],

# The next curve options are "with" modifiers.  They have to be sorted
# after 'with' to be treated properly.  They should probably have some
# sort of filter built in to ensure we don't feed gnuplot a curve
# option that is inappropriate for the particular type of curve we are
# plotting - but gnuplot does seem to catch that case and throw an error,
# so the only benefit would be delivering a cleaner error message.
    'linestyle'=> ['s', 'cs',  undef, 10],
    'linetype' => ['s', 'cs',  undef, 11],
    'dashtype' => ['dt', 'dt',  undef, 11.5],  # dashtype is new with Gnuplot 5
    'linewidth'=> ['s', 'css',  undef, 12],
    'linecolor'=> ['l', 'ccolor',  undef, 13],
    'textcolor'=> ['l', 'ccolor',  undef, 14],
    'pointtype'=> ['s', 'cs',  undef, 15],
    'pointsize'=> ['s', 'css',  undef, 16],
    'fillstyle'=> ['l', 'cl',  undef, 17],
    'nohidden3d'=>['b', 'cff', undef, 18],
    'nohidden3d'=>['b', 'cff', undef, 19],
    'nocontours'=>['b', 'cff', undef, 20],
    'nosurface' =>['b', 'cff', undef, 21],
    'palette'   =>['b', 'cff',  undef, 22],

    'tuplesize'=> ['s',sub { return ""}]    # set tuplesize explicitly (not a gnuplot option)

our $cOptionsAbbrevs = _gen_abbrev_list(keys %$cOptionsTable);
#### Gnuplot official abbreviations for the "with"-modifying curve options
    my $officialAbbrevs = {
	lt => ["linetype"],
	dt => ["dashtype"],
	ls => ["linestyle"],
	lw => ["linewidth"],
	lc => ["linecolor"],
	pt => ["pointtype"],
	ps => ["pointsize"],
	fs => ["fillstyle"]
    for my $k(%$officialAbbrevs){
	$cOptionsAbbrevs->{$k} = $officialAbbrevs->{$k};

$cOpt = [$cOptionsTable, $cOptionsAbbrevs, "curve option"];

# $plotStyleProps
# This table describes the types of input expected by the various
# plot styles.  Each entry should be an array ref.  The colums are:
#   0:  "ts"   Tuple sizes (columns of data) that are allowed by this plot style for
#              ordinary 2-D plots.  (We let gnuplot interpret the columns; this just
#              keeps track of the different numbers of columns that are allowed).  If
#              a plot style isn't allowed in 2-D, then this entry should be a false value.
#              Negative values get the "array" rather than the "record" specifier (for autogen
#              of coordinates)
#   1:  "3dts" Tuple sizes (columns of data) that are allowed by this plot style for
#              3-D plots (with the gnuplot "plots" command).  If this plot style doesn't
#              work in 3-D, then the entry should be a false value instead.
#   2:  img    This is a flag indicating whether it is an image format plot (which accepts
#              2-D matrix data in each "column").  If false, the column is a 1-D collection
#              of values.
#   3:  bin    0/1/undef - 0: ASCII data required for this plot type; 1: binary data required.
#   4:  frob   if present, pointer to a prefrobnication routine to prepare the data.
#              Currently, fits images are handled that way because of gnuplot's problem
#              dealing with proper coordinate grids -- the fits image is sampled into
#              scientific coordinates using PDL::Transform.  The prefrobnicator should accept:
#               * the 'with' option list ref,
#               * the main plot object (for access to plot options)
#               * the plot chunk (for access to curve options),
#               * all the data passed in for that curve.
#              It should return the new data piddle list, and modify the chunk 'with' list and curve options in place.
#              While it has access to plot options, it probably shouldn't modify them.

our $plotStyleProps ={
### key                ts         3dts         img  bin     prefrobnicator
    boxerrorbars   => [ [3,4,5],  0,            0, undef ],
    boxes          => [ [2,3],    0,            0, undef ],
    boxxyerrorbars => [ [4,6],    0,            0, undef ],
    candlesticks   => [ [5,6],    0,            0, undef ],
    circles        => [ [2,3],    0,            0, undef ],
    dots           => [ [-1,2],   [3],          0, undef ],
    ellipses       => [ [2,3,4,5],0,            0, undef ],
    filledcurves   => [ [2,3],    0,            0, undef ],
    financebars    => [ [5],      0,            0, undef ],
    fsteps         => [ [-1,2],   0,            0, undef ],
    histeps        => [ [-1,2],   0,            0, undef ],
    histogram      => [ [1..99],  0,            0, undef ],
    newhistogram   => [ [1..99],  0,            0, undef ],
    fits           => [ [-1],     [-1],         1, 1     , \&_with_fits_prefrobnicator ],
    image          => [ [-1,3],   [-1,4],       1, 1     ],
    impulses       => [ [-1,2,3], [-1,-2,3,4],  0, undef ],
    labels         => [ [3],      [4],          0, 0     ],
    lines          => [ [-1,2],   [-1,3],       0, undef ],
    linespoints    => [ [-1,2],   [-1,3],       0, undef ],
    points         => [ [-1,2],   [-1,3],       0, undef ],
    rgbalpha       => [ [-4,6],   [-4,7],       1, 1     ],
    rgbimage       => [ [-3,5],   [-3,6],       1, 1     ],
    steps          => [ [-1,2],   0,            0, undef ],
    vectors        => [ [4],      [6],          0, undef ],
    xerrorbars     => [ [-2,3,4], 0,            0, undef ],
    xyerrorbars    => [ [-3,4,6], 0,            0, undef ],
    yerrorbars     => [ [-2,3,4], 0,            0, undef ],
    xerrorlines    => [ [-3,4],   0,            0, undef ],
    xyerrorlines   => [ [-4,6],   0,            0, undef ],
    yerrorlines    => [ [-3,4],   0,            0, undef ],
    pm3d           => [ 0,        [-1,3,4],     1, 1 ]

# plotStyleDocs - just a one-line string for summarizing each plot style.
# These are not (yet) used but should be incorporated into a documentation schema.
our $plotStyleSyntax = 'Tuple columns are listed for each style. "[]": optional.  "{}": 3-D style';
our $plotStyleDocs ={
    boxerrorbars   => ["boxes on X axis",                       "x, y, dy, [dx]; x, y, ylo, yhi, dx"],
    boxes          => ["boxes sitting on X axis",               "x, y, [dx]"],
    boxxyerrorbars => ["XY errorbars as rectangles",            "x, y, dx, dy; x, y, xlo, xhi, ylo, yhi"],
    candlesticks   => ["box-and-errorbar plots",                "x, blo, wlo, whi, bhi,"],
    circles        => ["circles",                               "x, y, [r]"],
    dots           => ["Tiny dots (scatterplot)",               "[x], y; {x, y, z}"],
    ellipses       => ["ellipses",                              "x, y, [dmaj, [dmin, [ang]]]"],
    filledcurves   => ["fill polygon, to axis, or topoint",     "x, y; x, y1, y2"],
    financebars    => ["financial stem plot",                   "x, open, lo, hi, close"],
    fsteps         => ["steps (Y first; cf histeps, steps)",    "[x], y"],
    histeps        => ["steps (centered; cf fsteps, steps)",    "[x], y"],
    histograms     => ["histogram (set tuplesize if >99 cols)", "y, [y1, [y2, [...]]]"],
    newhistogram   => ["histogram (set tuplesize if >99 cols)", "y, [y1, [y2, [...]]]"],
    fits           => ["FITS image with WCS info in header",    "[x, y], i; {[x, y, z], i}"],
    image          => ["I (WxH), RGB (WxHx3) or RGBA (WxHx4)",  "[x, y], i; {[x, y, z], i}"],
    impulses       => ["Vert lines from y=0 or z=0 to point",   "[x], y; {[x, y], z}"],
    labels         => ["Text at given location",                "x, y, str; {x, y, z, str}"],
    lines          => ["Simple line plot",                      "[x], y; {[x, y], z}"],
    linespoints    => ["Lines with symbols at points",          "[x], y; {[x, y], z}"],
    points         => ["Small symbol at each point",            "[x], y; {[x, y], z}"],
    rgbimage       => ["RGB image: 2D with R,G,B",              "[x, y], r,g,b;   {[x, y, z], r,g,b}"],
    rgbalpha       => ["RGBA image: 2D with R,G,B,A",           "[x, y], r,g,b,a; {[x, y, z], r,g,b,a}"],
    steps          => ["steps (Y last; cf fsteps, histeps)",    "[x], y"],
    vectors        => ["Plot a vector field",                   "x, y, dx, dy; {x, y, z, dx, dy, dz}"],
    xerrorbars     => ["Whisker errorbars in X",                "x, y, dx;   x, y, xlo, xhi"],
    xyerrorbars    => ["Whisker errorbars in X & Y",            "x, y, dx, dy; x, y, xlo, xhi, ylo, yhi"],
    yerrorbars     => ["Whisker errorbars in Y",                "x, y, dy;   x, y, ylo, yhi"],
    xerrorlines    => ["Whisker errorbars in X, connected",     "x, y, dx;   x, y, xlo, xhi"],
    xyerrorlines   => ["Whisker errorbars in X & Y, connected", "x, y, dx, dy; x, y, xlo, xhi, ylo, yhi"],
    yerrorlines    => ["Whisker errorbars in Y, connected",     "x, y, dy;   x, y, ylo, yhi"],
    pm3d           => ["Colored 3-D surface plot",              "{[x,y,z],[i]}"]

our $plotStyleAbbrevs = _gen_abbrev_list(keys %$plotStyleProps);
# Make some tweaks to the abbreviations...
map { $plotStyleAbbrevs->{$_} = 'lines' } qw/ li lin line lines /;
$plotStyleAbbrevs->{box} = 'boxes';
$plotStyleAbbrevs->{lp} = 'linespoints';
map { $plotStyleAbbrevs->{$_} = 'histeps' } qw/ hs hi his hist /;

# palettesTab - this is a table mapping palette names to rgb specifications in gnuplot, together
# with the color model they support.
# From gnuplot's "show palette rgbformulae" command, there are 37 different available rgb color mapping formulae;
# these are used where possible, but defined palettes can also be used.
# These codes are used in the parser/emitter codes for the "clut" pseudo-option.
# Each value is an array ref containing (color model),(palette string).
# For reference, the formulae in the 'rgbformulae' option, at least in Gnuplot 4.4, are:
#             0: 0               1: 0.5             2: 1
#             3: x               4: x^2             5: x^3
#             6: x^4             7: sqrt(x)         8: sqrt(sqrt(x))
#             9: sin(90x)       10: cos(90x)       11: |x-0.5|
#            12: (2x-1)^2       13: sin(180x)      14: |cos(180x)|
#            15: sin(360x)      16: cos(360x)      17: |sin(360x)|
#            18: |cos(360x)|    19: |sin(720x)|    20: |cos(720x)|
#            21: 3x             22: 3x-1           23: 3x-2
#            24: |3x-1|         25: |3x-2|         26: (3x-1)/2
#            27: (3x-2)/2       28: |(3x-1)/2|     29: |(3x-2)/2|
#            30: x/0.32-0.78125 31: 2*x-0.84       32: 4x;1;-2x+1.84;x/0.08-11.5
#            33: |2*x - 0.5|    34: 2*x            35: 2*x - 0.5
#            36: 2*x - 1

$palettesTab = {
    default  => [ undef, undef,   		         "default palette assigned by Gnuplot" ],
    grey     => [ undef, 'gray',	                 "gray" ],
    gray     => [ undef, 'gray',	                 "gray" ],
    sepia    => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 7,3,4',      "a simple sepiatone" ],
    grepia   => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 3,7,4',      "a simple sepiatone, in green" ],
    blepia   => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 4,3,7',      "a simple sepiatone, in cyan/blue"],
    vepia    => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 3,4,7',      "a simple sepiatone, in violet" ],
    pm3d     => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 7,5,15',     "black-blue-red-yellow" ],
    grv      => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 3,11,6',     "green-red-violet" ],
    ocean    => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 23,28,3',    "green-blue-white" ],
    gback    => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 31,31,32',   "printable on a gray background" ],
    rainbow  => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae -33,-13,-10',"Rainbow red-yellow-green-blue" ],
    heat1    => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 21,22,23',   "heat-map: black-red-yellow-white" ],
    heat2    => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 34, 35, 36', "heat-map (AFM): black-red-yellow-white" ],
    wheel    => [ 'HSV', 'color rgbformulae 3,2,2',      "hue map: color wheel" ],
    rgb      => [ 'RGB', 'color rgbformulae 10,13,9',    "red-green-blue fade" ],
    dop      => [ 'RGB', "defined (0 '#ff0000', 0.5 '#ffffff', 1.0 '#0000ff')", "red-white-blue fade" ],
    dop2     => [ 'RGB', "defined (0 '#ff0000', 0.5 '#000000', 1.0 '#0000ff')", "red-black-blue fade" ],
    dop3     => [ 'RGB', "defined (0 '#ff9090', 0.4 '#503030', 0.5 '#000000', 0.6 '#303050', 1.0 '#9090ff')", "red-black-blue fade (gentler)" ],

# _parseOptHash
# Internal routine to parse a collection of options, given a collection of syntax
# definitions and either an options hash ref or a listified hash.
# Used for parsing/adding plot options...
# Call with the options hash to be written to, then with the Opt list ref (e.g. $pOpt global above),
# then with the arguments.  The $me is needed to feed to special-handling subs in the
# OptionsTable.

# _pOHTable: helper for _parseOptHash - handles the individual cases.  Each sub
# gets ($oldval, $param, $opts) and returns the parsed value (or barfs).

our $_pOHInputs; # table of parser code snippets (declared at bottom)

sub _parseOptHash {
    my($options)   = shift || {};
    my($OptTable, $AbbrevTable, $name) = @{shift()};
    my @opts  = @_;

    # Parse arguments one at a time.  If the first one is a hash ref then
    # unpack it inline.
    opt: while(@opts) {
	# Pull the next key.  If it turns out to be a hash, interpolate the hash into the list
	# of parameters.  If it turns out to be a list, do likewise.  Note that list refs that are
	# in a value slot are *not* interpolated.
	my $k = shift @opts;
	if(ref $k eq 'HASH') {
	    $k = shift @opts;
	} elsif(ref $k eq 'ARRAY') {
	    $k = shift @opts;

	last opt unless defined($k);

	# now pull the value.
	my $v = shift @opts;

	# Expand abbreviations and get the table entry for the option
	# (throws an exception on failure)
	my ($kk,$knum) = _expand_abbrev($k, $AbbrevTable, $name); # throws exception on failure

	# Evil DWIMmery.  'N' type parameters take a numeric argument that is
	# allowed to trail the keyword itself in the keyword part of the specifier.
	# So if we got a number we have to check that the corresponding keyword
	# in fact is 'N' type - else we leave the number in the keyword itself and
	# revalidate.
	if(defined $knum) {
	    if($OptTable->{$kk}->[0] eq 'N') { # HARDWIRED-N parsing
		if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		    unshift(@$v, $knum);
		} else {
		    $v = [$knum, $v];

	    } else {
		$kk = "$kk$knum";
		$knum = undef;
		unless($AbbrevTable->{$kk}) {
		    barf "Error: $name '$k' expanded to '$kk', which isn't a known keyword.\n";

	my $TableEntry = $OptTable->{$kk};

	# Grab a parser code ref...
	my $parser = $TableEntry->[0];
	unless(ref $parser) {
	    my $p = $_pOHInputs->{$parser};
	    unless(ref $p eq 'CODE') {
		barf "Unknown input type '$parser' found in option table entry for $kk! This is a bug.";
	    $parser = $p;
	} elsif(ref $parser eq 'ARRAY') {
	    # If the parser entry is an array ref with one non-ref element only, it is a regexp to match
	    # for successful enumeration.  If it has more than one element, it is an enum list that
	    # can be abbreviated.
	    if(ref($parser->[0])) {
		barf("HELP!  Parser is confused.  This is a bug, please report it.\n");
	    } elsif (  0+@$parser == 1 )  {
		# A list ref with a single element - it's a regexp to match
		my $a = $parser->[0];
		my $p = sub {
		    my ($old, $newparam, $hash) = @_;
		    if($newparam =~ m/$a/) {
			return $newparam;
		    } else {
			barf("Unknown field $newparam (must match m/$a/)\n");
		$parser = $p;
	    } else {
		# A list ref with multiple elements - they are enums.
		# Make a temporary abbrev list for 'em.
		my $abbrevs = _gen_abbrev_list( @$parser );
		my $p = sub {
		    my($old, $newparam, $hash) = @_;
		    my $k = eval { _expand_abbrev($newparam, $abbrevs, "enumerated $kk option"); };
		    if($@) {
			my $s = $@;
			undef $@;
		    return $k;
		$parser = $p;

	unless(ref $parser eq 'CODE') {
	    barf "HELP!";

	$options->{$kk} = &$parser($options->{$kk}, $v, $options, $kk);
    return $options;

# Parse table
# $_pOHInputs describes input parsing from argument lists.  Each key
# is a code for a particular type of input; the value is a subroutine
# that accepts ($old_value, $new_input, $options_hash, $fieldname) and returns the
# parsed new value.  Most of the parsers ignore fieldname, but it's passed in
# so that, e.g., 'lt' can parse both major and minor tick values.

our $footicsAbbrevs = _gen_abbrev_list(qw/axis border mirror in out scale rotate offset left right center autofreq locations labels format font rangelimited textcolor/ );

$_pOHInputs = {
    ## Simple cases - boolean, number, scalar
    'b' => sub { ( (defined $_[1]) ? ($_[1] ? 1 : 0) : undef ); },
    'n' => sub { ( (defined $_[1]) ? ($_[1] + 0)     : undef ); },
    's' => sub { ( (defined $_[1]) ? "$_[1]"         : undef ); },

    ## one-line list (can also be boolean)
    'l' => sub { return undef unless(defined $_[1]);
		 return "" unless(length($_[1]));                                 # false value yields false
		 return $_[1] if( (!ref($_[1])) && "$_[1]" =~ m/^\s*\-?\d+\s*$/); # nonzero integers yield true
		 # Not setting a boolean value - it's a list (or a trivial list).
		 if(ref $_[1] eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return $_[1];
		 } else {
		     # anything that's not an array ref (and not a number) gets put in the array
		     return [$_[1]];

    ## one-line list (no booleanity: scalars always get copied to the list)
    'ln' => sub { return undef unless(defined $_[1]);
		  return "" unless(length($_[1]));
		  return [$_[1]] unless(ref($_[1]) eq 'ARRAY');
		  return $_[1];

    ## one-line list (can also be boolean or hash)
    'lh' => sub { return undef unless(defined $_[1]);
		 return "" unless(length($_[1]));                                 # false value yields false
		 return $_[1] if( (!ref($_[1])) && "$_[1]" =~ m/^\s*\-?\d+\s*$/); # nonzero integers yield true
		 # Not setting a boolean value - it's a list (or a trivial list).
		 if(ref $_[1] eq 'ARRAY'   or   ref $_[1] eq 'HASH') {
		     return $_[1];
		 } else {
#		     return [ split( /\s+/, $_[1] ) ];
		     return [$_[1]];

    ## list or 2-PDL for a range parameter
    'lr' => sub { return undef unless(defined $_[1]);
		 return "" unless(length($_[1]));                                 # false value yields false
		 return $_[1] if( (!ref($_[1])) && "$_[1]" =~ m/^\s*\-?\d+\s*$/); # nonzero integers yield true
		 # Not setting a boolean value - it's a list (or a trivial list).
		 if(ref $_[1] eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return $_[1];
		 } elsif( $_[1]->$_isa('PDL') ) {
		     barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: range parser found a PDL, but it wasn't a 2-PDL (max,min)"
			 unless( $_[1]->dims==1 and $_[1]->nelem==2 );
		     return [$_[1]->list];
		 } else {
#		     return [ split( /\s+/, $_[1] ) ];
		     return [$_[1]];

    ## cumulative list (delete on "undef")
    'C' => sub { return undef unless(defined $_[1]);
		 return 0 unless($_[1]);                             # false value yields false
		 return 1 if( $_[1] && "$_[1]" =~ m/^\s*-?\d+\s*$/); # nonzero integers yield true
		 # Not setting a boolean value - it's a list, so append it.
		 my $out = (ref $_[0] eq 'ARRAY') ? $_[0] : [];
		 if(ref $_[1] eq 'ARRAY') {
		     push( @$out, $_[1] );
		 } else {
		     push( @$out, [ split ( /\s+/, $_[1] ) ] );
		 return $out;

    ## set hash values
    'H' => sub { return undef unless(defined $_[1]);
		 my $out = (ref $_[0] eq 'HASH') ? $_[0] : {};
		 my $in = $_[1];
		 return undef unless defined($in);
		 if(ref($in) eq 'ARRAY') {
		     my %h = (@$in);
		     $in = \%h;
		 if(ref($in) eq 'HASH') {
		     for my $k(keys %{$_[1]}) {
			 $out->{$k} = $_[1]->{$k};
		 } else {
		     # scalar or <mumble>...
		     if( $in =~ m/([^\s]+)\s+(.*)$/ ) {
			 # key/value found
			 $out->{$1} = $2;
		     } else {
			 # at most a key found.  If nothing, clear the hash
			 return undef unless($in =~ s/^\s*([^\s]+)\s*$/$1/);
			 # A key was found.  Set a nonempty value so that "set foo $k" gets emitted
			 $out->{$1} = " ";
		 return $out;

    ## number-indexed list
    'N' => sub { my($old,$new,$h) = @_;
		 return undef unless(defined $new);
		 my $out = (ref($old) eq 'ARRAY') ? $old : [];

                 # Split strings into lists if necessary.
                 $new = [ split(/\s+/,$new) ] unless(ref($new) eq 'ARRAY');

                 # Check for nested lists -- multiple specs.
                 if(ref($new->[0]) eq 'ARRAY') {
		     my $o = [];
		     for my $l(@$new) {
			 unless(ref $l eq 'ARRAY') {
			     die "Markup option: nested lists must contain only list refs\n";
			 push(@$o, [@$l]);
		     $out = $o;
		 } else {
		     # not a nested list - look for an index number at the start.
		     my $dex;
		     if($new->[0] =~ m/^\s*(\d+)\s*$/) {
			 $dex = 0 + shift(@$new);
		     } else {
			 $dex = scalar(@$out) || 1;
		     if(@$new) {
			 $out->[$dex] = $new;
		     } else {
			 $out->[$dex] = undef;
		 return $out;

    ## <foo>tics option list
    ## (For valid hash keys, see footicsAbbrevs definition above)
    'lt' => sub { my($old, $new, $h, $fieldname) = @_;
		  return undef unless(defined($new));
		  return 0 unless($new);
		  if (!ref($new) or ref($new) eq 'ARRAY') {
		      my @list;

		      if(!ref($new)) {
			  $new =~ s/^\s+//;
			  $new =~ s/\s+$//;
			  @list = split /\s*[\s\,]\s*/,$new;
		      } else {
			  @list = @$new;

		      # We don't fully parse gnuplot lines -- but we do
		      # check for the simple numeric case -- if it's correct,
		      # turn the list ref into a hash for future manipulability.
		      if( @list == 0 ) {
			  return {};
		      } elsif(@list > 3) {
			  carp "Warning - explicit string or array refs are deprecated in tic specs\n";
			  return [@list];
		      my $num_ok = 0;
		      for my $i(0..$#list) {
			  $num_ok++ if($list[$i] =~ s/^(\-?\d+(\.\d*)?([eE][\+\-]?\d+)?)(\s*\,\s*)?$/$1/);
		      if($num_ok == @list) {
			  # Hashify the form if possible
			  return {locations=>\@list};
		      } else {
			  carp "Warning - explicit list or string gnuplot commands are deprecated in tic specs\n";
			  return \@list;
		      barf "This can't happen!";
		  } elsif ( ref($new) eq 'HASH' ) {
		      my %h = ();
		      for my $k(keys %$new) {
			  my $k2 = _expand_abbrev($k, $footicsAbbrevs, "<foo>tics option");
			  if(exists($h{$k2})) {
			      barf("Error: '$k' expanded to '$k2', which already exists in <foo>tics option");
			  $h{$k2} = $new->{$k};
		      return \%h;
		  } else {
		      barf("Error: <foo>tics options require a scalar or a hash ref");

    ## dashtype option
    'dt' => sub { my($old, $new, $h, $fieldname) = @_;
		  if($gp_version < 5.0) {
		      carp "WARNING: 'dashtype' is not supported by your <5.0 gnuplot.  Ignoring...\n";
		      return $old;
		  if(ref $new  and   ref $new ne 'ARRAY') {
		      barf "Error:  dashtype curve option requires a scalar or an array ref";
		  return $new;


# _emitOpts
# Accepts an options table as a single hash ref, and emits a corresponding
# string that is suitable for passing on to gnuplot.  Curve options and
# plot options use different output specifiers and can therefore both be
# handled by one routine.
# Because curve and plot options have different parse tables, you have to
# pass in the parse table ref appropriate to the type of option you're emitting.

sub _emitOpts {
    my ($options, $tab, $this) = @_;
    my $table = $tab->[0];
    our $_OptionEmitters;

    # Sort the keys into options table order -- this is so that keys that are supposed
    # to be up top go up top; keys with no particular order defined in the parse table
    # are allowed to stay in random order.
    # Keys that are supposed to be at bottom (if any in future) can be
    # placed there by the expedient of assigning them sort values in excess of 1,000.
    my @keys = sort { ((defined $table->{$a}->[3])?($table->{$a}->[3]): 999) <=> ((defined $table->{$b}->[3])?($table->{$b}->[3]):999) or
			  ($a cmp $b)
                    } keys %$options;

    my $s = "";

    # Loop over the keys and emit.
    key: while(@keys) {
	my $k = shift @keys;

	my $tableEntry = $table->{$k};
	if(!defined($tableEntry)) {
	    barf "_emitOpts: bad table entry for keyword '$k'";

	## Cheesy ordering logic here -- if the parse table indicates that we have to go after
	## a particular option, walk back from the end until we find one of them or get to the
	## front of the queue.  If we find a match, we splice the current one back there and move
	## on to the next key.
	if($tableEntry->[2]) {
	    my %h = (map { ($_, 1) } @{$tableEntry->[2]});  # make a hash of later-than keywords, with 1 in each entry
	    for my $i(reverse 0..$#keys) {
		if($h{$keys[$i]}) {
		    next key;

	## Rubber meets the road -- call the corresponding output function
	my $emitter = $tableEntry->[1] || " ";
	unless(ref $emitter) {
	    my $o = $_OptionEmitters->{$emitter};
	    unless( ref $o eq 'CODE') {
		barf "Unknown output type '$emitter' found in option table entry for $k!";
	    $emitter = $o;
	} elsif(ref $emitter ne 'CODE') {
	    barf 'PLEH!';

	$s .= &$emitter($k, $options->{$k}, $options, $this)

    return $s;

# Emitter table folows.  Colorspecs are so
# complicated that they get their own helper routine,
# _emit_colorspec.
sub _emit_colorspec {
    my $v = shift;

    my @words;
    unless(ref($v)) {
	$v =~ s/^\s+//;
	$v =~ s/\s+$//;
	@words = split /\s+/, $v;
    } elsif(ref($v) eq 'ARRAY') {
	if(@$v > 1) {
	    @words = @$v;
	} else {
	    $v->[0] =~ s/^\s+//;
	    $v->[0] =~ s/\s+$//;
	    @words = split /\s+/, $v->[0];
    } else {
	die "colorspec: only scalar and ARRAY values are supported for colors";

    my $s = "";
    $s .= shift @words if(lc($words[0]) eq 'rgb');

    if( $words[0] =~ s/\"?(\#[0-9a-fA-F]{6})\"?/\"$1\"/ ) {
	$s .= " rgb " unless($s =~ m/rgb/);
	$s .= " ".join(" ",@words);
	return $s;
    elsif($PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::colornames->{lc($words[0])}) {
	$s .= " rgb " unless($s =~ m/rgb/);
	$s .= " \"$words[0] \" ";
	shift @words;
	$s .= join(" ",@words)." ";
	return $s;
    } elsif($words[0] =~ m/(^[0-9]+$)|(variable)|(palette)/) {
	return join(" ",($s,@words,""));
    } else {
	my $ww = join(" ",@words);
	die <<"EOD";
PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: Unknown color spec '$ww'.
  Use an integer, an '#RRGGBB' spec, 'variable', 'palette', or a name from
  the list in \@PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::colornames.
    die "Can't get here!  (colorspec parser)";

# Emission table
# $_OptionEmitters describes how to emit stored parameters.  Each
# key is a code for a particular type of output; the value is a subroutine
# that returns the outputted parameter as a string.
# Different codes emit whole lines (e.g. for setting plot options) or
# space-delimited words (e.g. for setting curve options).  Curve
# option emitters have codes that start with 'c'.
# Although most of the emitters take just (keyword, value, options-hash),
# they may take a fourth parameter containing the complete object.
# That's useful for things like "crange", which needs to know the global
# options state to know how to emit itself.

our $_OptionEmitters = {
    #### Default output -- a collection of terms with spaces between them as a plot option
    ' ' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined($v));
		 if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return join(" ",("set",$k,map { (defined $_)?$_:"" } @$v))."\n";
		 } elsif(ref $v eq 'HASH') {
		     return join(" ",("set",$k,%$v))."\n";
		 } else {
		     return join(" ",("set",$k,$v))."\n";

    #### nomulti -- a default style plot option that is ignored in multiplot mode
    'nomulti' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless((defined($v)) and !($h->{multiplot}));
		 if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return join(" ",("set",$k,map { (defined $_)?$_:"" } @$v))."\n";
		 } elsif(ref $v eq 'HASH') {
		     return join(" ",("set",$k,%$v))."\n";
		 } else {
		     return join(" ",("set",$k,$v))."\n";

    #### Empty output - return nothing.
    '-' => sub { "" },

    #### A quoted scalar value as a plot option
    'q' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined($v));
		 return "unset $k\n" unless(length($v));
		 $v = quote_escape($v);
		 return "set $k \"$v\"\n";

    #### A quoted scalar value as a plot option, not emitted in multiplot mode
    'qnm' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		   return "" unless((defined($v) and !($h->{multiplot})));
		   return "unset $k\n" unless(length($v));
		   $v = quote_scape($v);
		   return "set $k \"$v\"\n";

    #### A quoted scalar value as a curve option
    'cq' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  return "" unless(defined($v));
		  my($vv) = quote_escape($v);
		  return " $k \"$vv\" ";

    #### A quoted scalar font value as a curve option.
    #### This differs from cq alone in that it parses font size,
    #### scaling it for anti-aliasing as necessary.
    #### the 'aa' parameter is passed in $h since this is called
    #### by the term option emitter in output().	
    'cqf' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		   return "" unless(defined($v));
		   if($h->{aa} && $v =~ m/(.*)\,(.*)/) {
		       my ($name,$size) = ($1,$2);
		       $size *= $h->{aa};
		       $v = "$name,$size";
		   my($vv) = quote_escape($v);
		   return " $k \"$vv\" ";

    #### A value with no associated keyword
    'cv' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  return " $v " if(defined($v));
		  return "";

    #### A nonquoted scalar value as a plot option
    's' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined($v));
		 return "unset $k\n" unless(length($v));
		 return "set $k" if($v eq ' ');
		 return "set $k $v\n";

    #### A nonquoted scalar value as a curve option
    'cs' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  return "" unless(defined($v));
		  return " $k $v ";

    #### A nonquoted antialias-scaled scalar value as a curve option
    'css' => sub { my($k,$v,$h,$this) = @_;
		   return "" unless(defined($v));
		   if($this->{aa} && $v=~m/^[\+\-0-9,.E]+$/i) {
		       $v *= $this->{aa};
		   return " $k $v ";

	#### The dashtype curve option
	#### Supports an INVALID value for "with" types that have to suppress dt emission.
	#### This is because some "withs" (e.g. "lines") must have dt specifiers for the correct behavior,
	#### but other "withs" (e.g. "labels") barf if dt is specified.
    'dt' => sub { my($k,$v,$h, $w) = @_;
		  return "" unless($gp_version >= 5.0);
		  return "" if(($v//"") eq 'INVALID');
		  unless($v) {
		      if($w->{options}->{terminal} =~ m/dashed/) {
			  $w->{last_dashtype} = 0 unless(defined($w->{last_dashtype}));
			  return " dt ".(++$w->{last_dashtype})." ";
		      } else {
			  return " dt solid ";
		  return " dt solid " unless($v);
		  return " dt (".(join(@$v,",")).") " if(ref($v) eq 'ARRAY');
		  return " dt $v " if($v=~ m/\d+/);
		  $v = quote_escape($v);
		  return " dt \"$v\" ";

    ### A curve flag in one word
    'cf' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  return "" unless(defined($v));
		  return " no$k " unless($v);
		  return " $k ";
    'cff'=> sub { my($k, $v, $h) = @_;
		  return "" unless($v);
		  return " $k ";

    ### A size specification (used in terminal options in the constructor, see $termTab)
    ### generally a list with (width, height, [units]) in it.  Should have been parsed as an 'l'.
    'csize'=> sub { my($k, $v, $h) = @_;
		    our $lConv; # unit conversion hash (see below)
		    return "" unless($v and @$v);
		    my @v = @$v;
		    my $conv = 1;
		    if($h->{__unit__}) {
			if($lConv->{$h->{__unit__}}) {
			    $conv *= $lConv->{$h->{__unit__}};
			} else {
			    die "Uh-oh -- csize parser found an error -- table says default units are '$h->{__unit__}' but that's no unit!\n";
		    # If there's a unit spec at the end, pop if off and accumulate the conversion factor
		    if($lConv->{$v[$#v]}) {
			$conv /= $lConv->{ pop @v };
		    if(@v==1) {
			@v = ($v[0],$v[0]);
		    if(@v > 2) {
			die "Too many values, or an unrecognized unit, in size spec '".join(",",@$v)."'\n";
		    # Deal with anti-aliasing: oversize the window if aa exists.
			$conv *= $h->{aa};
		    return( " size ".($v[0]*$conv).",".$v[1]*$conv." " );


    ### A color specification as a curve option
    'ccolor' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		      return "" unless($v);
		      return " $k "._emit_colorspec($v);

    #### A boolean value as a plot option
    'b' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless defined($v);
		 return $v ? "set $k\n" : "unset $k\n";

    #### A boolean value as an inline option (e.g. curve, terminal)
    'byn' => sub { my($k,$v,$g) = @_;
		  return "" unless defined($v);
		   return $v ? " $k " : " no$k ";

    #### A boolean or 'time' (for <foo>data plot options)
    'bt' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  return "set $k\n" unless (_def($v, "")  and  $v=~m/^t/i);
		  return "set $k $v\n";rxt hel

    #### A space-separated collection of terms as a plot option
    'l' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined($v));
		 if(ref($v) eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return "set $k ".join(" ",@$v)."\n";
		 } elsif(ref($v) eq 'HASH') {
		     barf "hash value found for comma-separated list option '$k' -- not allowed";
		 } else {
		     return $v ? "set $k\n" : "unset $k\n";

    #### Special emitter for ticks that can deal with hashes
    'lt' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  return "" unless(defined($v));
		  my @l = ();
		  my @l2= ();

		  unless(ref($v)) {
		      return $v ? "set $k $v\n" : "unset $k\n";
		  } elsif(ref($v) eq 'ARRAY') {
		      @l = @$v;
		  } elsif(ref($v) eq 'HASH') {
		      my %h = %$v;
		      push(@l, 'axis')   if($h{axis});   delete $h{axis};
		      push(@l, 'border') if($h{border}); delete $h{border};
		      push(@l, $h{mirror}?'mirror':'nomirror') if(defined($h{mirror})); delete $h{mirror};
		      if($h{in} && $h{out}) {
			  barf("<foo>tics: you set both the 'in' and 'out' options. Oops.");
		      push(@l, 'in')     if($h{in});     delete $h{in};
		      push(@l, 'out')    if($h{out});    delete $h{out};

		      unless($k =~ m/^m/) {
			  push(@l, 'scale');
			  if( defined( $h{scale} ) ) {
			      if( ref($h{scale}) eq 'ARRAY' ) {
				  push(@l, join(",",@{$h{scale}}));
			      } else {
				  push(@l, $h{scale});
			  } else {
			      push(@l, 'default');
			  delete $h{scale};
			  if(defined($h{rotate})) {
			      unless($h{rotate}) {
			      } else {
				  push(@l, 'rotate by '.$h{rotate});
			  delete $h{rotate};
		      if(defined $h{offset}) {
			  } else {
			      if(ref($h{offset}) eq 'ARRAY') {
				  push(@l, "offset", join(",",@{$h{offset}}));
			      } else {
				  barf "<foo>tics option: 'offset' suboption must be a list ref or zero";
		      delete $h{offset};

		      barf("<foo>tics: you set two or more of 'left','right', and 'center'. Oops.")
			  if( defined($h{left}) + defined($h{right}) + defined($h{center}) > 1 );

		      push(@l,'left')   if($h{left});   delete $h{left};
		      push(@l,'right')  if($h{right});  delete $h{right};
		      push(@l,'center') if($h{center}); delete $h{center};

		      # Deal with complex add/labels/locations logic.
		      # If you specify locations *or* labels then that style gets
		      # emitted.  if you specify both, then the labels get appended
		      # to the end of the plot command as a *separate* "set <foo>tics"
		      # gnuplot command with "add" marked.

		      if(defined($h{locations})) {
			  if(ref($h{locations}) eq 'ARRAY'){
			      if(@{$h{locations}}) {
				  push(@l, join(',', @{$h{locations}}));
			      } else {
				  push(@l, "autofreq");
			  } elsif(!ref($h{locations})) {
			      if($h{locations}) {
				  push(@l, $h{locations});
			      } else {
				  push(@l, "autofreq");
			  } else {
			      barf("<foo>tics: 'locations' elements must be scalar or list ref");
			  # Workaround for bug in gnuplot parser (documented in xtics section of gnuplot manual):
			  # if the first number in the start/incr/end sequence is negative, subtract it from 0
			  # to avoid problems with binary subtraction.
			  $l[$#l] =~ s/^\s*\-/0\-/;
		      if(defined($h{labels})) {
			  my $line;
			  if( ref($h{labels}) eq 'ARRAY' ) {
			      $line =   "(".
					(join(", ",
					      map {
						  barf "<foo>tics: labels list elements must be duals or triples as list refs"  unless(ref $_ eq 'ARRAY');
						  sprintf('"%s" %s %s', _def($_->[0],""), _def($_->[1],0), _def($_->[2],"") );
					      } @{$h{labels}}
			  } else {
			      barf("<foo>tics: 'labels' elements must be list refs containing [label, val, flag]");

			  if(defined($h{locations})) {
			      push(@l2, "\nset $k add ",$line);
			  } else {
			      push(@l, $line);
		      delete $h{locations};
		      delete $h{labels};

		      push(@l,'format',"\"".quote_escape($h{format})."\"") if(defined($h{format})); delete $h{format};

		      if(defined $h{font}) {
			  if(ref($h{font}) eq 'ARRAY'){
			  } else {
		      delete $h{font};

		      push(@l,'rangelimited') if(defined($h{rangelimited})); delete $h{rangelimited};

		      if(defined $h{textcolor}) {
			  push(@l,"textcolor", _emit_colorspec($h{textcolor}));
		      delete $h{textcolor};
		  } else {
		      die "<foo>tics spec must be scalar or hash\n";

		  push(@l, @l2);
		  return "set $k ".join(" ",@l)."\n";


    ## one-line list with leading quoted string (e.g. for titles)
    'ql' =>
		    sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
			  return "" unless defined($v);
			  unless(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
			      $v = quote_escape($v);
			      return ( (length($v) eq 0) ? "unset $k\n" : "set $k \"$v\"\n");
			  my $quoted = quote_escape($v->[0]);
			  return sprintf('set %s "%s" %s%s',$k,$quoted,join(" ",@{$v}[1..$#$v]),"\n");

    #### A space-separated collection of terms as a curve option
    'cl' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  return "" unless defined($v);
		  return " $k $v " unless(ref $v eq 'ARRAY');
		  return join(" ",("",$k,@$v,""));

    #### A comma-separated (rather than space-separated) collection of terms
    ',' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined($v));
		 if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return "set $k ".join(",",@$v)."\n";
		 } elsif(ref $v eq 'HASH') {
		     barf "hash value found for comma-separated list option '$k' -- not allowed";
		 } else {
		     return $v ? "set $k\n" : "unset $k\n";

    #### A comma-separated collection of terms as a curve option
    'c,' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined($v));
		 if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return " ".join(",",@$v)." ";
		 return " $v ";

    #### A collection of values, reported one per line
    '1' => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined $v);
		 if((ref $v) eq 'ARRAY') {
		     return join("", map { defined($_) ? "set $k $_\n" : "" } @$v);
		 } elsif((ref $v) eq 'HASH') {
		     barf "hash value found for one-per-line list option '$k' -- not allowed";
		 } else {
		     return $v ? "set $k\n" : "unset $k\n";

    #### A set of sub-keywords each of which may contain a list of terms
    "H" => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined $v);
		 if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		     # Note list form doesn't allow unsetting.  Such is life - lists are deprecated in most contexts.
		     return join("", map { defined($_) ? "set $k $_\n" : "" } @$v);
		 } elsif(ref($v) eq 'HASH') {
		     return "set $k\n" unless(keys(%$v));
		     return join("", map { my $l = "";
					   if(defined($v->{$_})) {
					       unless($v->{$_}) {
						   $l = "unset $k $_\n";
					       } elsif(ref $v->{$_} eq 'ARRAY') {
						   $l = "set $k $_ ".join(" ",@{$v->{$_}})."\n";
					       } elsif(ref $v->{$_} eq 'HASH') {
						   barf "Nested hashes not allowed in hash option '$k'";
					       } else {
						   $l = "set $k $_ $v->{$_}\n";
				 sort keys %$v
		 } else {
		     barf "scalar value '$v' not allowed for hash option '$k'";

    #### A set of sub-keywords each of which may contain a list of terms, sort-of.
    #### This is used for autoscale -- there's no space between keyword and value, and a missing hash causes "unset" to be emitted.
    "H2" => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		  unless($v) {
		      return "unset $k\n";
		  if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		      # Note list form doesn't allow unsetting.  Such is life - lists are deprecated in most contexts.
		      return join("", map { defined($_) ? "set $k $_\n" : "" } @$v);
		  } elsif(ref($v) eq 'HASH') {
		      return "set $k\n" unless(keys(%$v));
		      return join("", map { my $l = "";
					    if(defined($v->{$_})) {
						unless($v->{$_}) {
						    $l = "unset $k $_\n";
						} elsif(ref $v->{$_} eq 'ARRAY') {
						    $l = "set $k $_ ".join(" ",@{$v->{$_}})."\n";
						} elsif(ref $v->{$_} eq 'HASH') {
						    barf "Nested hashes not allowed in hash option '$k'";
						} else {
						    $l = "set $k $_$v->{$_}\n";
				  sort keys %$v
		  } else {
		      barf "scalar value '$v' not allowed for hash option '$k'";

    #### Terminal options hash
    "HNM" => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		   return "" unless((defined $v) and !($h->{multiplot}));
		   if(ref $v eq 'ARRAY') {
		       barf "array value found for hash option '$k' -- not allowed";
		   } elsif(ref($v) eq 'HASH') {
		       return "set $k\n" unless(keys(%$v));
		       return join("", map { my $l = "";
					     if(defined($v->{$_})) {
						 unless($v->{$_}) {
						     $l = "unset $k $_\n";
						 } elsif(ref $v->{$_} eq 'ARRAY') {
						     $l = "set $k $_ ".join(" ",@{$v->{$_}})."\n";
						 } elsif(ref $v->{$_} eq 'HASH') {
						     barf "Nested hashes not allowed in hash option '$k'";
						 } else {
						     $l = "set $k $_ $v->{$_}\n";
				   sort keys %$v
		   } else {
		       barf "scalar value '$v' not allowed for hash option '$k'";

    #### A collection of numbered specifiers (e.g. "arrow"), each with a collection of terms
    "N" => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined $v);
		 if(ref $v ne 'ARRAY') {
		     barf "non-array value '$v' found for numeric-indexed option '$k' -- not allowed";
		 return join ("", map { my $l;
					if(defined($v->[$_])) {
					    $l = "set   $k $_ ";
					    if(ref $v->[$_] eq 'ARRAY') {
						$l .= join(" ",@{$v->[$_]});
					    } elsif(ref $v->[$_] eq 'HASH') {
						$l .= join(" ",(%{$v->[$_]}));
					    } else {
						$l .= $v->[$_];
					    $l .= "\n";
					} else {
					    $l = "unset $k $_\n";
			      } (1..$#$v)

    #### A collection of numbered specifiers for "object" types - requires a special case for
    #### "set object polygon"
    "NO" => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined $v);
		 if(ref $v ne 'ARRAY') {
		     barf "non-array value '$v' found for numeric-indexed option '$k' -- not allowed";
		 my $s = join ("", map { my $l;
					if(defined($v->[$_])) {
					    $l = "set   $k $_ ";
					    if(ref $v->[$_] eq 'ARRAY') {
						$l .= join(" ",@{$v->[$_]});
					    } elsif(ref $v->[$_] eq 'HASH') {
						$l .= join(" ",(%{$v->[$_]}));
					    } else {
						$l .= $v->[$_];
					    $l .= "\n";
					} else {
					    $l = "unset $k $_\n";
			      } (1..$#$v)
		  #Split polygon lines after the polygon spec - yuck.
		  my @s = split ("\n",$s);
		  for my $i(0..$#s){
		      if($s[$i] =~ s/((set +\w+ +\d+) +p(o(l(y(g(o(n)?)?)?)?)?)? +from +-?\d+(\.\d+)?([eE]?\-?\d+)?\,-?\d+(\.\d+)?([eE]?\-?\d+)?( +to +-?\d+(\.\d+)?([eE]?\-?\d+)?\,-?\d+(\.\d+)?([eE]?\-?\d+)?)+ +)//) {
		      $s[$i] =  $1."\n".$2." ".$s[$i];
		  return join("\n",@s,"");

    #### A collection of numbered specifiers, the first word of which is quoted (for labels).
    "NL" => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		 return "" unless(defined $v);
		 if(ref $v ne 'ARRAY') {
		     barf "non-array value '$v' found for numeric-indexed option '$k' -- not allowed";
		 return join ("", map { my $l;
					if(defined($v->[$_])) {
					    $l = "set   $k ".($_+1)." ";
					    if(ref $v->[$_] eq 'ARRAY') {                      # It's an array
						$v->[$_]->[0] = "\"".quote_escape($v->[$_]->[0])."\"" # quote the first element
						    unless($v->[$_]->[0] =~ m/^\".*\"$/);      # unless it's already quoted
						$l .= join(" ", map {
						    (ref($_) eq 'ARRAY') ? join(",",@$_) : $_; # Nested arrays get connected with ','
							   } @{$v->[$_]});
					    } elsif(ref $v->[$_] eq 'HASH') {
						$l .= join(" ",(%{$v->[$_]}));
					    } else {
						$l .= $v->[$_];
					    $l .= "\n";
					} else {
					    $l = "unset $k $_\n";
			      } (0..$#$v)

    #### Ranges can either be given as a list, the first two elements
    #### of which are the range and the rest of which are options, or
    #### as a list, the first element of which is a gnuplot range
    #### specifier and the rest of which are options, or as a string
    #### that combines everything.
    #### The job is complicated by the fact that the 'restore' keyword
    #### can replace the normal range specifier.
    #### Note: we don't try to do a perfect job of parsing, only to
    #### decide which parse fixing-up style is needed to send
    #### something reasonable to gnuplot in the correct case.  Gnuplot
    #### is expected to throw an error if something is broken.

    "range" => sub { my($k,$v,$h) = @_;
		     return "" unless(defined $v);

		     # scalar -- treat it as a string containing the whole command.
		     return "set $k $v\n" if(ref $v ne 'ARRAY');

		     #looks like 'set <foo>range restore' (only way 'r' can be the first char)
		     return "set $k ".join(" ",@$v)."\n" if( _def($v->[0], '') =~ m/^\s*r/i);

		     # first element is an empty range specifier - emit.
		     return "set $k ".join(" ",@$v)."\n" if(_def($v->[0], '') =~ m/\s*\[\s*\]/);

		     my $c = substr($k,0,1);
		     my $tfmt = _def( $h->{$c."data"}, "" ) =~ m/time/;

		     # first element has a nonempty range specifier (naked or not).
		     if( _def($v->[0], '') =~ m/\:/) {
			 $v->[0]=~ s/^\s*((.*[^\s])?)\s*$/$1/; # trim leading and trailing whitespace if present

			 unless($v->[0] =~ m/^\[/) {
			     # the first char was not a '['; assume it is a naked range and patch accordingly.
			     $v->[0] = "[$v->[0]]";

			 if($tfmt) {
			     # Make sure we have quotes as necessary
			     $v->[0] =~ s/\[([^\"\:\*]+)\:/\[\"$1\"\:/;
			     $v->[0] =~ s/\:([^\"\:\*]+)\]/\:\"$1\"\]/;
			 my $s = join(" ",@$v);
			 $s =~ s/\[\:/\[*\:/;
			 $s =~ s/\:\]/\:*\]/;

			 return "set $k $s\n";
		     # If we got here, the first element has no ':'.  Treat the first two elements as numbers and make a range
		     # specifier out of 'em, then emit.
		     # Here's a little fillip: gnuplot requires quotes around time ranges
		     # if the corresponding axes are time data.  Handle that bizarre case.
		     if( _def($h->{$c."data"},  "" ) =~ m/time/ ) {
			 return sprintf("set %s [%s:%s]\n",$k, ((defined $v->[0])?"\"$v->[0]\"":"*"), ((defined $v->[1])?"\"$v->[1]\"":"*"));

		     return sprintf("set %s [%s:%s] %s\n", $k, ((defined $v->[0])?$v->[0]:"*"), ((defined $v->[1])?$v->[1]:"*"), join(" ",@{$v}[2..$#$v]));

    "crange" => sub { my($k,$v,$h, $this) = @_;
		      return "" unless(defined $v);
		      return "$v" if(ref $v ne 'ARRAY');
		      my $of = 946684800.0;
		      # Here's a little fillip: gnuplot requires quotes around time ranges
		      # if the corresponding axes are time data.  Handle that bizarre case.
		      my $c = substr($k,0,1);

		      if( (_def($this and $this->{options} and $this->{options}->{$c."data"}), "" ) =~ m/time/ ) {
			  carp "WARNING: gnuplot-4.6.1 date range bug triggered.  Check the date scale.\n";
			  return sprintf(" [%s:%s] ",((defined $v->[0])?"\"$v->[0]\"":""), ((defined $v->[1])?"\"$v->[1]\"":""));
		      return sprintf(" [%s:%s] ",((defined $v->[0])?$v->[0]:""), ((defined $v->[1])?$v->[1]:""));


# termTab - list of supported terminals and their arguments
# Each entry is a hash ref containing:
#   opt - specification hash for the options for this terminal
#   unit - native unit in which size is specified for this terminal
#   desc - a one-line description of the terminal
#   default_output - an optional format string with the name of the default output plot for that device.
# Since there are so many terminal types, with so many slightly
# different syntaxes, we store them in shorthand here.  The
# $termTab_types table contains commonly used parameter keywords,
# together with partial hash parser table entries.  The
# actual terminal descriptions then refer to those keywords
# wherever possible rather than repeating the whole definition.
# The default_output is there because some gnuplot devices have sensible default outputs, while others
# do not.  For example, "wxt"'s default is to put stuff in a window, but "png"'s default is to
# send the png file to stdout, which makes no sense.  In cases where there is no sensible default built in to gnuplot,
# we provide one.

my $emit_enh = sub { my ($k,$v,$h) = @_; return " ".($v?"":"no")."enhanced "; };

our $lConv = {
    inch  => 1,
    inc   => 1,
    in    => 1,
    i     => 1,
    char  => 6,
    cha   => 6,
    ch    => 6,
    c     => 6,
    pt    => 72,
    points=> 72,
    point => 72,
    poin  => 72,
    poi   => 72,
    po    => 72,
    px    => 100,
    pixels=> 100,
    pixel => 100,
    pixe  => 100,
    pix   => 100,
    pi    => 100,
    p     => 100,

    mm    => 25.4,
    cm    => 2.54

# These are keyed descriptors for options that are used in at least two devices. They are invoked by name in the
# $termTab_source table below, which describes all the known gnuplot device specification options.
our $termTab_types = {
    aa         => ['n',sub{''},   "Anti-aliasing factor"],                 # implemented in output(), plot(), close(), and DESTROY().
    output     => ['s','q',     "File name for output"],                 # autocopied to a plot option when present for a device
    output_    => ['s','cv',    "Window number for persistent windows"], # trailing '_' prevents autocopy to a plot option
    title      => ['s','cq',    "Window title"],
    size       => ['ln','csize', "Window size (default unit is %u)"],
    font       => ['s','cqf',   "Font to use ('<fontname>,<size>')"],
    fontsize   => ['s','css',    "Font size (points)"],                      # use for devices that use no keyword for font size
    enhanced   => ['b','cf',    "Enable or disable gnuplot enhanced text escapes for markup"],
    color      => ['b','cff',   "Generate a color plot (see 'monochrome') if true"],
    monochrome => ['b','cff',   "Generate a B/W plot (see 'color') if true"],
    solid      => ['b','cff',   "Plot only solid lines (see 'dashed') if true"],
    dashed     => ['b','cff',   "Plot dashed lines (see 'solid') if true"],
    rotate     => ['b','cf',    "Enable or disable true rotated text (90 degrees)"],
    linewidth  => ['s','css',    "Multiplier on line width (typ. default 1 pt)"],
    dashlength => ['s','cs',    "Multiplier on dash length for dashed plots"],
    standalone => ['b','cff',   "Generate postscript that can render alone (see 'input')"], # for LaTeX devices
    input      => ['b','cff',   "Generate postscript to be combined with LaTeX output"],    # for LaTeX devices
    level1     => ['b','cff',   "Generate Level 1 Postscript (see 'leveldefault')"],        # for PostScript devices
    leveldefault=>['b','cff',   "Generate full-featured Postscript (see 'level1')"],        # for PostScript devices
    rounded    => ['b','cff',   "Generate rounded ends on lines (see 'butt')"],
    butt       => ['b','cff',   "Generate butt-ends on lines (see 'rounded')"],
    clip       => ['b','cf',    "Clip output to bounding box (or not)"],                    # for PostScript devices
    landscape  => ['b','cff',   "Set landscape orientation (see 'portrait')"],
    portrait   => ['b','cff',   "Set portrait orientation (see 'landscape')"],
    tiny       => ['b','cff',   "Set tiny preset plot size (see also 'size')"],
    small      => ['b','cff',   "Set small preset plot size (see also 'size')"],
    medium     => ['b','cff',   "Set medium preset plot size (see also 'size')"],
    big        => ['b','cff',   "Set big preset plot size (see also 'size')"],
    large      => ['b','cff',   "Set large preset plot size (see also 'size')"],
    giant      => ['b','cff',   "Set giant preset plot size (see also 'size')"],
    transparent=> ['b','cf',    "Enable or disable transparency for the background"],
    background => ['s','cv',    "Background color in xRRGGBB format ('x' literal)"],
    interlace  => ['s','cf',    "Enable or disable interlaced encoding of image"],         # JPEG and PNG
    crop       => ['b','cf',    "Enable or disable autocropping to first drawn pixel"],
    oldstyle   => ['b','cff',   "Force old-style text spacing (deprecated)"],
    newstyle   => ['b','cff',   "Force new-style text spacing (default; see 'oldstyle')"],
    auxfile    => ['b','cf',    "Generate (or not) an auxiliary .aux file for LaTeX"],
    persist    => ['b','cf',    'enable (or disable) persistence after plotting is done'],
    raise      => ['b','cf',    'enable (or disable) raising the display window to the top'],

# This table includes all terminals named in the gnuplot 4.4 documentation.  Unsupported terminals have
# only a description string; supported terminals get a hash that contains:
#   - unit (default size unit for the terminal)
#   - desc (description string)
#   - opt  (array ref containing option descriptors in order).
#   - default_output (optional -- if present, contains a printf format string containing the default output name)
# Each option descriptor is one of:
#       * a string indexing the descriptor in $termTab_types, above, or
#       * an array ref containing:
#               -name
#               -input parser (as for $pOptionsTable)
#               -output parser (as for $pOptionsTable)
#               -description string
# To enable anti-aliasing on a given terminal:
#  - make sure that the "standard" 'aa' option is one of the options it takes
#  - make sure that the 'font' or 'fontsize' option scales with aa (the 'cqf' option type does this)
#  - set the "image_format" key in the terminal description hash (see 'pngcairo' as an example)
#     (the image_format must be one of the formats recognized by PDL::IO::Pic)

our $termTabSource = {
    'aed767'   => "AED graphics terminal                  [NS: ancient]",
    'aifm'     => "Adobe Illustrator                      [NS: obsolete (use pdf)]",
    'amiga'    => "Amiga terminal driver                  [NS: ancient]",
    'apollo'   => "Apollo terminal driver                 [NS: ancient]",
    'aqua'     => { unit=>'pt', desc=> 'Aqua terminal program on MacOS X (MacOS default device)', int=>1, ok=>1, disp=>1,
		  opt=>[ qw/ output_ title size font enhanced / ]},
    'be'       => "BeOS/X11 (Ah, Be, how we miss thee)    [NS: ancient]",
    'cairolatex'=> { unit=>'in', desc=>'Cairo support for .eps or .pdf output with LaTeX text rendering', 
		     opt=> [
			 ['mode', 's', 'cv', 'terminal mode: set to "eps" or "pdf"'],
			 ['textmode', 's', 'cv', 'text mode: set to "black" or "color"'],
			 ['header', 's', sub { $_[1] ? " header '$_[1]' " : " noheader " }, 
			  "LaTeX source for header text"
			 ['crop',        'b', 'byn', "Set TRUE to crop output", ],
			 ['font',        's', 'cq','Font ("<fontname>,<size>") - NOT system fonts - see manual for list'],
			 ['scale',       'n', 'cs','Font scale beyond the size in the font option'],
			 ['linewidth',   'n', 'cs','Line width in points'],
			 ['endstyle',    's', 'cv','Line end style (set to "rounded", "butt", or "square")'],
    'canvas'   => { unit=>'pt', desc=> "Output Javascript Canvas rendering code.",
		    opt=>[ 'size',
			       # custom line shields user from "fsize/fontsize"
			   ['fontsize', 's', sub { " fsize $_[1] "}, "Font size (points)"],
			   ['standalone', 'b','cff',  "Generate a standalone html page (default) (see 'name')"],
			   ['mousing',    'b','cff',  "Make a mouse-tracking box underneath the plot"],
			   ['name',       's','cq',   "Generate a javascript subroutine named 'name'"],
			   ['jsdir',      's','cq',   "URL of directory where javascripts are found"],

    'cgm'      => { unit=>'pt', desc=> "Computer Graphic Metafile format (ANSI X3.122-1986)",
		    opt=>[ qw/ color monochrome solid dashed rotate /,
			   ['size',  'l', sub { my( $k, $v, $h) = @_;
						my $conv = 1;
						if(@$v > 2) {
						    carp "Warning: cgm device ignores height spec; using width only.";
						if(@$v >= 2) {
						    if($lConv->{$v->[$#$v]}) {
							$conv = $lConv->{ $v->[$#$v] } / $lConv->{ 'pt' };
						    } elsif( $v>2 ) {
							die "cgm device: 3-element size spec must end with a unit spec";
						return " ".($v->[0] * $conv)." ";
			                     "Window size (default unit is pt; height is ignored)"
			   ['font',   's','cq','Font ("<fontname>,<size>") - NOT system fonts - see manual for list'],
    'context'=> "ConTeXt: Metapost macros for TeX       [NS: TBD]",
    'corel'  => "Corel Draw                             [NS: ancient]",
    'debug'  => "Gnuplot internal debugging mode        [NS: not useful]",
    'dumb'   => {
	unit=>'char',desc=>"dumb terminal (ASCII output)",ok=>1,
	opt=>[ ['feed','b','cf',"Issue (or not) a formfeed at the end of each plot"],
			qw/ size enhanced output /],
    'dxf'    => {unit=>'pt', desc=>"AutoCad 10.x interchange files",
		 opt=>[ 'output' ]},
    'dxy800a'=> "Roland DXY800A Plotter                 [NS: obsolete]",
    'eepic'  => {unit=>'in',desc=>"LaTeX picture (alternative w/ epic.sty & eepic.sty)",
		 opt=>[ qw/ color dashed rotate small tiny /,
			['fontsize','s','cv','Font size (points)'], # special entry 'coz eepic wants no "fontsize" keyword
    'emf'    => {unit=>'pt',desc=>"Microsoft Windows Enhanced Metafile Format",
		 opt=>[ qw/ color monochrome solid dashed enhanced /,
			['noproportional','b','cff',"(only with 'enhanced') - disable proportional font spacing"],
			qw/ linewidth dashlength size background font output /],
    'emxvga' =>  "EMXVGA terminal                        [NS: bizarre]",
    'emxvesa'=>  "EMXVESA terminal                       [NS: bizarre]",
    'epscairo'=>{unit=>'in',desc=>"Encapsulated Postscript output via Cairo 2-D plotting library",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ 'enhanced',
			['monochrome','b', sub{return $_[1]?" mono ":""},
			                         "Generate a B/W plot (see 'color') if true"], # shield user from mono/monochrome
			qw/color solid dashed font linewidth rounded butt dashlength background size output/ ],
    'epslatex'=>{unit=>'in',desc=>"Encapsulated PostScript with LaTeX text segments",
		 opt=>[ qw/standalone input oldstyle newstyle level1 leveldefault color monochrome/,
			qw/solid dashed background dashed dashlength linewidth rounded butt clip size font output/],
    'epson_180dpi' => "Epson 180dpi amily of 9-pin printers   [NS: ancient]",
    'excl'   => "Talaris printer support                [NS: ancient]",
    'fig'    => {unit=>'in',desc=>"Fig graphics language output",
		 opt=>[ qw/ color monochrome landscape portrait small big size /,
			['pointsmax',  's','cs', "maximum number of points per polyline (default 2000)"],
			qw/ solid dashed /,
			['font','s', sub { my($k,$v,$h)=@_;                   # special entry to allow standard format
					   my($f,$fs)=split /,/,$v;           # (fig requires breaking font name and
					   my($s) = $f ? " font $f " : "";    # size out into different keywords)
					   $s .= "fontsize $fs " if ($fs);
					   return $s;
			                         "Font to use ('<fontname>,<size>')"],
			['textnormal', 'b','cff','turn off all special text flags (default)'],
			['textspecial','b','cff','use LaTeX special text'],
			['texthidden', 'b','cff','use hidden text'],
			['textrigid',  'b','cff','set the postscript "rigid" flag'],
			['depth',      's','cs', 'set PostScript rendering depth'],
			['version',    's','cs', '(not documented in gnuplot manual)'],
    'ggi'    => "X or SVGAlib output via GGIlib         [NS: obsolete]",
    'gif'    => {unit=>'px',desc=>"Graphics Interchange Format (venerable but supported)",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ qw/ transparent rounded butt linewidth dashlength font enhanced size crop /,
			['animate','l','cl',"syntax: animate=>[delay=>\$d, loop=>\$n, (no)?optimize]"],
			qw/ aa background output / ],
    'excl'   => "Talaris printer support                [NS: ancient]",
    'gnugraph'=>"Gnu plotutils metalanguage output      [NS: obsolete]",
    'gpic'   => "UNIX groff(1) output                   [NS: prehistoric]",
    'gpr'    => "Apollo Graphics Primitive Resource     [NS: ancient]",
    'grass'  => {unit=>'px',desc=>"GRASS GIS file output",
    'hercules'=>"PC graphics card with autodetection    [NS: obsolete]",
    'hp2623a'=> "HP 2623A terminal                      [NS: ancient]",
    'hp2648' => "HP2647 and HP2648 terminals            [NS: ancient]",
    'hp500c' => "HP500C terminal                        [NS: ancient]",
    'hpgl'   => "HPGL output (e.g. HP7475 plotter)      [NS: ancient]",
    'hpljii' => "HP Laserjet Series II                  [NS: obsolete]",
    'hppj'   => "HP PaintJet and HP3630 printers        [NS: obsolete]",
    'imagen' => "Imagen laser printers                  [NS: obsolete]",
    'jpeg'   => {unit=>"px",desc=>"JPEG image file output",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ qw/aa interlace linewidth dashlength rounded butt font enhanced size crop background output /],
    'kyo'    => "Kyocera laserprinter native format     [NS: obsolete]",
    'latex'  => {unit=>'in',desc=>"EPS output tailored for LaTeX (see also 'epslatex')",
		 opt=>[ ['default', 'b','cff','accept whatever font is in the embedding document'],
			['courier', 'b','cff','force font to Courier'],
			['roman',   'b','cff','force font to Roman style (e.g. Times)'],
			['fontsize','s','cv', 'set font size (in points)'],  # special entry 'coz latex wants no "fontsize" keyword.
			qw/size rotate output/],
    'linux'  =>  "Render to a Linux display dev (non-X)  [NS: obsolete]",
    'lua'    =>  "Lua script output                      [NS: bizarre]",
    'macintosh'=>"Direct rendered MacOS < 10 window      [NS: ancient]",
    'mf'     =>  "Metafont output (plot as TeX glyph)    [NS: crazy]",
    'mif'    =>  "FrameMaker MIF format v3.0             [NS: obsolete]",
    'mp'     =>  "MetaPost metaformat for graphice       [NS: obsolete]",
    'next'   =>  "NeXT (NeXTstep) file format (RIP Jobs) [NS: ancient]",
    'openstep'=> "Openstep (NeXTStep followon)           [NS: obsolete]",
    'pbm' => {unit=>"px",desc=>"Portable BitMap format output",
	      opt=>[ ['fontsize','s','cv','font size (in pixels/points)'],
		     qw/monochrome color size output/],
    'pdf'    => {unit=>'in',desc=>"Portable Document Format output",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ qw/monochrome color enhanced font linewidth rounded butt solid dashed dashlength size output/ ],
    'pdfcairo'=>{unit=>'in',desc=>"PDF output via Cairo 2-D plotting library",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ 'enhanced',
			['monochrome','b', sub{return $_[1]?" mono ":""},
			                         "Generate a B/W plot (see 'color') if true"], # shield user from mono/monochrome
			qw/color solid dashed font linewidth rounded butt dashlength background size output/ ],
    'pm'     => "OS/2 presentation manager              [NS: ancient]",
    'png'    => {unit=>"px",desc=>"PNG image output",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ qw/transparent interlace/,
			['truecolor','b','cf','Enable or disable true color (RGB) output'],
			qw/aa rounded butt linewidth dashlength tiny small medium large giant font enhanced size crop background output/],
    'pngcairo'=>{unit=>'px',desc=>"PNG image output via Cairo 2-D plotting library",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ 'enhanced',
			['monochrome','b',sub{return $_[1]?" mono ":""},
			                          "Generate a B/W plot (see 'color') if true"], # shield user from mono/monochrome
			qw/aa color solid dashed transparent crop background font linewidth rounded butt dashlength size output/ ],
    'postscript'=>{unit=>'in',desc=>"Postscript file output",ok=>1,
		   opt=>[qw/landscape portrait/,
			 ['eps',        'b','cff','Select encapsulated output (neither landscape nor portrait)'],
			 ['simplex',    'b','cff','single sided printing'],
			 ['duplex',     'b','cff','double sided printing'],
			 ['defaultplex','b','cff','accept printer default for 1/2 sided printing'],
			 ['fontfile',   's',sub { my ($k,$v)=@_;
						  return " $k add \"$v\" "}
			                   ,      'add font file to prologue'],
			 ['adobeglyphnames','b','cf','enable or disable Adobe style glyph names'],
			 qw/level1 leveldefault color monochrome background solid dashed dashlength linewidth rounded butt clip size/,
			 ['blacktext',  'b','cff','force text to be B/W even in color plots (see "colortext")'],
			 ['colortext',  'b','cff','force text to be color even in B/W plots (see "blacktext")'],
    'pslatex' => {unit=>'in',desc=>"Postscript file tailored for inclusion in LaTeX documents",
		  opt=>[ qw/rotate oldstyle newstyle auxfile level1 leveldefault color monochrome /,
			 qw/solid dashed dashlength linewidth rounded butt clip size fontsize output/],
    'pstex'   => {unit=>'in',desc=>"Postscript file tailored for inclusion in raw TeX documents",
		  opt=>[ qw/rotate oldstyle newstyle auxfile level1 leveldefault color monochrome background /,
			 qw/solid dashed dashlength linewidth rounded butt clip size fontsize output/],
    'pstricks'=>"Output for pstricks.sty LaTeX macros   [NS: obsolete]",
    'qms'     =>"QMS/QUIC laser printer native format   [NS: ancient]",
    'qt'      =>{unit=>'px',desc=>'QT X windows display',mouse=>1,ok=>1,disp=>2,
		       ['title','s','cq','Window title (in title bar)'],
		       qw/enhanced font linewidth solid dashed persist raise/,
		       ['ctrlq', 'b', 'cf', 'enable (or disable) control-Q to quit window'],
		       'size']},  # no default (goes to screen)
    'regis'   =>"REGIS graphics language output         [NS: obsolete]",
    'rgip'    =>"RGIP metafiles                         [NS: obsolete]",
    'sun'     =>"SUNView window system window           [NS: ancient]",
    'svg'     =>{unit=>'in',desc=>"Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) output",ok=>1,
		 opt=>[ qw/size enhanced font/,
			['fontfile','s','cq','Font file to copy into the <defs> section of the SVG'],
			qw/rounded butt solid dashed linewidth background output/],
    'svga'    =>"Output direct to a PC SVGA screen      [NS: obsolete]",
    'tek40'   =>"Tektronix 40xx plotting terminals      [NS: ancient]",
    'tek410x' =>"Tektronix 410x plotting terminals      [NS: ancient]",
    'texdraw' =>{unit=>'in',desc=>"TexDraw environment for LaTeX",
		 opt=>[ 'output' ],
    'tgif'    =>"TGIF X11-based drawing tool            [NS: obsolete]",
    'tikz'    =>"TikZ package via Lua                   [NS: obsolete]",
    'tkcanvas'=>"Tcl/Tk canvas widget design            [NS: weird]",
    'tpic'    =>"Latex picture (use 'latex' or 'eepic') [NS: obsolete]",
    'unknown' =>"Unknown term (gnuplot final default)   [NS: not a terminal]",		 
    'unixpc'  =>"AT&T 3b1 and AT&T 7300 UNIX PC display [NS: ancient]",
    'unixplot'=>"UNIX plot(1) language (non-GNU version)[NS: obsolete]",
    'vgagl'   =>"Output to a VGA screen under linux     [NS: obsolete]",
    'vws'     =>"VAX Windowing System                   [NS: ancient]",
    'vx384'   =>"Vectrix 384 and Tandy color printers   [NS: ancient]",
    'windows' =>{unit=>"px",desc=>"Microsoft Windows display window",
		 opt=>[ qw/color monochrome font background title size/,
			['position','l','csize','pixel location of the window'],
    'wxt'     =>{unit=>"px", desc=>"WxWidgets display", mouse=>1,ok=>1,disp=>2,int=>1,
		 opt=>[ qw/size background enhanced font title dashed solid dashlength persist raise/,
			['ctrl',  'b','cf','enable (or disable) control-Q to quit window'],
			['close', 'b','cf','close window on completion?']
    'x11'     =>{unit=>"px",desc=>"X Windows display", mouse=>1,ok=>1,disp=>2,
		 opt=>[ 'output_',
			['title','s','cq','Window title (in title bar)'],
			qw/enhanced font linewidth solid dashed persist raise/,
			['ctrlq',  'b','cf','enable (or disable) control-Q to quit window'],
			'xlib'    =>"Xlib command file (for debugging X11)  [NS: useless here]",
    'vgal'=>     "VGAL terminal                          [NS: bizarre]",


# Generate the termTab from termTabSource.
# Each entry in termTab gets the description string and unit, and a
# list with the same structure as the $pOpt global for parse options --
# except that the abbrevs table is not prepopulated for all devices
# (it is calculated on the fly within the constructor).
# Unsupported entries are left to rot in the termTabSource structure.

$termTab = {};

for my $k(keys %$termTabSource) {
    next unless(ref($termTabSource->{$k}));   # names aren't supported -- eliminate
    my $terminalOpt = {};   #this will hold the _parseOptHash control structure we generate
    my $i = 1;              #this is a sort order counter

    for my $n(@{$termTabSource->{$k}->{opt}}) {
	my $name = $n;
	my $line;
	if(ref $name) {
	    $name = $n->[0];
	    $line = [@{$n}[1..3]];
	} else {
	    $line = $termTab_types->{$name}
	       or die "Bug in parse table build! ('$name' inside terminal '$k')";
	$terminalOpt->{$name} = [ $line->[0], $line->[1], undef, $i++, $line->[2]];
    $terminalOpt->{"wait"} = [ 's' , sub { return "" }, undef, $i++, "wait time before throwing an error (default 5s)" ];
    my $desc = $termTabSource->{$k}->{desc};
    $desc =~ s/\%u/$termTabSource->{$k}->{unit}/;
    $termTab->{$k} = { desc => $desc,
		       unit => $termTabSource->{$k}->{unit},
		       mouse => _def( $termTabSource->{$k}->{mouse}, 0),
		       disp  => _def( $termTabSource->{$k}->{disp},  0),
		       int   => _def( $termTabSource->{$k}->{int},   0),
		       opt  => [ $terminalOpt,
				 undef, # This gets filled in on first use in the constructor.
				 "$k terminal options"
		       default_output=> $termTabSource->{$k} ->{default_output}


=head2 terminfo

=for usage

    use PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot qw/terminfo/;
    terminfo();        # print info about all known terminals
    terminfo 'aqua';   # print info about the aqua terminal

    $w = gpwin();

=for ref

Print out information about gnuplot terminals and their custom option syntax.

The "terminfo" routine is a reference tool to describe the Gnuplot
terminal types and the options they accept.  It's mainly useful in
interactive sessions.  It outputs information directly to the terminal.


sub terminfo {
    my $this = _obj_or_global(\@_);
    my $terminal = _def(shift, '');
    my $brief_form = shift;
    my $dont_print = shift;
    my $s = "";

    if($termTabSource->{$terminal}) {
	if(ref $termTabSource->{$terminal}) {
	    my $ms = ( _def($termTabSource->{$terminal}->{mouse}, 0) ? ", mouse input ok" : "");
	    $s = "Gnuplot terminal '$terminal': size default unit is '$termTabSource->{$terminal}->{unit}'$ms, options are:\n";
	    my $tt = $termTab->{$terminal}->{opt}->[0];
	    for my $name(sort { _def($tt->{$a}->[3], 0) <=> _def($tt->{$b}->[3], 0)} keys %$tt) {
		my @info = ();
		@info = ($name, $tt->{$name}->[4]);
		$info[0] =~ s/\_$//;         #remove trailing underscore on "output_" hack
		if(defined($info[0]) and defined($info[1])) {
		    my $ss = sprintf "%10s - %s\n",@info;
		    $ss =~ s/\%u/$termTabSource->{$terminal}->{unit}/;
		    $s .= $ss;
	} else {
	    if($this->{unknown_terms}->{$terminal}) {
		$s = "terminfo: terminal '$terminal' isn't supported, although your gnuplot has it:\n";
		$s .= "  $terminal: $termTabSource->{$terminal}\n";
	    } else {
		$s = "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot doesn't support '$terminal'.\n  $terminal: $termTabSource->{$terminal}\n";
	print STDERR $s unless($dont_print);
	return $s;

    if($terminal && $this->{unknown_terms}->{$terminal}) {
	$s = "terminfo: terminal '$terminal' was reported by gnuplot but isn't supported.\n";
	$s .= "   $terminal: $this->{unknown_terms}->{$terminal}\n";
	print STDERR $s unless($dont_print);
	return $s;

    if($terminal && $terminal ne 'all'){
	$s = "terminfo: terminal '$terminal' isn't recognized.  I'm listing all supported terminals instead.\n\n";
	$terminal = '';

    if(!$terminal || $terminal eq 'all') {

	if(!$terminal && !$brief_form && !$dont_print) {
	   $s .= "('terminfo \"all\"' lists all known terminals, even those not supported)\n\n";

	$s .= "Gnuplot terminals supported by PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot and your gnuplot:\n";

	$s .= "\n  DISPLAY TERMINALS ([M] indicates mouse input is supported)\n";
	for my $k(sort keys %$termTab) {
	    next unless($this->{valid_terms}->{$k});
	    next unless($termTab->{$k}->{int} || $termTab->{$k}->{mouse});
	    $s .= sprintf("  %10s: %s %s\n",$k,$termTab->{$k}->{mouse} ? "[M]" : "   ", $termTab->{$k}->{desc});

	$s .= "\n\n  FILE TERMINALS\n";
	for my $k(sort keys %$termTab) {
	    next unless($this->{valid_terms}->{$k});
	    next if($termTab->{$k}->{int} || $termTab->{$k}->{mouse});
	    $s .= sprintf("  %10.10s: %s %s\n",$k,"   ", $termTab->{$k}->{desc});

	if($terminal eq 'all') {
	    # Merge things gnuplot reported but we don't support, with things we support but
	    # gnuplot didn't report...
	    $s .= "\nThese terminals are supported by PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot but not your gnuplot:\n";

	    for my $k(sort keys %{$termTab}) {
		next if($this->{valid_terms}->{$k});
		$s .= sprintf("%12s: %s\n", $k, $termTab->{$k}->{desc});

	    $s .= "\nThese terminals are supported by your gnuplot but not by PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot:\n";
	    for my $k(sort keys %{$this->{unknown_terms}}) {
		$s .= sprintf("%12s: %s\n",$k,$this->{unknown_terms}->{$k});

	} else {
	    $s .= "\n(use terminfo('all') to see unsupported terminals as well)\n";
	$s .= "\nRun PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::terminfo( \$term_name ) for information on options.\n\n";

	$s .= (($this==$globalPlot) ? "The default P::G::G" : "This") . " window is currently using the '$this->{terminal}' terminal.\n\n";

	print STDERR $s unless($dont_print);
	return $s;


#####  I/O to Gnuplot
#####  The following routines provide basic I/O to the underlying
#####  Gnuplot process: starting Gnuplot, writing commands and/or data
#####  to it, reading messages back, and ensuring synchronization.
#####  Note: it is not a normal state of the object to NOT have a
#####  Gnuplot (or dump interface) running.  These are internal
#####  methods because there is no checking elsewhere to make sure the
#####  gnuplot is there to receive commands.
#####  Communication strategy:
#####  Since we're using open3() we have to be careful to avoid
#####  deadlock.  Also, gnuplot is a little brittle in some
#####  situations.  Fortunately, we don't keep much state in gnuplot
#####  itself, so we can more or less treat the gnuplot process as
#####  disposable.  It's inconvenient to restart or reset it,
#####  especially if there is a display device like x11, wxt, or aqua
#####  in place, since that causes a new window to be launched.  But
#####  for most communication exceptions we can simply drop-kick the
#####  subprocess and start it over.
#####  POSIX IPC is pretty sane and we can use signals to control
#####  what's going on.  Unfortunately, not all supported platforms
#####  are POSIX, so we have to switch some behavior based on the
#####  $MS_io_braindamage flag.
#####  Because not much data comes back from gnuplot over the pipe, we
#####  are pretty careless about how we pull it through -- one
#####  character at a time, which is pretty inefficient.
#####  Dealing with exceptions and interrupts is difficult, since
#####  gnuplot doesn't seem to respond well over the pipe in the most
#####  common case (while receiving binary data).  In that particular
#####  case we simply dropkick gnuplot and restart it.

## _load_alien_gnuplot -- load up the local caches of terminal support and color names.
## This is necessary because Alien::Gnuplot doesn't know which terminals we support,
## and is in a separate subroutine so we can call it to reload the cached terminal
## database.

_load_alien_gnuplot();   # Execute this during module load!

sub _load_alien_gnuplot {
    our %valid_terms = ();
    our $valid_terms = \%valid_terms;
    our $unknown_terms = {};

    for ( @Alien::Gnuplot::terms ) {
	if(exists($termTab->{$_})) {
	    $valid_terms->{$_} = 1;
	} else {
	    $unknown_terms->{$_} = _def($termTabSource->{$_}, "Unknown but reported by gnuplot");

    our @colornames = @Alien::Gnuplot::colors;
    our %colornames = %Alien::Gnuplot::colors;
    our $colornames = \%colornames;

## _startGnuplot - fire off a gnuplot process, and pull in some information from it about what it can do.
sub _startGnuplot
    ## Object code handles gnuplot in-place.
    my $this = shift;
    my $suffix = shift || "main";

    if($this->{"pid-$suffix"}) {

    $this->{options}->{multiplot} = 0;

    if( $this->{options}{dump} ) {
	$this->{"in-$suffix"} = \*STDOUT;
	$this->{"pid-$suffix"} = undef;
	$this->{dumping} = $this->{options}{dump};
	return $this;
    } else {
	$this->{dumping} = 0;

    # We don't actually want the --persist option, but gnuplot crashes on some platforms without it.
    # (I'm looking at you, Microsoft Windows...)
    # Instead, we default the "persist" plot option to be 0, if unspecified.
    my @gnuplot_options = $gnuplotFeatures{persist} ? qw(--persist) : ();

    my $in  = gensym();
    my $err = gensym();

    my $pid = open3($in,$err,$err, $Alien::Gnuplot::executable, @gnuplot_options);

    unless($pid) {
	barf("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: Couldn't run the '$Alien::Gnuplot::executable' backend that was found by Alien::Gnuplot");

    my $errSelector;
    $this->{"in-$suffix"}  = $in;
    $this->{"err-$suffix"} = $err;
    $this->{"errSelector-$suffix"} = $errSelector = IO::Select->new($err);
    $this->{"pid-$suffix"} = $pid;

    ## Make sure the executable is working as expected.  We do this by
    ## telling it to emit a version number.  (Alien::Gnuplot did this at
    ## load time, so we can check both that the gnuplot works, and also
    ## that it is probably the same executable that Alien::Gnuplot reported.)

    my $s = "";
    our $gp_version;
    our $gp_pl;

    if(!$this->{dumping}) {
	print $in "show version\n\nprint \"FfFinished\"\n\n";
	my $byte;
	my $zcount = 0;
	do {
	    if($errSelector->can_read(1) or $MS_io_braindamage) {
		sysread $err, $byte, 1;
		$s .= $byte;
		if(length($byte)==0) {
		} else {
		    $zcount = 0;
	    } else {
		carp <<"EOM";
WARNING: Hmmm,  gnuplot didn\'t respond promptly.  I was expecting to read
   a version number.  Carry on, but don\'t be surprised if it doesn\'t work.


		return $this;
	} until($s =~ m/^FfFinished$/m || $zcount > 100);

# Parse version number.  If the version or pl changed, try reloading Alien::Gnuplot
# to get them in sync.
	if( $s =~ m/Version (\d+\.\d+) (patchlevel (\w+))?/i ) {
	    $gp_version = $1;
	    $gp_pl = $3;
	    $this->{gp_version} = $1;
	    $this->{gp_pl} = $3;
	} else {

	    # Something went wrong with i/o.  See if the process still exists.
	    unless($MS_io_braindamage) {
		use POSIX ":sys_wait_h";
		my $wp = waitpid($pid, WNOHANG);
		if($wp == $pid) {
		    if((($?+0) & 255)==11) {
			die "ERROR: the gnuplot subprocess died with a segmentation fault!\n  (Could happen before exec'ing '$Alien::Gnuplot::executable'...)\n";
		    } elsif((($?+0) & 255)==7) {
			die "ERROR: the gnuplot subprocess died with a bus error!\n   (Could happen before exec'ing '$Alien::Gnuplot::executable'...)\n";
		    die "ERROR: The gnuplot subprocess died!  Its exit code was $?.\n   I hope that helps.\n";
		} elsif($wp < 0) {
		    die "ERROR: The gnuplot process mysteriously vanished and was also reaped.\nBizarre.\n";

	    carp <<"EOM"
WARNING: I couldn\'t parse a version number from gnuplot\'s output.  I\'m
   returning the object anyway - but don\'t be surprised if it  doesn\'t work.
   I\'m marking it with an internal \"obsolete\" flag, which may help.
	    $this->{early_gnuplot} = 1;
	    return $this;

	if($gp_pl =~ m/[a-z]+/) {
	    unless($PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::non_numeric_patch_warned || $ENV{PGG_RC_OK}) {
		carp "WARNING: your gnuplot has a non-numeric patchlevel '$gp_pl'.  Use with caution.\n(warning will not be repeated; set env. var. PGG_RC_OK to suppress)\n";
		$PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::non_numeric_patch_warned = 1;
	} else {
	    $PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::non_numeric_patch_warned = 0;
	    if( $gp_version ne $Alien::Gnuplot::version or $gp_pl ne $Alien::Gnuplot::pl ) {
		carp <<"EOM";
WARNING: we found gnuplot version '$gp_version' pl '$gp_pl' but Alien::Gnuplot reported
a different version ('$Alien::Gnuplot::version' pl '$Alien::Gnuplot::pl').  Reloading Alien::Gnuplot...
		if( $gp_version ne $Alien::Gnuplot::version or $gp_pl ne $Alien::Gnuplot::pl ) {
		    carp <<"EOM"
Hmmm, that\'s funny.  Reloading Alien::Gnuplot gave version '$Alien::Gnuplot::version' pl '$Alien::Gnuplot::pl',
which still doesn\'t match.  Proceed with caution!

            # On windows, gnuplot versions 4.6.5 and older echo back commands.
            if ( $gp_version <= '4.6' && $gp_pl <= 5 ) {
                $echo_eating = 1;

	if( $gp_version < $gnuplot_dep_v  and  !$PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::deprecated_this_session ) {
            $PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::deprecated_this_session = 1;
	    carp <<"EOM";

WARNING: Your gnuplot version ($gp_version) is deprecated and may cause
plotting errors or random behavior.  It is suggested you upgrade to v$gnuplot_dep_v.
To silence this warning, set the GNUPLOT_DEPRECATED environment variable.

	    $this->{early_gnuplot} = 1;

    } else {
	carp <<"EOM"
WARNING: Gnuplot commands are being dumped to stdout.
	$this->{early_gnuplot} = 0;

    ## Stash these in the object (legacy)
    our $valid_terms;   # defined in _load_alien_gnuplot.
    our $unknown_terms; # ditto
    $this->{valid_terms} = $valid_terms;
    $this->{unknown_terms} = $unknown_terms;

    _checkpoint($this, "main");


# _killGnuplot - clean up the mess!

sub _killGnuplot {
    my $this = shift;
    my $suffix = shift;
    my $kill_it_dead = shift;

    unless(defined($suffix)) {
	for my $k(keys %$this) {
	    next unless $k =~ m/^pid\-(.*)$/;
	    _killGnuplot($this,$1, $kill_it_dead);

    if( defined $this->{"pid-$suffix"})
	my $goner = $this->{"pid-$suffix"};

	my $z;

	if($kill_it_dead) {
	    # Just want it dead.
	    kill 'KILL', $goner;
	    $z = waitpid($goner,0);

	} else {
	    ### Use HUP as the Mr. Nice Guy solution.  
	    ### This is to avoid a problem of error message jabbering in
	    ### perl processes that use fork() and IPC. 

	    kill 'HUP', $goner;

	    # Give it 2 seconds to quit, then interrupt it again.
	    # If that doesn't work kill it dead.
	    my $countdown = 2;

	    # In case of ^C, give up and kill the process dead.
	    local($SIG{INT}) = sub {
		kill 'KILL', $goner;
		$countdown = -5;

	    local($SIG{ALRM}) = sub {
		if($countdown <= 2) {
		    kill 'HUP',$goner;
		if($countdown > 0) {
		} else {
		    kill 'KILL', $goner unless($countdown > 0 or $countdown < -4);

	    $z = waitpid($goner, 0);


	unless($z == $goner) {
	    # If for some reason it didn't die, fire and forget.
	    kill 'KILL', $goner;
	    waitpid( $goner, 0 ) ;

	# This clears the status bits from the killed process, so
	# we don't report anomalous error when we finally exit.
	$? = 0;

    for (map { $_."-$suffix" } qw/in err errSelector pid/) {
	delete $this->{$_} if(exists $this->{$_});


# _printGnuplotPipe - output stuff to the pipe.
# Used for both commands and data.
sub _printGnuplotPipe
  my $this   = shift;
  my $suffix = shift;
  my $string = shift;

  local($SIG{PIPE}) = sub { _killGnuplot($this,undef,1); die "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: subproc died.\n";};

  unless(defined($this->{"in-$suffix"})) {

  # hashref
  # $flags->{data}   if this is data, not a command;
  # $flags->{binary} if $string has binary data
  my $flags  = shift;
  $flags = {} unless defined $flags;

  # Autodetect the dump option
  # If it gets set or unset, restart gnuplot
  if(($this->{options}->{dump} && !$this->{dumping})  or
     ($this->{dumping} && !$this->{options}->{dump})
      ) {

      if($this->{dumping}) {
	  carp "(killed gnuplot)\n";
      } else {
	  carp "(restarted gnuplot)\n";

  my $pipein = $this->{"in-$suffix"};

  unless($this->{dumping}) {
      # Feed the pipe robustly.  Some platforms can only ship 640kB at a time, so keep sending chunks.
      my $int_flag = 0;
      my $of = 0;
      my $len;
      my $s = $SIG{INT};
      local $SIG{INT} = sub { $int_flag = 1; };

      # Write out the string in 640kiB chunks to enable interruption
      my $pipeerr = $this->{"err-$suffix"};
      my $pipeselector = $this->{"errSelector-$suffix"};

      if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	  my $chunksize= 655360;

	  if(length($string)) { # Only write nonempty strings :-)
	      do {
	      # Send the next block out.
	      $len = syswrite($pipein,substr($string,$of),$chunksize);
	      if(!defined($len) or $len==0) {
		  my $err = (defined($len) ? "(No error but 0 bytes written)" : _def($!, "(Huh - no error code in \$!)"));
		  barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: Error while writing ".
		      " bytes to the gnuplot pipe.\nError was:\n\t$err";
	      $of += $len;
	      } while($of < length($string) and !$int_flag);

	      if($int_flag) {
		  # We were interrupted, which hoses up gnuplot.  Restart gnuplot.
		  _startGnuplot($this,'syntax') if($check_syntax);
		  my $str = "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot:  interrupted while sending data; restarted gnuplot.\n";
		  if(ref($s) eq 'CODE') {
		      carp $str;
		  die $str;
      } else {
	  $len = syswrite($pipein, $string);
	  if( $int_flag ) {
	      _killGnuplot($this, undef, 1);
	      _startGnuplot($this, 'main');
	      _startGnuplot($this, 'syntax') if($check_syntax);
	      my $str = "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot:  interrupted while sending data; restarted gnuplot.\n";
	      if(ref($s) eq 'CODE') {
		  carp $str;
	      die $str;

  # Mockup for half-duplex pty and pty mockups (e.g. testing Windows support)
  if($debug_echo) {
      my $k = "echobuffer-$suffix";
      $this->{$k} = "" unless(defined($this->{$k}));
      my $s = $string;
      $s =~ s/^/gnuplot> /msg unless($flags->{data});
      $this->{$k} .= $s;

  # Various debugging options.
  if( $this->{dumping} || $this->{options}{tee} )
    my $debug_display_string;
    if ( $flags->{binary} &&
          $this->{options}{tee} && $this->{options}{tee} eq 'nobinary' ||
          $this->{dumping}      && $this->{dumping}      eq 'nobinary'
      $debug_display_string = sprintf('< %d bytes of binary data suppressed >',length($string));
      $debug_display_string = $string;

    if($this->{dumping}) {
      print $debug_display_string;

    if( $this->{options}{tee} )
      my $len = length $string;
                "Sent to child process (suffix $suffix) $len bytes==========\n" . $debug_display_string . "\n=========================" );


# _checkpoint -- synchronize the child and parent processes. After
# _checkpoint() returns, we know that we have read all the data from
# the child. Extra data that represents errors is returned. Warnings
# are explicitly stripped out
our $cp_serial = 0;

sub _checkpoint {
    my $this   = shift;
    my $suffix = shift || "main";
    my $opt = _def(shift,  {});
    my $notimeout = _def($opt->{notimeout}, 0);
    my $printwarnings = (_def($opt->{printwarnings},  0) and !_def($this->{options}->{silent}, 0));
    my $ignore_errors = _def($opt->{ignore_errors}, 0);

    my $pipeerr = $this->{"err-$suffix"};

    # string containing various options to this function
    my $flags = shift;

    # I have no way of knowing if the child process has sent its error data
    # yet. It may be that an error has already occurred, but the message hasn't
    # yet arrived. I thus print out a checkpoint message and keep reading the
    # child's STDERR pipe until I get that message back. Any errors would have
    # been printed before this
    my $checkpoint = "xxxxxxx Synchronizing gnuplot i/o $cp_serial xxxxxxx";

    _printGnuplotPipe( $this, $suffix, "\n\nprint \"$checkpoint\"\n" );

    # if no error pipe exists, we can't check for errors, so we're done. Usually
    # happens if($dump)
    return "" unless defined $pipeerr;

    my $fromerr = '';

    if( !($this->{dumping}) ) {
	my $int = $SIG{INT};
	local $SIG{INT} = $int;

	# Queue up a SIGINT handler, with passthrough...
	unless($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    $SIG{INT} =
		sub {
		    kill 'INT', $this->{"pid-$suffix"};
		    if(ref $int eq 'CODE') {
		    die "^C received during PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot checkpoint operation\n";

	_logEvent($this, "Trying to read from gnuplot (suffix $suffix)") if $this->{options}{tee};

	my $terminal =$this->{options}->{terminal};
	my $delay = (_def($this->{'wait'}, 0) + 0) || 10;

	if($this->{"echobuffer-$suffix"}) {
	    $fromerr = $this->{"echobuffer-$suffix"};
	    $this->{"echobuffer-$suffix"} = "";

	my $subproc_gone = 0 ;

	local($SIG{PIPE}) = sub { $subproc_gone = 1; };

	    # if no data received in a few seconds, the gnuplot
	    # process is stuck. This usually happens if the gnuplot
	    # process is not in a command mode, but in a
	    # data-receiving mode. I'm careful to avoid this
	    # situation, but bugs in this module and/or in gnuplot
	    # itself can make this happen
	    # Note that the nice asynchronous part of this loop won't
	    # work on Microsoft Windows, since that OS doesn't have a
	    # working asynchronous read, and can_read doesn't work
	    # either.

	    if( $MS_io_braindamage or
		$this->{"errSelector-$suffix"}->can_read($notimeout ? undef : $delay )
		my $byte;
		sysread $pipeerr, $byte, ($MS_io_braindamage ? 1 : 100);
		$fromerr .= $byte;
		if($byte eq \004 or $byte eq \000 or !length($byte)) {
		    $subproc_gone = 1;
		_logEvent($this, "Gnuplot $suffix read timed out") if $this->{options}{tee};
		$this->{"stuck-$suffix"} = 1;
		kill 'INT', $this->{"pid-$suffix"};
		barf <<"EOM";
Hmmm, my $suffix Gnuplot process didn't respond for $delay seconds.
I've kicked it with an interrupt signal, which should help with the
next thing you try to do.  If you expect slow response fron gnuplot,
you can adjust the timeout with the "wait" terminal option.
	} until ($fromerr =~ m/^$checkpoint/ms or $subproc_gone);

	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    # Fix newline braindamage too
	    $fromerr =~ s/\r\n/\n/g;

	if($subproc_gone) {
	    _killGnuplot($this, undef, 1);
	    barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: the gnuplot process seems to have died.\n";

	_logEvent($this, "Read string '$fromerr' from gnuplot $suffix process") if $this->{options}{tee};

	# Discard prompt-and-command lines up to the last prompt seen.
	# This is necessary for MS Windows support: MS Windows doesn't have
	# a notion of a tty versus other kind of pipe, so gnuplot always
	# prints prompts and echoes commands.  Since there isn't much in the
	# way of error syntax, we might miss a few errors this way.  Oh well.
	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    $fromerr =~ s/[\s\n\r]*(gnu|multi)plot\>[^\n\r]*$//msg;
	    $fromerr =~ s/[\s\n\r]*input data \(\'e\' ends\) \>[^\n\r]*$//msg;

	# Strip the checkpoint message.
	$fromerr =~ s/\s*(.*?)\s*$checkpoint.*$/$1/ms;

	# Replace non-printable ASCII characters with '?'
	# (preserve ^I [tab], ^J [newline], and ^M [return])
	$fromerr =~ s/[\000-\010\013-\014\016-\037\200-\377]/\?/g;

	# Find, report, and strip warnings. This is complicated by the fact
	# that some warnings come with a line specifier and others don't.

	WARN: while( $fromerr =~ m/^(\s*(line \d+\:\s*)?[wW]arning\:.*)$/m ) {
	      # it's a warning with a line specifier. Break off two more lines before it.
	      last WARN unless($fromerr =~ s/^((gnu|multi)plot\>.*\n\s*\^\s*\n\s*(line \d+\:\s*)?[wW]arning\:.*(\n|$))//m);
	      my $a = $1;
	      $a =~ s/^\s*line \d+\:/Gnuplot:/m;
	      carp $a if($printwarnings);
	  } else {
	      last WARN unless($fromerr =~ s/^(\s*(line \d+\:\s*)?[wW](arning\:.*(\n|$)))//m);
	      carp "Gnuplot w$3\n" if($printwarnings);


	# Anything else is an error -- except on Microsoft Windows where we
	# get additional chaff on the channel.  Try to take it out.
	if($MS_io_braindamage) {
	    $fromerr =~ s/^\s*Terminal type set to \'[^\']*\'.*Options are \'[^\']*\'//s;
	} else {
	    # Hack to avoid spurious the pdfcairo errors in MacOS 10.5 - strip out obsolete-function errors.
	    while( $fromerr =~ s/^.*obsolete\s*function.*system\s*performance.\s*//s ) {
		# do nothing

	if((!$ignore_errors) and (($fromerr =~ m/^\s+\^\s*$/ms or $fromerr=~ m/^\s*line/ms) or
	    # This is really stupid -- many error messages from gnuplot aren't labeled as such, so we can't mark
	    # them as errors.  Try some common keywords for genuine error messages.
	    $fromerr =~ m/(fail(ed|s)?)|(error)|(expected \w+ driver)/io
	    ) {
	    if($this->{early_gnuplot}) {
		barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: ERROR: the deprecated pre-v$gnuplot_dep_v gnuplot backend issued an error:\n$fromerr\n";
	    } else {
	        barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: ERROR: the gnuplot backend issued an error:\n$fromerr\n";

	# strip whitespace
	$fromerr =~ s/^\s*//s;
	$fromerr =~ s/\s*$//s;
	return $fromerr;
    } else {
	# dumping - never generate an error.
	return "";

# Get gnuplot to report its own supported feature-set.
# NOTE this needs to be fixed-up to just copy the featuresets from Alien::Gnuplot!

sub _getGnuplotFeatures
  # I could use qx{} to talk to gnuplot here, but I don't want to use a
  # tty. gnuplot messes with the tty settings where it should NOT. For example
  # it turns on the local echo

  my %featureSet;

  # first, I run 'gnuplot --help' to extract all the cmdline options as features
    my $in  = '';
    my $out = '';
    my $err = '';
    eval{ IPC::Run::run([ $Alien::Gnuplot::executable, "--help"], \$in, \$out, \$err) };
    barf $@ if $@;

    foreach ( "$out\n$err\n" =~ /--([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/g )
      $featureSet{$_} = 1;

  # then I try to set a square aspect ratio for 3D to see if it works
    my $in = <<EOM;
set view equal
    my $out = '';
    my $err = '';

    eval{ IPC::Run::run([ $Alien::Gnuplot::executable ], \$in, \$out, \$err) };
    barf $@ if $@;

    # no output if works; some output if error
    $featureSet{equal_3d} = 1 unless ($out || $err);

  return %featureSet;

sub _logEvent
  my $this  = shift;
  my $event = shift;

  return unless($this->{options}->{tee}); # only log when asked.

  my $t1 = tv_interval( $this->{t0}, [gettimeofday] );
  printf STDERR "==== PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot t=%.4f: %s\n", $t1, $event;

# Helper routine detects method call vs. function call
# syntax, and initializes the global object if necessary.
sub _obj_or_global {
    my $arglist = shift;
    my $this;
    if( $arglist->[0]->$_isa("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot") ) {
	$this = shift @$arglist;
    } else {
	undef $@;
	unless( $globalPlot->$_isa("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot") ) {
	    undef $@;
	    $globalPlot = new("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot") ;
	$globalPlot->{options}->{globalPlot} = 1;
	$this = $globalPlot;
    return $this;

### Prefrobnicators - preprocess data before plotting, for custom plot styles
### Currently there is only one - used for FITS image plotting.  It's
### necessary because FITS images often have nonlinear mappings
### between pixel and scientific coordinates.

# _with_fits_prefrobnicator
# We support a "with fits" image style that produces output in scientific
# coordinates from a FITS file.  Ideally, we would simply produce an (x,y) grid
# that supplies scientific coordinates for each pixel -- but that doesn't work
# in the general case due to shortcomings with gnuplot itself: the three-element
# tuple form of "with image" only works for affine transformations between
# pixel coordinates and scientific plane coordinates.
our $fitsmap_size = 1024;
sub _with_fits_prefrobnicator {
    my( $with, $this, $chunk, @data ) = @_;
    my $resample_flag = 0;
    my @resample_dims = ($fitsmap_size,$fitsmap_size);

    # search for fits-specific 'with' options
    my $i;
    for($i=0;$i<@$with;$i++) {
	if( ($with->[$i]) =~ m/^re(s(a(m(p(l(e)?)?)?)?)?)?/i ) {
	    splice @$with, $i,1; # remove 'resample' from list
	    $resample_flag = 1;
	    if( ($with->[$i]) =~ m/(\d+)(\,(\d+))?/ ) {
		@resample_dims = ($1, _def($3, $1));
		splice @$with, $i, 1;

    eval "use PDL::Transform;";
    barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: couldn't load PDL::Transform for 'with fits' option" if($@);

    barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: 'with fits' special option requires a single FITS image\n" if(@data != 1);
    my $data = $data[0];

    my $h = $data->gethdr();
    unless($h   and   ref $h eq 'HASH'   and   $h->{NAXIS}   and   $h->{NAXIS1}   and   $h->{NAXIS2}) {
	if($data->ndims==2 or ($data->ndims==3 && ($data->dim(3)==3 || $data->dim(3)==1))) {
	    warn("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: 'with fits' expected a FITS header.  Using pixel coordinates...\n");
		 $h = {
		     NAXIS1 => $data->dim(0),
		     NAXIS2 => $data->dim(1),
		     CRPIX1=>1,		         CRPIX2=>1,
		     CRVAL1=>0,   		 CRVAL2=>0,
		     CDELT1=>1,                  CDELT2=>1,
		     CTYPE1=>"X",                CTYPE2=>"Y",
		     CUNIT1=>"Pixels",           CUNIT2=>"Pixels"
	} else {
	    barf("PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: 'with fits' got a (non-image) ".join("x",$data->dims)." PDL with no FITS header.\n");

    # Now find the dataspace boundaries for the map, so we don't waste pixels.
    my ($xmin,$xmax,$ymin,$ymax);
    if(exists($this->{options}->{xrange})) {
	$xmin = $this->{options}->{xrange}->[0];
	$xmax = $this->{options}->{xrange}->[1];
    if(exists($this->{options}->{yrange})) {
	$ymin = $this->{options}->{yrange}->[0];
	$ymax = $this->{options}->{yrange}->[1];

    unless(defined($xmin) && defined($xmax) && defined($ymin) && defined($ymax)) {
	my $pix_corners = pdl([0,0],[0,1],[1,0],[1,1]) * pdl($data->dim(0),$data->dim(1)) - 0.5;
	my $corners = $pix_corners->apply(t_fits($data));

	$xmin = $corners->slice("(0)")->min unless defined($xmin);
	$xmax = $corners->slice("(0)")->max unless defined($xmax);
	$ymin = $corners->slice("(1)")->min unless defined($ymin);
	$ymax = $corners->slice("(1)")->max unless defined($ymax);

    if($ymin > $ymax) {
	my $a = $ymin; $ymin = $ymax; $ymax = $a;
    if($xmin > $xmax) {
	my $a = $xmin; $xmin = $xmax; $xmax = $a;

    our $dest_hdr = {NAXIS=>2,
		    NAXIS1=> $resample_dims[0],     NAXIS2=>$resample_dims[1],
		    CRPIX1=> 0.5,                   CRPIX2=>0.5,
		    CRVAL1=> $xmin,                 CRVAL2=>$ymin,
		    CDELT1=> ($xmax-$xmin)/($resample_dims[0]),
		    CDELT2=> ($ymax-$ymin)/($resample_dims[1]),
		    CTYPE1=> $h->{CTYPE1},	    CTYPE2=> $h->{CTYPE2},
		    CUNIT1=> $h->{CUNIT1},          CUNIT2=> $h->{CUNIT2}

    my ($d2,$ndc);
    if($resample_flag) {
	my $d1 = double $data;
	unless($data->hdrcpy) {$d1->sethdr($data->gethdr);} # no copying - ephemeral value
	$d2 = $d1->map( t_identity(), $dest_hdr,{method=>'h'} );  # Rescale into coordinates proportional to the scientific ones
	$ndc = ndcoords($d2->dim(0),$d2->dim(1)) -> apply( t_fits($d2) );
    } else {
	$d2 = $data;
	$ndc = ndcoords($data->dim(0),$data->dim(1))->apply(t_fits($data));

    # Now update plot options to set the axis labels, if they haven't been updated already...
    unless(defined $this->{options}->{xlabel}) {
	$this->{tmp_options}->{xlabel} = [join(" ",
					  $h->{CTYPE1} || "X",
					  $h->{CUNIT1} ? "($h->{CUNIT1})" : "(pixels)"
    unless(defined $this->{options}->{ylabel}) {
	$this->{tmp_options}->{ylabel} = [join(" ",
					  $h->{CTYPE2} || "Y",
					  $h->{CUNIT2} ? "($h->{CUNIT2})" : "(pixels)"
    unless(defined $this->{options}->{cblabel}) {
	$this->{tmp_options}->{cblabel} = [join(" ",
					    $h->{BTYPE} || "Value",
					    $h->{BUNIT} ? "($h->{BUNIT})" : ""

    # Debugging Gnuplot's horrible indexing problem
    # $PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot::prefrobnicated = [$ndc->mv(0,-1)->dog, $d2];
    if($d2->ndims == 2) {
	$with->[0] = 'image';
	$chunk->{options}->{with} = [@$with];
	return ($ndc->mv(0,-1)->dog, $d2);

    if($data->ndims == 3 and $data->dim(2)==3) {
	$with->[0] = 'rgbimage';
	return ($ndc->mv(0,-1)->dog, $d2->dog);

    if($data->ndims == 3 and $data->dim(2)==4) {
	$with->[0] = 'rgbalpha';
	return ($ndc->mv(0,-1)->dog, $d2->dog);

    barf "PDL::Graphics::Gnuplot: 'with fits' needs an image, RGB triplet, or RGBA quad\n";


# Helper routine mocks up the // operator (so we can support earlier perls that don't have it).
sub _def {
    my $val = shift;
    my $or = shift;
    return (defined($val)?$val : $or);

# Helper routine to escape backslashes and such for gnuplot double-quote strings
sub quote_escape {
    my $s = shift;
    $s =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
    $s =~ s/\"/\\\"/g;
    $s =~ s/\012/\\n/g;
    $s =~ s/\013/\\r/g;
    return $s;


Everything should work on all platforms that support Gnuplot and Perl.
Currently, MacOS, Fedora and Debian Linux, Cygwin, and Microsoft
Windows (under both Active State Strawberry Perl) have been tested to
work, although the interprocess control link is not as reliable under
Microsoft Windows as under POSIX systems.  Please report successes or
failures on other platforms to the authors. A transcript of a failed
run with {tee => 1} would be most helpful.



=head1 AUTHOR

Craig DeForest, C<< <craig@deforest.org> >> and Dima Kogan, C<< <dima@secretsauce.net> >>

=head1 STILL TO DO

=over 3

=item some plot and curve options need better parsing:

=over 3

=item - labels need attention (plot option labels)

They need to be handled as hashes, not just as array refs.  Also, they don't seem to be working with timestamps.
Further, deeply nested options (e.g. "at" for labels) need attention.


=item - new plot styles

The "boxplot" plot style (new to gnuplot 4.6?) requires a different using
syntax and will require some hacking to support.



Copyright 2011-2013 Craig DeForest and Dima Kogan

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published
by the Free Software Foundation; or the Perl Artistic License included with
the Perl language.

See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.