package autodie;
use 5.008;
use strict;
use warnings;

use Fatal ();
our @ISA = qw(Fatal);

    $VERSION = "1.99";

use constant ERROR_WRONG_FATAL => q{
Incorrect version of loaded by autodie.

The autodie pragma uses an updated version of Fatal to do its
heavy lifting.  We seem to have loaded Fatal version %s, which is
probably the version that came with your version of Perl.  However
autodie needs version %s, which would have come bundled with

You may be able to solve this problem by adding the following
line of code to your main program, before any use of Fatal or

    use lib "%s";


# We have to check we've got the right version of Fatal before we
# try to compile the rest of our code, lest we use a constant
# that doesn't exist.


    # If we have the wrong Fatal, then we've probably loaded the system
    # one, not our own.  Complain, and give a useful hint. ;)

    if ($Fatal::VERSION ne $VERSION) {
        my $autodie_path = $INC{''};

        $autodie_path =~ s/autodie\.pm//;

        require Carp;

        Carp::croak sprintf(
            ERROR_WRONG_FATAL, $Fatal::VERSION, $VERSION, $autodie_path

# When passing args to Fatal we want to keep the first arg
# (our package) in place.  Hence the splice.

sub import {
        goto &Fatal::import;

sub unimport {
        goto &Fatal::unimport;



=head1 NAME

autodie - Replace functions with ones that succeed or die with lexical scope


    use autodie;    # Recommended, implies 'use autodie qw(:default)'

    use autodie qw(open close);   # open/close succeed or die

    open(my $fh, "<", $filename); # No need to check! 

        no autodie qw(open);          # open failures won't die
        open(my $fh, "<", $filename); # Could fail silently!
        no autodie;                   # disable all autodies


        bIlujDI' yIchegh()Qo'; yIHegh()!

        It is better to die() than to return() in failure.

                -- Klingon programming proverb.

The C<autodie> pragma provides a convenient way to replace functions
that normally return false on failure with equivalents that throw
an exception on failure.

The C<autodie> pragma has I<lexical scope>, meaning that functions
and subroutines altered with C<autodie> will only change their behaviour
until the end of the enclosing block, file, or C<eval>.

If C<system> is specified as an argument to C<autodie>, then it
uses L<IPC::System::Simple> to do the heavy lifting.  See the
description of that module for more information.


Exceptions produced by the C<autodie> pragma are members of the
L<autodie::exception> class.  The preferred way to work with
these exceptions under Perl 5.10 is as follows:

    use feature qw(switch);

    eval {
        use autodie;

        open(my $fh, '<', $some_file);

        my @records = <$fh>;

        # Do things with @records...



    given ($@) {
        when (undef)   { say "No error";                    }
        when ('open')  { say "Error from open";             }
        when (':io')   { say "Non-open, IO error.";         }
        when (':all')  { say "All other autodie errors."    }
        default        { say "Not an autodie error at all." }

Under Perl 5.8, the C<given/when> structure is not available, so the
following structure may be used:

    eval {
        use autodie;

        open(my $fh, '<', $some_file);

        my @records = <$fh>;

        # Do things with @records...


    if ($@ and $@->isa('autodie::exception')) {
        if ($@->matches('open')) { print "Error from open\n";   }
        if ($@->matches(':io' )) { print "Non-open, IO error."; }
    } elsif ($@) {
        # A non-autodie exception.

See L<autodie::exception> for further information on interrogating


Autodie uses a simple set of categories to group together similar
built-ins.  Requesting a category type (starting with a colon) will
enable autodie for all built-ins beneath that category.  For example,
requesting C<:file> will enable autodie for C<close>, C<fcntl>,
C<fileno>, C<open> and C<sysopen>.

The categories are currently:


A plain C<use autodie> implies C<use autodie qw(:default)>.  Note that
C<system> and C<exec> are not enabled by default.  C<system> requires
the optional L<IPC::System::Simple> module to be installed, and enabling
C<system> or C<exec> will invalidate their exotic forms.  See L</BUGS>
below for more details.

Note that while the above category system is presently a strict
hierarchy, this should not be assumed.

=head1 GOTCHAS

Functions called in list context are assumed to have failed if they
return an empty list, or a list consisting only of a single undef


=over 4

=item :void cannot be used with lexical scope

The C<:void> option is supported in L<Fatal>, but not
C<autodie>.  However you can explicitly disable autodie
end the end of the current block with C<no autodie>.
To disable autodie for only a single function (eg, open)
use or C<no autodie qw(open)>.


See also L<Fatal/DIAGNOSTICS>.

=head1 BUGS

Applying C<autodie> to C<system> or C<exec> causes the exotic
forms C<system { $cmd } @args > or C<exec { $cmd } @args>
to be considered a syntax error until the end of the lexical scope.
If you really need to use the exotic form, you can call C<CORE::system>
or C<CORE::exec> instead, or use C<no autodie qw(system exec)> before
calling the exotic form.

"Used only once" warnings can be generated when C<autodie> or C<Fatal>
is used with package filehandles (eg, C<FILE>).  It's strongly recommended
you use scalar filehandles instead.

When using C<autodie> or C<Fatal> with user subroutines, the
declaration of those subroutines must appear before the first use of
C<Fatal> or C<autodie>, or have been exported from a module.
Attempting to ue C<Fatal> or C<autodie> on other user subroutines will
result in a compile-time error.

A TODO list of items remaining for improvement can be found in
the development tree for the module at


Please report bugs via the CPAN Request Tracker at

=head1 AUTHOR

Copyright 2008, Paul Fenwick E<lt><gt>

=head1 LICENSE

This module is free software.  You may distribute it under the
same terms as Perl itself.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Fatal>, L<autodie::exception>, L<IPC::System::Simple>


Mark Reed and Roland Giersig -- Klingon translators.

See the F<AUTHORS> file for full credits.  The latest version of this
file can be found at
L<> .