Module Getopt::Long - extended processing of command line options

Module Getopt::Long implements an extended getopt function called
GetOptions(). This function implements the POSIX standard for command
line options, with GNU extensions, while still capable of handling
the traditional one-letter options.
In general, this means that command line options can have long names
instead of single letters, and are introduced with a double dash `--'.

Optionally, Getopt::Long can support the traditional bundling of
single-letter command line options.

Getopt::Long::GetOptions() is part of the Perl 5 distribution. It is
the successor of that came with Perl 4. It is fully
upward compatible. In fact, the Perl 5 version of is just
a wrapper around the module.

For complete documentation, see the Getopt::Long POD document or use
the command

    perldoc Getopt::Long


* Long option names

Major advantage of using long option names is that it is much easier
to memorize the option names. Using single-letter names one quickly
runs into the problem that there is no logical relationship between
the semantics of the selected option and its option letter.
Disadvantage is that it requires more typing. Getopt::Long provides
for option name abbreviation, so option names may be abbreviated to
uniqueness. Also, modern shells like Cornell's tcsh support option
name completion. As a rule of thumb, you can use abbreviations freely
while running commands interactively but always use the full names in

Examples (POSIX):

    --long --width=80 --height=24


    -long (convenience) +width=80 (deprecated) -height 24 (traditional)

By default, long option names are case insensitive.

* Single-letter options and bundling

When single-letter options are requested, Getopt::Long allows the
option names to be bundled, e.g. "-abc" is equivalent to "-a -b -c".
In this case, long option names must be introduced with the POSIX "--"


    -lgAd (bundle) -xw 80 (bundle, w takes a value) -xw80 (same)

By default, single-letter option names are case sensitive.

* Flexibility:

  - options can have alternative names, using an alternative name
    will behave as if the primary name was used;
  - options can be negatable, e.g. "debug" will switch it on, while
    "nodebug" will switch it off.    
  - options can set values, but also add values producing an array
    of values instead of a single scalar value, or set values in a hash.

* Options linkage

Using Getopt::Long gives the programmer ultimate control over the
command line options and how they must be handled:

  - by setting a global variable in the calling program;
  - by setting a specified variable;
  - by entering the option name and the value in an associative array
    (hash) or object (if it is a blessed hash);
  - by calling a user-specified subroutine with the option name and
    the value as arguments;
  - combinations of the above.

* Customization:

The module contains a special method, Getopt::Long::config, to control
configuration variables to activate (or de-activate) specific
behavior. It can be called with one or more names of options:

  - default

	Restore default settings.

  - auto_abbrev      

	Allow option names to be abbreviated to uniqueness. 

  - getopt_compat   

	Allow '+' to start options.

  - permute
  - require_order           

	Whether non-options are allowed to be mixed with options.

	permute means that 

	    -foo arg1 -bar arg2 arg3

	is equivalent to

	    -foo -bar arg1 arg2 arg3

	(provided -foo does not take an argument value).

	require_order means that options processing
	terminates when the first non-option is encountered.

	    -foo arg1 -bar arg2 arg3

	is equivalent to

	    -foo -- arg1 -bar arg2 arg3

  - bundling

	Setting this variable to a non-zero value will allow 
	single-character options to be bundled. To distinguish bundles
	from long option names, long options must be introduced with 
	"--" and single-character options (and bundles) with "-".

  - ignore_case      

	Ignore case when matching options.

  - pass_through

	Do not issue error messages for unknown options, but leave
	them (pass-through) in @ARGV.

* Usable variables

  - $Getopt::Long::error

	Internal error flag. May be incremented from a call-back
	routine to cause options parsing to fail.

  - $Getopt::Long::debug           

	Enable copious debugging output. Default is 0.


The official version for module Getopt::Long comes with the Perl 5
Newer versions will be made available on the Comprehensive Perl Archive
Network (CPAN), see "".


Module Getopt::Long is Copyright 1990,1997 by Johan Vromans.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

Johan Vromans                        
Squirrel Consultancy                       Haarlem, the Netherlands     
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