# $Id: //depot/tilpasninger/dbd-ingres/Ingperl.pm#4 $ $DateTime: 2004/01/12 12:10:18 $ $Revision: #4 $
# Ingperl emulation interface for DBD::Ingres
# This implements the functions of the former perl4 ingperl
# Ingres interface, as defined in the Ingperl 2.1 module by
# Tim Bunce <Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk>
# Written by Henrik Tougaard <htoug@cpan.org>

use DBD::Ingres;

package Ingperl;
use DBI 0.73;
use Exporter;
use Carp;

$VERSION = 3.0+substr(q$Revision: #4 $, 11)/100;

@ISA = qw(Exporter);

@EXPORT = qw(
    &sql &sql_exec &sql_fetch &sql_close
    &sql_types &sql_ingtypes &sql_lengths &sql_nullable &sql_names
    $sql_version $sql_error $sql_sqlcode $sql_rowcount $sql_readonly
    $sql_showerrors $sql_debug
    &sql_eval_row1 &sql_eval_col1
@EXPORT_OK = qw(
    $sql_drh $sql_dbh $sql_sth

use strict;
use vars (qw[$sql_drh $sql_dbh $sql_sth $sql_debug $sql_rowcount]);

$sql_debug    = 0 unless defined $sql_debug;

if ($sql_debug){
    my $sw = DBI->internal;
    print "Switch: $sw->{Attribution}, $sw->{Version}\n";

# Install Driver
$sql_drh = DBI->install_driver('Ingres');
if ($sql_drh) {
    print "DBD::Ingres driver installed as $sql_drh\n" if $sql_debug;
    $sql_drh->{Warn}       = 0;
    $sql_drh->{CompatMode} = 1;

#	-----------------------------------------------------------------
# &sql_exec
# &sql_fetch()
# &sql()

sub sql_exec {
    my($statement) = @_;
    # decide what this is...
    warn "sql_exec('$statement')\n" if $sql_debug;
    if ($statement =~ /^\s*connect\b/i) {
        # connect to the database;
        croak "Already connected to database, at" if $sql_dbh;
        my($database, $user, $option);
        # this contain the database name and possibly
        # a username
        # find database
        ($database) = $statement =~ m!connect\s+([\w:/]+)!i;
        my $rest = $';  #possibly contains username... and other options
        if ($rest =~ /identified\s+by\s+(\w+)/i) {
            $user = $1;
            $option = "$` $'"; # every thing else..
        } elsif ($rest =~ /-u(\w+)/) {
            $user = $1;
            $option = "$` $'"; # every thing else..
        } else {
            $user = ""; # noone;
            $option = $rest
        warn "Ingperl connecting to database '$database' as user '$user'\n"
            if $sql_debug;
	$option =~ s/^\s+//;
        $sql_dbh = $Ingperl::sql_drh->connect("$database;$option", $user,
    } else {
        croak "Ingperl: Not connected to database, at" unless $sql_dbh;

	$sql_rowcount = 0;
	if ($statement =~ /^\s*disconnect\b/i) {
            undef $sql_dbh;
    	elsif ($statement =~ /^\s*commit\b/i) {
	elsif ($statement =~ /^\s*rollback\b/i) {
        else {
            # This is something else. Just execute the statement
            $sql_rowcount = $sql_dbh->do($statement);

sub sql_close {
    if ($sql_sth) {
        undef $sql_sth;
    } else {
        carp "Ingperl: close with no open cursor, at"
            if $sql_drh->{Warn};

sub sql_fetch {
    croak "Ingperl: No active cursor, at" unless $sql_sth;
    my(@row) = $sql_sth->fetchrow();
    $sql_rowcount = $sql_sth->rows();
    unless (@row) {
	return wantarray ? () : undef;
    if (wantarray) {
        return @row;
    } else { # wants a scalar
        carp "Multi-column row retrieved in scalar context, at"
            if $sql_sth->{Warn};
        return $sql_sth->{CompatMode} ? $row[0] : @row;

sub sql {
    my ($statement) = @_;
    if ($statement =~ /^\s*fetch\b/i) {
        return &sql_fetch();
    elsif ($statement =~ /^\s*select\b/i) {
        if ($sql_sth) {
            warn "IngPerl: Select while another select active - closing".
            	" previous select, at"
                    if $sql_debug or $sql_sth->{Warn};
            undef $sql_sth;
        $sql_sth = $sql_dbh->prepare($statement) or return undef;
        undef $sql_rowcount;
        $sql_sth->execute() or return undef;
    } else {
        return &sql_exec($statement);

# *--------------------------*
# @types = &sql_types;
# @ingtypes = &sql_ingtypes;
# @lengths = &sql_lengths;
# @nullable = &sql_nullable;
# @names = &sql_names;

sub sql_types       { $sql_sth ? @{$sql_sth->{'ing_types'}}   : undef; }
sub sql_ingtypes    { $sql_sth ? @{$sql_sth->{'ing_ingtypes'}}: undef; }
sub sql_lengths     { $sql_sth ? @{$sql_sth->{'ing_lengths'}} : undef; }
sub sql_nullable    { $sql_sth ? @{$sql_sth->{'NULLABLE'}}    : undef; }
sub sql_names       { $sql_sth ? @{$sql_sth->{'NAME'}}        : undef; }

# *----------------------------------------

tie $Ingperl::sql_version,   'Ingperl::var', 'version';
*sql_error = \$DBD::Ingres::errstr;
*sql_sqlcode = \$DBD::Ingres::err;
#######*sql_rowcount = \$DBI::rows;
tie $Ingperl::sql_readonly,   'Ingperl::var', 'readonly';
tie $Ingperl::sql_showerrors, 'Ingperl::var', 'showerror';

# *----------------------------------------
# Library function to execute a select and return first row
sub sql_eval_row1{
	my $sth = $sql_dbh->prepare(@_);
	return undef unless $sth;
	$sth->execute or return undef;
	my(@row) = $sth->fetchrow;	# fetch one row
	$sth->finish;			# close the cursor
	undef $sth;

# Library function to execute a select and return first col
sub sql_eval_col1{
	my $sth = $sql_dbh->prepare(@_);
	return undef unless $sth;
	$sth->execute or return undef;
        my ($row, @col);
	while ($row = $sth->fetch){
		push(@col, $row->[0]);
	$sth->finish;			# close the cursor
	undef $sth;

package Ingperl::var;
use Carp (qw[carp croak confess]);
use strict;

    my ($class, $var) = @_;
    return bless \$var, $class;

sub FETCH {
    my $self = shift;
    confess "wrong type" unless ref $self;
    croak "too many arguments" if @_;
    if ($$self eq "version") {
        my ($sw) = DBI->internal;
        "\nIngperl emulation interface version $Ingperl::VERSION\n" .
        "Ingres driver $Ingperl::sql_drh->{'Version'}, ".
        "$Ingperl::sql_drh->{'Attribution'}\n" .
        $sw->{'Attribution'}. ", ".
        "version " . $sw->{'Version'}. "\n\n";
    } elsif ($$self eq "readonly") {
    	1;   # Not implemented (yet)
    } elsif ($$self eq "showerror") {
    	$Ingperl::sql_dbh->{PrintError} if defined $Ingperl::sql_dbh;
    } else {
        carp "unknown special variable $$self";

sub STORE {
    my $self = shift;
    my $value = shift;
    confess "wrong type" unless ref $self;
    croak "too many arguments" if @_;
    if ($$self eq "showerror") {
    	$Ingperl::sql_dbh->{PrintError} = $value;
    } else {
        carp "Can't modify ${$self} special variable, at"



=head1 NAME

Ingperl - Perl access to Ingres databases for old ingperl scripts


     @values = &sql_fetch;

     @types = &sql_types;
     @ingtypes = &sql_ingtypes;
     @lengths = &sql_lengths;
     @nullable = &sql_nullable;
     @names = &sql_names;


     @row1 = &sql_eval_row1('select ...');
     @col1 = &sql_eval_col1('select ...');


Ingperl is an extension to Perl which allows access to Ingres databases.

The functions that make up the interface are described in the following

All functions return false or undefined (in the Perl sense)
to indicate failure.

The text in this document is largely unchanged from the original Perl4
ingperl documentation written by Tim Bunce (timbo@ig.co.uk).

Any comments specific to the DBD::Ingres Ingperl emulation are prefixed
by B<DBD:>.

=head2 IngPerl Functions

Ingperl function, that access data.

=over 4

=item * sql


This functions should be used to

=over 4

=item connect to a database:

    &sql("connect database_name [-sqloptions]");

where sqloptions are the options defined in the manual
for the sql command.

For example:

    &sql("connect database_name identified by username -xw -Rrole -Ggroup -l");

Returns true else undef on error.

B<DBD:> Note that the options B<must> be given in the order
C<database-name username other-options> otherwise the check for username
wil fail. It is a rather simple scan of the option-string. Further
improvements are welcome.

B<DBD:> The connect must be given as "C<connect> I<database-name>
C<identified by> I<username> I<SQL-options>" or "C<connect>
I<database-name>C< -u>I<username> I<SQL-options>".

B<DBD:>There is (yet) no way of passing a password to the connect call.
Suggestion: add "password=I<password>" just after I<username>.

=item disconnect from a database:


Note that ingperl will complain if a transaction is active.

You should &sql_exec 'commit' or 'rollback' before disconnect.

B<DBD:> The warning on disconnect has another wording now:
	Ingres: You should commit or rollback before disconnect.
        Ingres: Any outstanding changes have been rolledback.
B<DBD:> Please note the C<rollback>.

Returns true else undef on error (unlikely!).

Note that an ingres bug means that $sql_error will contain an error
message (E_LQ002E query issued outside of a session) even though the
disconnect worked ok.

B<DBD:> I<Must check if this is still the case.> Don't think so

=item prepare a statement:

    &sql("select ...");

Returns true else undef on error.

If a non-select statement is prepared it will be executed at once.

B<DBD:> A non-select statement return rowcount ("0E0", 1, 2, ..),
while a select statement returns 0. This is the same value as

This function cannot be used to prepare the following statements:

    get dbevent,
    execute immediate,
    execute procedure,
    prepare to commit,

Some of these can be performmed by the &sql_exec() function.

B<DBD:> This is no longer true! There is no difference between the
SQL-statements that C<&sql> and C<&sql_exec> can execute. C<&sql>
hands off all non-select statements to C<&sql_exec>.


=item * sql_exec


Execute an sql statement immediately. This function should be used
to issue Commit, Rollback, Insert, Delete and Update statements.

Returns true else undef on error.

B<DBD:> A non-select statement return rowcount ("0E0", 1, 2, ..),
while a select statement returns 0. This is the same value as

It is also often used to execute 'set' commands. For example:

    &sql_exec('set autocommit on');
    &sql_exec('set session with on_error=rollback transaction');
    &sql_exec('set lockmode readlock=nolock');
    &sql_exec('set qep');

This function cannot be used to prepare the following statements:

    get dbevent,
    prepare to commit.

=item * sql_fetch

    @values = &sql_fetch;

Fetch the next record of data returned from the last prepared
select statement. When all records have been returned &sql_fetch
will close the select statement cursor and return an empty array.

For example:

    &sql('select * from iitables') || die $sql_error;
    while(@values = &sql_fetch){

Null values are returned as undef elements of the array.

B<DBD:> C<&sql_fetch> can also be expressed as either C<&sql("fetch")>
or C<&sql_exec("fetch")> - to cater for Ingperl 1.0 scripts!

B<DBD:> C<&sql_fetch> will call C<&sql_close> when the last row of data
has been fetched. This has been the way it was supposed to be...

B<DBD:> C<&sql_fetch> will die with the error C<Ingperl: No active
cursor> if an error has occured in the C<&sql(select..)>-statement.

B<DBD:> C<$scalar = &sql_fetch> returns the first column of data if
C<$sql_sth-E<gt>{CompatMode}> is set; this is the default mode for
Ingperl and is the expected behaviour for Perl4. In Perl5 (and with 
C<$sql_sth-E<gt>{CompatMode}> unset) the number of columns will be
returned. The warning C<Multi-column row retrieved in scalar context>
is given if C<$sql_sth-E<gt>{Warn}> is true.

B<DBD:> Text columns are returned with trailing blanks if
C<$sql_sth-E<gt>{CompatMode}> is set. Otherwise the trailings
blanks are stripped.
The default for C<Ingperl> is to have C<$sql_sth-E<gt>{CompatMode}>

=item * sql_close


This function needs to be called B<only> if you do not use C<&sql_fetch>
to fetch B<all> the records B<and> you wish to close the cursor as soon as
possible (to release locks etc). Otherwise ignore it. Always returns

B<DBD:> If C<$sql_sth-E<gt>{Warn}> is false the warning C<Ingperl: close
with no open cursor> will be given whenever a closed cursor is reclosed.
The default behaviour is to omit the warning.


IngPerl Functions to describe the currently prepared statement. These
functions all return an array with one element for each field in the
query result.

=over 4

=item * sql_types

    @types = &sql_types;

Returns a list of sprintf type letters to indicate the generic
type of each field:
      d - int
      f - float
      s - string

=item * sql_ingtypes

    @ingtypes = &sql_ingtypes;

Returns a list of specific ingres type numbers:
     3 - date
     5 - money
    30 - integer
    31 - float
    20 - char
    21 - varchar

=item * sql_lengths

    @lengths = &sql_lengths;

Returns a list if ingres data type lengths.

For strings the length is the maximum width of the field.

For numbers it is the number of bytes used to store the binary
representation of the value, 1, 2, 4 or 8.

For date and money fields it is 0.

B<DBD:> This was not documented in the Ingperl documentation, but is, as
far as I can discover, how it used to work.

=item * sql_nullable

    @nullable = &sql_nullable;

Returns a list of boolean values (0 or 1's). A 1 indicates that the
corresponding field may return a null value.

=item * sql_names

    @names = &sql_names;

Returns a list of field names.


=head2 IngPerl Variables

=over 4

=item * $sql_version (read only)

A constant string compiled into ingperl containing the major
and minor version numbers of ingperl, the patchlevel and the
date that the ingperl binary was built.

For example:
    ingperl 2.0 pl0 (built Apr  8 1994 13:17:03)

B<DBD:> The variable gives a similar output now, including the
Ingperl version and the DBD::Ingres version.

=item * $sql_error (read only)

Contains the error message text of the current Ingres error.

Is empty if last statement succeeded.

For example:
    print "$sql_error\n" if $sql_error;

=item * $sql_sqlcode (read only)

The current value of sqlda.sqlcode. Only of interest in more
sophisticated applications.

Typically 0, <0 on error, 100=no more rows, 700=message, 710=dbevent.

=item * $sql_rowcount (read only)

After a successful Insert, Delete, Update, Select, Modify, Create Index,
Create Table As Select or Copy this variable holds the number of rows

=item * $sql_readonly (default 1)

If true then prepared sql statements are given read only cursors this is
generally a considerable performance gain.

B<DBD:> Not implemented. All cursors are readonly - there is no way to
modify the value of a cursor element, therefore no reason not to make
the cursors readonly. The value of this variable was ignored already in
Ingperl 2.0.

=item * $sql_showerrors (default 0)

If true then ingres error and warning messages are printed by
ingperl as they happen. Very useful for testing.

B<DBD:> Same as $sql_dbh->{PrintError}

=item * $sql_debug (default 0)

If ingperl has been compiled with -DINGPERL_DEBUG then setting this
variable true will enable debugging messages from ingperl internals.

B<DBD:> Setting this variable will enable debugging from the Ingperl
emulation layer. Setting the variable C<$DBI::dbi_debug> enables debug output
from the C<DBI> and C<DBD> layers (the value 3 will result in large
amounts of output including internal debug of C<DBD::Ingres>).

=item * $sql_drh

B<DBD:> This variable is the DBI-internal driver handle for the
DBD::Ingres driver. This is rarely used!

=item * $sql_dbh

B<DBD:> This variable is the DBI database handle. It can be used to
add DBI/DBD statements to an old Ingperl script.

=item * $sql_sth

B<DBD:> This is the DBI statement handle for the current SELECT-statement
(if any).


=head2 IngPerl Library Functions

=over 4

=item * sql_eval_row1

    @row1 = &sql_eval_row1('select ...');

Execute a select statement and return the first row.

B<DBD:> This is executed in a separate cursor and can therefore be
executed while a &sql_fetch-loop is in progres.

=item * sql_eval_col1

    @col1 = &sql_eval_col1('select ...');

Execute a select statement and return the first column.

B<DBD:> As &sql_eval_col1 this is executed in a separate cursor.

=head1 NOTES

The DBD::Ingres module has been modelled closely on Tim Bunce's
DBD::Oracle module and warnings that apply to DBD::Oracle and the
Oraperl emulation interface may also apply to the Ingperl emulation

Your mileage may vary.


IngPerl comes with no warranty - it works for me - it may not work for
you. If it trashes your database I am not responsible!

This file should be included in all applications using ingperl in order
to help ensure that scripts will remain compatible with new releases of

B<DBD:> The following warning is taken (almost) verbatim from the
oraperl emulation module, but is also valid for Ingres.

The Ingperl emulation software shares no code with the original ingperl.
It is built on top the the new Perl5 DBI and DBD::Ingres modules. These
modules are still evolving. (One of the goals of the Ingperl emulation
software is to allow useful work to be done with the DBI and DBD::Ingres
modules whilst insulation users from the ongoing changes in their

It is quite possible, indeed probable, that some differences in
behaviour will exist. This should be confined to error handling.

B<All> differences in behaviour which are not documented here should be
reported to htoug@cpan.org and CC'd to dbi-users@isc.com.

=head1 SEE ALSO

=over 2

=item Ingres Documentation

SQL Reference Guide

=item Books
Programming Perl by Larry Wall, Randal Schwartz and Tom Christiansen.
Learning Perl by Randal Schwartz.

=item Manual Pages



=head1 AUTHORS

Formerly sqlperl by Ted Lemon.

Perl4 version developed and maintained by Tim Bunce,
<Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk> Copyright 1994 Tim Bunce and Ted Lemon 

Ingperl emulation using DBD::Ingres by Henrik Tougaard <htoug@cpan.org>

Perl by Larry Wall <lwall@netlabs.com>.