# Automatically generated by optdefs.pl - DO NOT EDIT! 

# Copyright (C) 2003  Sam Horrocks
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
# modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
# as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
# of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.

package PersistentPerl;

use strict;
use vars qw($VERSION);
$VERSION = '2.22';

## use vars qw($VERSION @ISA @EXPORT @EXPORT_OK);
## require Exporter;
## require DynaLoader;
## require AutoLoader;
## @ISA = qw(Exporter DynaLoader);
## # Items to export into callers namespace by default. Note: do not export
## # names by default without a very good reason. Use EXPORT_OK instead.
## # Do not simply export all your public functions/methods/constants.
## @EXPORT = qw(
## );

sub new { my $class = shift;
    bless {}, $class;

use vars qw(
    $_shutdown_handler $i_am_perperl %_opts $_opts_changed @_cleanup $_sub

# Set a handler function to be called before shutting down the perl interpreter
sub set_shutdown_handler { my($self, $newh) = @_;
    my $oldh = $_shutdown_handler;
    $_shutdown_handler = $newh;

# Add a function to the list of handlers to be called when shutting down
# the perl interpreter
sub add_shutdown_handler { my($self, $func) = @_;
    push(@_shutdown, $func);

# Do the shutdown functions
sub _run_shutdown {
    while ($_ = shift @_shutdown) { &$_; }
    &$_shutdown_handler if (defined($_shutdown_handler));

# Return true if we are running under persistentperl, false otherwise.
sub i_am_perperl { defined($i_am_perperl); }

# Set one of the persistentperl options.
sub setopt { my($self, $opt, $val) = @_;
    $opt = uc($opt);
    my $oval = $_opts{$opt};
    $_opts{$opt} = $val;
    if (!defined($oval) || $oval ne $val) {$_opts_changed = 1}

# Return one of the persistentperl options.
sub getopt { my($self, $opt) = @_;

# Register a function to be run after each request
sub register_cleanup { my($self, $func) = @_;
    push(@_cleanup, $func);

# Do the cleanup functions
sub _run_cleanup {
    while ($_ = shift @_cleanup) { &$_; }

# Shutdown the interpreter after this request finishes
sub shutdown_next_time {
    shift->setopt('maxruns', 1);

# Shutdown the interpreter ASAP
sub shutdown_now {

## bootstrap PersistentPerl $VERSION;

# Preloaded methods go here.

# Autoload methods go after =cut, and are processed by the autosplit program.



=head1 NAME

PersistentPerl - Speed up perl scripts by running them persistently.



 ### Your Script Here.  For example:
 print "Content-type: text/html\n\nHello World!\n";

 ## Optionally, use the PersistentPerl module for various things

 # Create a PersistentPerl object
 use PersistentPerl;
 my $pp = PersistentPerl->new;

 # See if we are running under PersistentPerl or not.
 print "Running under perperl=", $pp->i_am_perperl ? 'yes' : 'no', "\n";

 # Register a shutdown handler
 $pp->add_shutdown_handler(sub { do something here });

 # Register a cleanup handler
 $pp->register_cleanup(sub { do something here });

 # Set/get some PersistentPerl options
 $pp->setopt('timeout', 30);
 print "maxruns=", $pp->getopt('maxruns'), "\n";


PersistentPerl is a way to run perl scripts persistently, which can
make them run much more quickly.  A script can be made to
to run persistently by changing the interpreter line at the top of 
the script from:




After the script is initially run, instead of exiting, the perl
interpreter is kept running.  During subsequent runs, this interpreter is
used to handle new executions instead of starting a new perl interpreter
each time.  A very fast frontend program, written in C, is executed for
each request.  This fast frontend then contacts the persistent Perl
process, which is usually already running, to do the work and return
the results.

By default each perl script runs in its own Unix process, so one perl
script can't interfere with another.  Command line options can also be
used to deal with programs that have memory leaks or other problems that
might keep them from otherwise running persistently.

PersistentPerl can be used to speed up perl CGI scripts.  It conforms to the
CGI specification, and does not run perl code inside the web server.
Since the perl interpreter runs outside the web server, it can't cause
problems for the web server itself.

PersistentPerl also provides an Apache module so that under the Apache web
server, scripts can be run without the overhead of doing a fork/exec
for each request.  With this module a small amount of frontend code
is run within the web server - the perl interpreters still run outside
the server.

SpeedyCGI and PersistentPerl are currently both names for the same code.
SpeedyCGI was the original name, but because people weren't sure what it did,
the name PersistentPerl was picked as an alias.  At some point
SpeedyCGI will be replaced by PersistentPerl, or become
a sub-class of PersistentPerl to avoid always having two distributions.

=head1 OPTIONS

=head2 Setting Option Values

PersistentPerl options can be set in several ways:


=item Command Line

The perperl command line is the same as for regular perl, with the
exception that PersistentPerl specific options can be passed in after a "--".

For example the line:

	#!/usr/bin/perperl -w -- -t300

at the top of your script will set the perl option
"C<-w>" and will pass the "C<-t>" option to PersistentPerl, setting the
Timeout value to 300 seconds.



=item Environment

Environment variables can be used to pass in options.  This can only be
done before the initial execution, not from within the script itself.
The name of the environment variable is always PERPERL_ followed by the
option name in upper-case.  For example to set the perperl Timeout option, use
the environment variable named PERPERL_TIMEOUT.



=item Module

The PersistentPerl module provides the setopt method to set options from
within the perl script at runtime.  There is also a getopt method to retrieve
the current options.  See L<"METHODS"> below.



=item Apache

If you are using the optional Apache module, PersistentPerl options can be
set in the F<httpd.conf> file.  The name of the apache directive will always
be Persistent followed by the option name.  For example to set the
Timeout option, use the apache directive PersistentTimeout.


=head2 Context

Not all options below are available in all contexts.  The context for
which each option is valid is listed on the "Context" line in the section
below.  There are three contexts:


=item perperl

The command-line "perperl" program, used normally with #! at the top of
your script or from a shell prompt.



=item mod_persistentperl

The optional Apache mod_persistentperl module.



=item module

During perl execution via the PersistentPerl module's getopt/setopt methods.


=head2 Options Available


=item BackendProg

    Command Line    : -p<string>
    Default Value   : "/usr/bin/perperl_backend"
    Context         : mod_persistentperl, perperl


	Path to the perperl backend program.

=item BufsizGet

    Command Line    : -B<number>
    Default Value   : 131072
    Context         : perperl


	Use <number> bytes as the maximum size for the buffer that
	receives data from the perl backend.

=item BufsizPost

    Command Line    : -b<number>
    Default Value   : 131072
    Context         : perperl


	Use <number> bytes as the maximum size for the buffer that
	sends data to the perl backend.

=item Group

    Command Line    : -g<string>
    Default Value   : "none"
    Context         : mod_persistentperl, perperl


	Allow a single perl interpreter to run multiple scripts.
	All scripts that are run with the same group name and by
	the same user will be run by the same group of perl
	interpreters. If the group name is "none" then grouping is
	disabled and each interpreter will run one script.
	Different group names allow scripts to be separated into
	different groups. Name is case-sensitive, and only the
	first 12-characters are significant. Specifying an empty
	group name is the same as specifying the group name
	"default" - this allows just specifying "-g" on the command
	line to turn on grouping.

=item MaxBackends

    Command Line    : -M<number>
    Default Value   : 0 (no max)
    Context         : mod_persistentperl, perperl


	If non-zero, limits the number of perperl backends running
	for this perl script to <number>.

=item MaxRuns

    Command Line    : -r<number>
    Default Value   : 500
    Context         : mod_persistentperl, module, perperl


	Once the perl interpreter has run <number> times, re-exec
	the backend process.  Zero indicates no maximum.  This
	option is useful for processes that tend to consume
	resources over time.

=item PerlArgs

    Command Line    : N/A
    Default Value   : ""
    Context         : mod_persistentperl


	Command-line options to pass to the perl interpreter.

=item Timeout

    Command Line    : -t<number>
    Default Value   : 3600 (one hour)
    Context         : mod_persistentperl, module, perperl


	If no new requests have been received after <number>
	seconds, exit the persistent perl interpreter.	Zero
	indicates no timeout.

=item TmpBase

    Command Line    : -T<string>
    Default Value   : "/tmp/perperl"
    Context         : mod_persistentperl, perperl


	Use the given prefix for creating temporary files.  This
	must be a filename prefix, not a directory name.

=item Version

    Command Line    : -v
    Context         : perperl


	Print the PersistentPerl version and exit.


=head1 METHODS

The following methods are available in the PersistentPerl module.


=item new

Create a new PersistentPerl object.

    my $pp = PersistentPerl->new;

=item register_cleanup($function_ref)

Register a function that will be called at the end of each request, after
your script finishes running, but before STDOUT and STDERR are closed.
Multiple functions can be added by calling the method more than once.
At the end of the request, each function will be called in the order
in which it was registered.


=item add_shutdown_handler($function_ref)

Add a function to the list of functions that will be called right before
the perl interpreter exits.  This is B<not> at the end of each request,
it is when the perl interpreter decides to exit completely due to a
Timeout or reaching MaxRuns.

    $pp->add_shutdown_handler(sub {$dbh->logout});

=item set_shutdown_handler($function_ref)

Deprecated.  Similar to C<add_shutdown_handler>, but only allows for a single
function to be registered.

    $pp->set_shutdown_handler(sub {$dbh->logout});

=item i_am_perperl

Returns a boolean telling whether this script is running under PersistentPerl
or not.  A perl script can run under regular perl, or under PersistentPerl.
This method allows the script to tell which environment it is in.


To make your script as portable as possible, you can use the following
test to make sure both the PersistentPerl module is available and you are running
under PersistentPerl:

    if (eval {require PersistentPerl} && PersistentPerl->i_am_perperl) {
	Do something PersistentPerl specific here...

To increase the speed of this check you can also test whether the following
variable is defined instead of going through the object interface:


=item setopt($optname, $value)

Set one of the PersistentPerl options given in L<"Options Available">.  Returns
the option's previous value.  $optname is case-insensitive.

    $pp->setopt('TIMEOUT', 300);

=item getopt($optname)

Return the current value of one of the PersistentPerl options.  $optname
is case-insensitive.


=item shutdown_now

Shut down the perl interpreter right away.  This function does not return.


=item shutdown_next_time

Shut down the perl interpreter as soon as this request is done.




To install PersistentPerl you will need to either download a binary package
for your OS, or compile PersistentPerl from source code.  See L<"DOWNLOADING">
for information on where to obtain the source code and binaries.

=head2 Binary Installation

Once you have downloaded the binary package for your OS, you'll need to
install it using the normal package tools for your OS.  The commands to
do that are:


=item Linux

 rpm -i <filename>

=item Solaris

 gunzip <filename>.gz
 pkgadd -d <filename>

=item BSD

 pkg_add <filename>


If you are also installing the apache module you will have to configure
Apache as documented in L<"Apache Configuration">.

=head2 Source Code Installation

To compile PersistentPerl you will need perl 5.005_03 or later, and a C
compiler, preferably the same one that your perl distribution was compiled
with.  PersistentPerl is known to work under Solaris, Redhat Linux,
FreeBSD and OpenBSD.  There may be problems with other OSes or
earlier versions of Perl.  PersistentPerl may not work with threaded perl -- as
of release 2.10, Linux and Solaris seem to work OK with threaded
perl, but FreeBSD does not.

=head2 Standard Install

To do a standard install from source code, execute the following:

    perl Makefile.PL
    make test
    make install

This will install the perperl and perperl_backend binaries in the same
directory where perl was installed, and the PersistentPerl.pm module in
the standard perl lib directory.  It will also attempt to install
the mod_persistentperl module if you have the command B<apxs> in your path.

=head2 Install in a Different Directory

If you don't have permission to install into the standard perl directory, or
if you want to install elsewhere, the easiest way is to compile and install your
own copy of perl in another location, then use your new version of perl when
you run "perl Makefile.PL".  The PersistentPerl binaries and module will then
be installed in the same location as the new version of perl.

If you can't install your own perl, you can take the following steps:


=item *

Edit src/optdefs and change the default value for BackendProg to the
location where perperl_backend will be installed.



=item *

Compile as above, then manually copy the perperl and perperl_backend binaries to
where you want to install them.



=item *

If you want to use the PersistentPerl module in your code (it's not
required), you will have to use "use lib" so it
can be located.


=head2 Setuid Install

PersistentPerl has limited support for running setuid - installing this way may compromise the security of your system.  To install setuid do the following:


=item *

Run "perl Makefile.PL"



=item *

Edit perperl/Makefile and add "-DIAMSUID" to the end of the "DEFINE = " line.



=item *

Run make



=item *

Take the resulting "perperl" binary and install it suid-root as



=item *

Change your setuid scripts to use /usr/bin/perperl_suid as the interpreter.


This has been know to work in Linux and FreeBSD.  Solaris will work as long as
the Group option is set to "none".

=head2 Apache Installation

To compile the optional apache mod_persistentperl module you must have the B<apxs>
command in your path.  Redhat includes this command with the "apache-devel"
RPM, though it may not work properly for installation.

If the apache installation fails:


=item *

Copy the mod_persistentperl.so from the mod_persistentperl directory, or from the
mod_persistentperl2/.libs directory, to wherever your apache modules are stored
(try F</usr/lib/apache>)



=item *

Edit your F<httpd.conf> (try F</etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf>) and add the
following lines.  The path at the end of the LoadModule directive
may be different in your installation -- look at other LoadModules to see.

    LoadModule persistentperl_module modules/mod_persistentperl.so

If you are using Apache-1, also add:

    AddModule mod_persistentperl.c


=head2 Apache Configuration

Once mod_persistentperl is installed, it has to be configured to be used
for your perl scripts.  There are two methods.

Warning!  The instructions below may compromise the security
of your web site.  The security risks associated with PersistentPerl are
similar to those of regular CGI.  If you don't understand the security
implications of the changes below then don't make them.


=item 1. Path Configuration

This is similar to the way F</cgi-bin> works - everything under this
path is handled by PersistentPerl.  Add the following lines near the top of
your httpd.conf - this will cause all scripts in your cgi-bin directory
to be handled by PersistentPerl when they are accessed as F</perperl/script-name>.

    Alias /perperl/ /home/httpd/cgi-bin/
    <Location /perperl>
	SetHandler persistentperl-script
	Options ExecCGI
	allow from all

=item 2. File Extension Configuration

This will make PersistentPerl handle all files with a certain extension,
similar to the way .cgi files work.  Add the following lines near the top
of your httpd.conf file - this will set up the file extension ".perperl"
to be handled by PersistentPerl.

    AddHandler persistentperl-script .perperl
    <Location />
	Options ExecCGI




=item How does the perperl front end connect to the back end process?

Via a Unix socket in F</tmp>.  A queue is kept in a shared file in F</tmp>
that holds an entry for each process.  In that queue are the pids of the perl
processes waiting for connections.  The frontend pulls a process out of
this queue, connects to its socket, sends over the environment and argv,
and then uses this socket for stdin/stdout to the perl process.



=item If another request comes in while PersistentPerl script is running, does the client
have to wait or is another process started?  Is there a way to set a limit
on how many processes get started? 

If another request comes while all the perl processes are busy, then
another perl process is started.  Just like in regular perl there is normally
no limit on how many processes get started.  But, the processes are
only started when the load is so high that they're necessary.  If the
load goes down, the processes will die off due to inactivity, unless you
disable the timeout.

Starting in version 1.8.3 an option was added to limit the number
of perl backends running.  See B<MaxBackends> in L<"Options Available">



=item How much of perl's state is kept when perperl starts another request?
Do globals keep their values?  Are destructors run after the request? 

Globals keep their values.  Nothing is destroyed after the request.
STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR are closed -- other files are not.  C<%ENV> and C<@ARGV>
are the only globals changed between requests.



=item How can I make sure perperl restarts when I edit a perl library used
by the CGI? 

Do a touch on the main cgi file that is executed.
The mtime on the main file is checked each time the front-end runs.



=item Do I need to be root to install and/or run PersistentPerl?

No, root is not required.



=item How can I determine if my perl app needs to be changed to work with
perperl?  Or is there no modification necessary?

You may have to make modifications.

Globals retain their values between runs, which can be good for keeping
persistent database handles for example, or bad if your code assumes they're

Also, if you create global variables with "my", you shouldn't try to
reference those variables from within a subroutine - you should pass them
into the subroutine instead.  Or better yet just declare global variables
with "use vars" instead of "my" to avoid the problem altogether.

Here's a good explanation of the problem - it's for mod_perl, but the same
thing applies to persistentperl:


If all else fails you can disable persistence by setting MaxRuns to 1.
The only benefit of this over normal perl is that perperl will pre-compile
your script.



=item How do I keep a persistent connection to a database?

Since globals retain their values between runs, the best way to do this
is to store the connection in a global variable, then check on each
run to see if that variable is already defined.

For example, if your code has an "open_db_connection" subroutine that returns
a database connection handle, you can use the code below to keep a persistent

    use vars qw($dbh);
    unless (defined($dbh)) {
    	$dbh = &open_db_connection;

This code will store a persistent database connection handle in the global
variable "$dbh" and only initialize it the first time the code is run.
During subsequent runs, the existing connection is re-used.

You may also want to check the connection each time before using it, in case
it is not working for some reason.  So, assuming you have a subroutine named
"db_connection_ok" that returns true if the db connection is working, you
can use code like this:

    use vars qw($dbh);
    unless (defined($dbh) && &db_connection_ok($dbh)) {
	$dbh = &open_db_connection;



=item Why do scripts with persistent Oracle database connections hang?

When using an IPC connection to Oracle, an oracle process is fork'ed and
exec'ed and keeps the stdout connection open, so that the web server
never gets an EOF.  To fix the problem, either switch to using a TCP
connection to the database, or add the following perl code somewhere
before the DBI->connect statement:

    use Fcntl;

This will set the close-on-exec flag on standard out so it is closed when
oracle is exec'ed.



The group feature in PersistentPerl can be used to help reduce the amount of
memory used by the perl interpreters.  By default groups are not used
(group name is "none"), and each perl script is given its own set of perl
interpreters.  Each perl interpreter is also a separate system process.

When grouping is used, perl interpreters and perl scripts are put in
a group.  All perl interpreters in a group can run perl scripts in
the same group.  What this means is that by putting all your scripts
into one group, there could be one perl interpreter running all the perl
scripts on your system.  This can greatly reduce your memory needs when
running lots of different perl scripts.

PersistentPerl group names are entities unto themselves.  They are not
associated with Unix groups, or with the Group directive in Apache.
Expect for the two special group names "none" and "default", all
group names are created by the user of PersistentPerl using the Group option
described in L<"OPTIONS">

If you want the maximum amount of grouping possible then you
should run all scripts with the group option set to "default".  This the
group name used if you just specify "-g" on the command line without an
explicit group name.  When you do this, you will get the fewest number
of perl interpreters possible - any perl interpreter will be able to
run any of your perl scripts.

Although using group "default" for all scripts results in the most efficient
use of resources, it's not always possible or desirable to do this.  You may
want to use other group names for the following reasons:


=item * To isolate misbehaving scripts, or scripts that don't work in groups.

Some scripts won't work in groups.  When perl scripts are grouped
together they are each given their own unique package name - they are not
run out of the "main" package as they normally would be.  So, for example,
a script that explicitly uses "main" somewhere in its code to find its
subroutines or variables probably won't work in groups.  In this case,
it's probably best to run such a script with group "none", so it's 
compiled and run out of package main, and always given its own interpreter.

In other cases, scripts may make changes to included packages, etc, that may break
other scripts running in the same interpreter.  In this case such scripts can
be given their own group name (like "pariah") to keep them away
from scripts they are incompatible with.  The rest of your scripts
can then run out of group "default".  This will ensure that the "pariah"
scripts won't run within the same interpreter as the other scripts.



=item * To pass different perl or PersistentPerl parameters to different scripts.

You may want to use separate groups to create different policies for
different scripts.

For example, you may have an email application that contains ten perl scripts, and since
the common perl code used in this application has a bad memory leak, you want
to use a MaxRuns setting of 5 for all of these scripts.  You want to run
all your other scripts with a normal MaxRuns setting.  To accomplish this
you can edit the ten email application scripts, and at the top use the line:

    #!/usr/bin/perperl -- -gmail -r5

In the rest of your perl scripts you can use:

    #!/usr/bin/perperl -- -g

What this will do is put the ten email scripts into a group of their own
(named "mail") and give them all the default MaxRuns value of 5.  All other
scripts will be put into the group named "default", and this group will have
a normal MaxRuns setting.



=head2 Binaries

Binaries for many OSes can be found at:


=head2 Source Code

The standard source code distribution can be retrieved from any CPAN mirror
or from:


=head1 AUTHOR

    Sam Horrocks

=head2 Contributors

A lot of people have helped out with code, patches, ideas, resources, etc.
I'm sure I'm missing someone here - if so, please drop me an email.


=item *

Gunther Birznieks

=item *

Diana Eichert

=item *

Takanori Kawai

=item *

Robert Klep

=item *

Marc Lehmann

=item *

James McGregor

=item *

Josh Rabinowitz

=item *

Dave Parker

=item *

Craig Sanders

=item *

Joseph Wang


=head1 SEE ALSO

perl(1), httpd(8), apxs(8).


=head2 PersistentPerl Home Page


=head2 Mailing List


=item *

PersistentPerl users mailing list - persistentperl-users@lists.sourceforge.net.
Archives and subscription information are at http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/persistentperl-users



=item *

PersistentPerl announcements mailing list - persistentperl-announce@lists.sourceforge.net.
Archives and subscription information are at http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/persistentperl-announce


=head2 Bugs and Todo List

Please report any bugs or requests for changes to the mailing list.


Copyright (C) 2003  Sam Horrocks

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.

This product includes software developed by the
Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/).