package Perl6::Say;
use strict;
use warnings;
require 5.006_002;
our $VERSION = '0.16';
use IO::Handle;
use Scalar::Util 'openhandle';
use Carp;

sub say {
    my $currfh = select();
    my $handle;
        no strict 'refs';
        $handle = openhandle($_[0]) ? shift : \*$currfh;
        use strict 'refs';
    @_ = $_ unless @_;
    my $warning;
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { $warning = join q{}, @_ };
    my $res = print {$handle} @_, "\n";
    return $res if $res;
    $warning =~ s/[ ]at[ ].*//xms;
    croak $warning;

# Handle direct calls...

no strict 'refs';
sub import { *{caller() . '::say'} = \&say; }
use strict 'refs';

# Handle OO calls:

*IO::Handle::say = \&say if ! defined &IO::Handle::say;


#################### DOCUMENTATION #################### 

=head1 NAME

Perl6::Say - C<print()>, but no newline needed


    # Perl 5 code...

    use Perl6::Say;

    say 'boo';             # same as:  print 'boo', "\n"

    say STDERR 'boo';      # same as:  print STDERR 'boo', "\n"

    STDERR->say('boo');    # same as:  print STDERR 'boo', \n"

    $fh->say('boo');       # same as:  print $fh 'boo', "\n";

    say();                 # same as:  print "$_\n";

    say undef;             # same as:  print "\n";


=head2 Note for Users of Perl 5.10

You don't need this module.  The Perl 6 C<say> function is available in Perl
5.10 by saying C<use feature 'say';>.  Hence, this module is of interest only
to users of Perl 5.6 and 5.8.

If you have Perl 5.10 installed, see the F<510/> directory in this
distribution for some elementary examples of C<say> taken from C<perldoc

=head2 General

Implements a close simulation of the C<say> function in Perl 6,
which acts like C<print> but automatically appends a newline.

Use it just like C<print> (except that it only supports the indirect object
syntax when the stream is a bareword). That is, assuming the relevant
filehandles are open for output, you can use any of these:

    say @data;
    say FH @data;
    say $fh, @data;

but not any of these:

    say {FH} @data;
    say {*FH} @data;
    say {\*FH} @data;
    say $fh @data;
    say {$fh} @data;

=head2 Additional Permitted Usages

As demonstrated in the test suite accompanying this distribution,
C<Perl6::Say::say()> can be used in all the following situations.

    $string = q{};
    open FH, ">", \$string;
    say FH qq{Hello World};            # print to a string
    close FH;                          # requires Perl 5.8.0 or later

    use FileHandle;
    $fh = FileHandle->new($file, 'w');
    if (defined $fh) {
        say $fh, qq{Hello World};

    use IO::File;
    $fh = IO::File->new($file, 'w');
    if (defined $fh) {
        say $fh, qq{Hello World};

    $string = q{};
    open FH, ">", \$string;             # requires Perl 5.8.0 or later
    say qq{Hello World};
    close FH;

=head2 Interaction with Output Record Separator

In Perl 6, S<C<say @stuff>> is exactly equivalent to
S<C<Core::print @stuff, "\n">>.

That means that a call to C<say> appends any output record separator (ORS)
I<after> the added newline (though in Perl 6, the ORS is an attribute of
the filehandle being used, rather than a global C<$/> variable).

=head2 C<IO::Handle::say()>

IO::Handle version 1.27 or later (which, confusingly, is
found in IO distribution 1.23 and later) also implements a C<say>
method.   Perl6::Say provides its own C<say> method to IO::Handle
if C<IO::Handle::say> is not available.

=head2 Usage with Older Perls

As noted above, some aspects of C<Perl6::Say::say()> will not work with
versions of Perl earlier than 5.8.0.  This is not due to any problem with this
module; it is simply that Perl did not support printing to an in-memory file
(C<print \$string, "\n";>) prior to that point.  (Thanks to a CPAN testers
report from David Cantrell for identifying this limitation.)

=head1 WARNING

The syntax and semantics of Perl 6 is still being finalized
and consequently is at any time subject to change. That means the
same caveat applies to this module.


No dependencies other than on modules included with the Perl core as of
version 5.8.0.

Some of the files in the test suite accompanying this distribution use
non-core CPAN module IO::Capture::Stdout.  Tests calling IO::Capture::Stdout
methods are enclosed in C<SKIP> blocks and so should pose no obstacle to
installation of the distribution on systems lacking IO::Capture.  (However,
the maintainer strongly recommends IO::Capture for developers who write a lot
of test code.  So please consider installing it!)


=head2 AUTHOR

Damian Conway (


Alexandr Ciornii (


Thanks to Damian Conway for dreaming this up.  Thanks to David A Golden for a
close review of the documentation.  Thanks to CPAN tester Jost Krieger for
reporting an error in my SKIP block count in one test file.


As far as we can determine, Perl 5 doesn't allow us to create a subroutine
that truly acts like C<print>. That is, one that can simultaneously be
used like so:

    say @data;

and like so:

    say {$fh} @data;

Comments, suggestions, and patches welcome.


Copyright (c) 2004, Damian Conway. All Rights Reserved.
This module is free software. It may be used, redistributed
and/or modified under the same terms as Perl itself.