package File::Slurp::Tree;
use strict;
use File::Find::Rule;
use File::Path  qw( mkpath );
use File::Slurp qw( read_file write_file );
require Exporter;
use base 'Exporter';
use vars qw(@EXPORT $VERSION);

@EXPORT = qw( slurp_tree spew_tree );
$VERSION = 1.24;

=head1 NAME

File::Slurp::Tree - slurp and emit file trees as nested hashes


 # (inefficiently) duplicate a file tree from path a to b
 use File::Slurp::Tree;
 my $tree = slurp_tree( "path_a" );
 spew_tree( "path_b" => $tree );


File::Slurp::Tree provides functions for slurping and emitting trees
of files and directories.

 # an example of use in a test suite
 use Test::More tests => 1;
 use File::Slurp::Tree;
 is_deeply( slurp_tree( "t/some_path" ), { foo => {}, bar => "sample\n" },
            "some_path contains a directory called foo, and a file bar" );

The tree datastructure is a hash of hashes.  The keys of each hash are
names of directories or files.  Directories have hash references as
their value, files have a scalar which holds the contents of the file.


=head2 slurp_tree( $path, %options )

return a nested hash reference containing everything within $path

%options may include the following keys:


=item rule

a L<File::Find::Rule> object that will match the files and directories
in the path.  defaults to an empty rule (matches everything)



sub slurp_tree {
    my $in = shift;
    my %args = @_;

    # top must not have a trailing slash, in may.  this fixes Greg's bug
    # and allows in to be "/"
    (my $top = $in) =~ s{/$}{};

    my $rule = $args{rule} || File::Find::Rule->new;
    my $tree = {};
    for my $file ( $rule->in( $in ) ) {
        next if $file eq $top;
        (my $rel = $file) =~ s{^\Q$top\E/}{};
        next unless $rel; # it's /
        #print "top:$top file:$file rel:$rel\n";

        my @elems = split m{/}, $rel;

        # go to the top of the tree
        my $node = $tree;
        # and walk along the path
        while (my $elem = shift @elems) {
            # on the path || a dir
            if (@elems || -d $file) {
                $node = $node->{ $elem } ||= {};
            else {
                # a file, slurp it
                $node->{ $elem } = read_file "$file", binmode => ':raw';
    return $tree;

=head2 spew_tree( $path => $tree )

Creates a file tree as described by C<$tree> at C<$path>


sub spew_tree {
    my ($top, $tree) = @_;
    eval { mkpath( $top ) };
    for my $stem (keys %$tree) {
        if (ref $tree->{$stem}) { # directory
            spew_tree( "$top/$stem", $tree->{ $stem } );
        else { # file
            write_file( "$top/$stem", { binmode => ':raw' }, $tree->{ $stem } )
              if defined $tree->{ $stem }; # avoid an undef warning
    return 1;


=head1 BUGS

None currently known.  If you find any please contact the author.

=head1 AUTHOR

Richard Clamp <>


Copyright (C) 2003, 2006 Richard Clamp.  All Rights Reserved.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl itself.

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<File::Slurp>, L<Test::More>