package autobox::Core;

use 5.008;

use strict;
use warnings;

our $VERSION = '1.33';

use base 'autobox';

use B;
use Want ();

# appending the user-supplied arguments allows autobox::Core options to be overridden
# or extended in the same statement e.g.
#
#    use autobox::Core UNDEF     => 'MyUndef';          # also autobox undef
#    use autobox::Core CODE      =>  undef;             # don't autobox CODE refs
#    use autobox::Core UNIVERSAL => 'Data::Dumper';     # enable a Dumper() method for all types

sub import {
    shift->SUPER::import(DEFAULT => 'autobox::Core::', @_);
}

=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

autobox::Core - Provide core functions to autoboxed scalars, arrays and hashes.

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  use autobox::Core;

  "Hello, World\n"->uc->print;

  my @list = (1, 5, 9, 2, 0, 4, 2, 1);
  @list->sort->reverse->print;

  # works with references too!
  my $list = [1, 5, 9, 2, 0, 4, 2, 1];
  $list->sort->reverse->print;

  my %hash = (
      grass => 'green',
      apple => 'red',
      sky   => 'blue',
  );

  [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]->pop->say;
  [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]->shift->say;

  my $lala = "Lalalalala\n";
  "chomp: "->concat($lala->chomp, " ", $lala)->say;

  my $hashref = { foo => 10, bar => 20, baz => 30, qux => 40 };

  print "hash keys: ", $hashref->keys->join(' '), "\n"; # or if you prefer...
  print "hash keys: ", join ' ', $hashref->keys(), "\n"; # or
  print "hash keys: "; $hashref->keys->say;

=head1 DESCRIPTION

The L<autobox> module promotes Perl's primitive types (literals (strings and
numbers), scalars, arrays and hashes) into first-class objects.  However,
L<autobox> does not provide any methods for these new classes.

L<autobox::CORE> provides a set of methods for these new classes.  It includes
almost everything in L<perlfunc>, some things from L<Scalar::Util> and
L<List::Util>, and some Perl 5 versions of methods taken from Perl 6.

With F<autobox::Core> one is able to change this:

        print join(" ", reverse(split(" ", $string)));

to this:

        use autobox::Core;

        $string->split(" ")->reverse->print;

Likewise you can change this:

        my $array_ref = [qw(fish dog cat elephant bird)];

        push @$array_ref, qw(snake lizard giraffe mouse);

to this:

        use autobox::Core;
        my $array_ref = [qw(fish dog cat elephant bird)];

        $array_ref->push( qw(snake lizard giraffe mouse));

F<autobox::Core> makes it easier to avoid parentheses pile ups and
messy dereferencing syntaxes.

F<autobox::Core> is mostly glue.  It presents existing functions with a new
interface, while adding few extra. Most of the methods read like
C<< sub hex { CORE::hex($_[0]) } >>.  In addition to built-ins from
L<perlfunc> that operate on hashes, arrays, scalars, and code references,
some Perl 6-ish things have been included, and some keywords like
C<foreach> are represented too.

=head2 What's Implemented?

=over 4

=item *

Many of the functions listed in L<perlfunc> under the headings:

=over 4

=item *

"Functions for real @ARRAYs",

=item *

"Functions for real %HASHes",

=item *

"Functions for list data",

=item *

"Functions for SCALARs or strings"

=back

plus a few taken from other sections and documented below.

=item *

Some methods from L<Scalar::Util> and L<List::Util>.

=item *

Some things expected in Perl 6, such as C<last> (C<last_idx>), C<elems>, and
C<curry>.

=item *

C<flatten> explicitly flattens an array.

=back

=head3 String Methods

String methods are of the form C<< my $return = $string->method(@args) >>.
Some will act on the C<$string> and some will return a new string.

Many string methods are simply wrappers around core functions, but
there are additional operations and modifications to core behavior.

Anything which takes a regular expression, such as L<split> and L<m>,
usually take it in the form of a compiled regex (C<qr//>).  Any modifiers
can be attached to the C<qr> normally.  Bare strings may be used in place
of regular expressions, and Perl will compile it to a regex, as usual.

These built in functions are implemented for scalars, they work just like normal:
L<chomp|perlfunc/chomp>, L<chop|perlfunc/chop>,L<chr|perlfunc/chr>
L<crypt|perlfunc/crypt>, L<index|perlfunc/index>, L<lc|perlfunc/lc>
L<lcfirst|perlfunc/lcfirst>, L<length|perlfunc/length>, L<ord|perlfunc/ord>,
L<pack|perlfunc/pack>, L<reverse|perlfunc/reverse> (always in scalar
context), L<rindex|perlfunc/rindex>,
L<sprintf|perlfunc/sprintf>, L<substr|perlfunc/substr>, L<uc|perlfunc/uc>
L<ucfirst|perlfunc/ucfirst>, L<unpack|perlfunc/unpack>, L<quotemeta|perlfunc/quotemeta>,
L<vec|perlfunc/vec>, L<undef|perlfunc/undef>,
L<split|perlfunc/split>, L<system|perlfunc/system>, L<eval|perlfunc/eval>.

In addition, so are each of the following:

=head4 concat

   $string1->concat($string2);

Concatenates C<$string2> to C<$string1>. This
corresponds to the C<.> operator used to join two strings.  Returns the
joined strings.

=head4 strip

Removes whitespace from the beginning and end of a string.

   " \t  \n  \t  foo  \t  \n  \t  "->strip;    # foo

This is redundant and subtly different from C<trim> which allows for the
removal of specific characters from the beginning and end of a string.

=head4 trim

Removes whitespace from the beginning and end of a string.  C<trim>
can also remove specific characters from the beginning and the end of
string.

   '    hello'->trim;                   # 'hello'
   '*+* hello *+*'->trim("*+");         # ' hello '
   ' *+* hello *+*'->trim("*+");        # ' *+* hello'

=head4 ltrim

Just like L<trim> but it only trims the left side (start) of the string.

   '    hello'->ltrim;                  # 'hello'
   '*+* hello *+*'->ltrim("*+");        # ' hello *+*'

=head4 rtrim

Just like L<trim> but it only trims the right side (end) of the string.

   'hello   '->rtrim;                   # 'hello'
   '*+* hello *+*'->rtrim("*+");        # '*+* hello '

=head4 split

    my @split_string = $string->split(qr/.../);
    my @split_string = $string->split(' ');

A wrapper around L<split|perlfunc/split>. It takes the regular
expression as a compiled regex, or a string which Perl parses as a regex.

   print "10, 20, 30, 40"->split(qr{, ?})->elements, "\n";
   "hi there"->split(qr/ */);           # h i t h e r e

The limit argument is not implemented.

=head4 title_case

C<title_case> converts the first character of each word in the string to
upper case.

   "this is a test"->title_case;        # This Is A Test

=head4 center

    my $centered_string = $string->center($length);
    my $centered_string = $string->center($length, $character);

Centers $string between $character.  $centered_string will be of
length $length, or the length of $string, whichever is greater.

C<$character> defaults to " ".

    say "Hello"->center(10);        # "   Hello  ";
    say "Hello"->center(10, '-');   # "---Hello--";

C<center()> will never truncate C<$string>.  If $length is less
than C<< $string->length >> it will just return C<$string>.

    say "Hello"->center(4);        # "Hello";

=head4 qx

    my $output = $string->qx;

Runs $string as a command just enclosing it backticks, as in C<`$string`>.

=head4 nm

    if( $foo->nm(qr/bar/) ) {
        say "$foo did not match 'bar'";
    }

"Negative match".  Corresponds to C<< !~ >>.  Otherwise works in the same
way as C<m()>.

=head4 m

    if( $foo->m(qr/bar/) ) {
        say "$foo matched 'bar'";
    }

    my $matches = $foo->m( qr/(\d*) (\w+)/ );
    say $matches->[0];
    say $matches->[1];

Works the same as C<< m// >>, but the regex must be passed in as a C<qr//>.

C<m> returns an array reference so that list functions such as C<map> and
C<grep> may be called on the result.  Use C<elements> to turn this into a
list of values.

  my ($street_number, $street_name, $apartment_number) =
      "1234 Robin Drive #101"->m( qr{(\d+) (.*)(?: #(\d+))?} )->elements;

  print "$street_number $street_name $apartment_number\n";

=head4 s

  my $string = "the cat sat on the mat";
  $string->s( qr/cat/, "dog" );
  $string->say;                 # the dog sat on the mat

String substitution.  Works similarly to C<< s/// >>.
In boolean context, it returns true/false to indicate whether the substitution succeeded.  C<if>, C<?:>, C<!>, and so on, all provide boolean context.
It either fails or succeeds, having replaced only one occurrence on success -- it doesn't replace globally.
In scalar context other than boolean context, it returns the modified string (incompatible change, new as of v 1.31).

=head4 undef

    $string->undef;

Assigns C<undef> to the C<$string>.

=head4 defined

    my $is_defined = $string->defined;

    if( not $string->defined ) {
        # give $string a value...
    }

C<defined> tests whether a value is defined (not C<undef>).

=head4 repeat

    my $repeated_string = $string->repeat($n);

Like the C<x> operator, repeats a string C<$n> times.

    print 1->repeat(5);     # 11111
    print "\n"->repeat(10); # ten newlines

=head3 I/O Methods

These are methods having to do with input and ouptut, not filehandles.

=head4 print

    $string->print;

Prints a string or a list of strings.  Returns true if successful.

=head4 say

Like L<print>, but implicitly appends a newline to the end.

     $string->say;

=head3 Boolean Methods

Methods related to boolean operations.

=head4 and

C<and> corresponds to C<&&>.  Returns true if both operands are true.

        if( $a->and($b) ) {
            ...
        }

=head4 not

C<not> corresponds to C<!>.  Returns true if the subject is false.

        if( $a->not ) {
            ...
        }

=head4 or

C<or> corresponds to C<||>.  Returns true if at least one of the operands
is true.

        if( $a->or($b) ) {
            ...
        }

=head4 xor

C<xor> corresponds to C<xor>.  Returns true if only one of the operands is
true.

        if( $a->xor($b) ) {
            ...
        }

=head3 Number Related Methods

Methods related to numbers.

The basic built in functions which operate as normal :
L<abs|perlfunc/abs>, L<atan2|perlfunc/atan2>, L<cos|perlfunc/cos>,
L<exp|perlfunc/exp>, L<int|perlfunc/int>, L<log|perlfunc/log>,
L<oct|perlfunc/oct>, L<hex|perlfunc/hex>, L<sin|perlfunc/sin>, and
L<sqrt|perlfunc/sqrt>.

The following operators were also included:

=head4 dec

    $number->dec();
    # $number is smaller by 1.

C<dec> corresponds to C<++>.  Decrements subject, will decrement character
strings too: 'b' decrements to 'a'.

=head4 inc

C<inc> corresponds to C<++>.  Increments subject, will increment character
strings too. 'a' increments to 'b'.

=head4 mod

C<mod> corresponds to C<%>.

        $number->mod(5);

=head4 pow

C<pow> returns $number raised to the power of the $exponent.

    my $result = $number->pow($expontent);
    print 2->pow(8);  # 256

=head4 is_number

    $is_a_number = $thing->is_number;

Returns true if $thing is a number as understood by Perl.

    12.34->is_number;           # true
    "12.34"->is_number;         # also true

=head4 is_positive

    $is_positive = $thing->is_positive;

Returns true if $thing is a positive number.

C<0> is not positive.

=head4 is_negative

    $is_negative = $thing->is_negative;

Returns true if $thing is a negative number.

C<0> is not negative.

=head4 is_integer

    $is_an_integer = $thing->is_integer;

Returns true if $thing is an integer.

    12->is_integer;             # true
    12.34->is_integer;          # false

=head4 is_int

A synonym for is_integer.

=head4 is_decimal

    $is_a_decimal_number = $thing->is_decimal;

Returns true if $thing is a decimal number.

    12->is_decimal;             # false
    12.34->is_decimal;          # true
    ".34"->is_decimal;          # true

=head3 Reference Related Methods

The following core functions are implemented.

L<tie|perlfunc/tie>, L<tied|perlfunc/tied>, L<ref|perlfunc/ref>,
L<vec|perlfunc/vec>.

C<tie>, C<tied>, and C<undef> don't work on code references.

=head3 Array Methods

Array methods work on both arrays and array references:

  my $arr = [ 1 .. 10 ];
  $arr->undef;

Or:

  my @arr = ( 1 .. 10 );
  @arr->undef;

List context forces methods to return a list:

  my @arr = ( 1 .. 10 );
  print join ' -- ', @arr->grep(sub { $_ > 3 }), "\n";

Likewise, scalar context forces methods to return an array reference.

As scalar context forces methods to return a reference, methods may be chained

  my @arr = ( 1 .. 10 );
  @arr->grep(sub { $_ > 3 })->min->say;  # "4\n";

These built-in functions are defined as methods:

L<pop|perlfunc/pop>, L<push|perlfunc/push>, L<shift|perlfunc/shift>,
L<unshift|perlfunc/unshift>, L<delete|perlfunc/delete>,
L<undef|perlfunc/undef>, L<exists|perlfunc/exists>,
L<bless|perlfunc/bless>, L<tie|perlfunc/tie>, L<tied|perlfunc/tied>,
L<ref|perlfunc/ref>, L<grep|perlfunc/grep>, L<map|perlfunc/map>,
L<join|perlfunc/join>, L<reverse|perlfunc/reverse>, and
L<sort|perlfunc/sort>, L<each|perlfunc/each>.

As well as:

=head4 vdelete

Deletes a specified value from the array.

  $a = 1->to(10);
  $a->vdelete(3);         # deletes 3
  $a->vdelete(2)->say;    # "1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10\n"

=head4 uniq

Removes all duplicate elements from an array and returns the new array
with no duplicates.

   my @array = qw( 1 1 2 3 3 6 6 );
   @return = @array->uniq;    # @return : 1 2 3 6

=head4 first

Returns the first element of an array for which a callback returns true:

  $arr->first(sub { qr/5/ });

=head4 max

Returns the largest numerical value in the array.

   $a = 1->to(10);
   $a->max;           # 10

=head4 min

Returns the smallest numerical value in the array.

   $a = 1->to(10);
   $a->min;           # 1

=head4 mean

Returns the mean of elements of an array.

   $a = 1->to(10);
   $a->mean;          # 55/10

=head4 var

Returns the variance of the elements of an array.

   $a = 1->to(10);
   $a->var;           # 33/4

=head4 svar

Returns the standard variance.

  $a = 1->to(10);
  $a->svar;                     # 55/6

=head4 at

Returns the element at a specified index. This function does not modify the
original array.

   $a = 1->to(10);
   $a->at(2);                   # 3

=head4 size, elems, length

C<size>, C<elems> and C<length> all return the number of elements in an array.

   my @array = qw(foo bar baz);
   @array->size;   # 3

=head4 elements, flatten

    my @copy_of_array = $array->flatten;

Returns the elements of an array ref as an array.
This is the same as C<< @{$array} >>.

Arrays can be iterated on using C<for> and C<foreach>. Both take a code
reference as the body of the for statement.

=head4 foreach

    @array->foreach(\&code);

Calls C<&code> on each element of the @array in order.  &code gets the
element as its argument.

    @array->foreach(sub { print $_[0] });  # print each element of the array


=head4 for

    @array->for(\&code);

Like L<foreach>, but C<&code> is called with the index, the value and
the array itself.

    my $arr = [ 1 .. 10 ];
    $arr->for(sub {
        my($idx, $value) = @_;
        print "Value #$idx is $value\n";
    });


=head4 sum

    my $sum = @array->sum;

Adds together all the elements of the array.

=head4 count

Returns the number of elements in array that are C<eq> to a specified value:

  my @array = qw/one two two three three three/;
  my $num = @array->count('three');  # returns 3

=head4 to, upto, downto

C<to>, C<upto>, and C<downto> create array references:

   1->to(5);      # creates [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
   1->upto(5);    # creates [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
   5->downto(5);  # creates [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

Those wrap the C<..> operator.

B<Note> while working with negative numbers you need to use () so as
to avoid the wrong evaluation.

  my $range = 10->to(1);        # this works
  my $range = -10->to(10);      # wrong, interpreted as -( 10->to(10) )
  my $range = (-10)->to(10);    # this works

=head4 head

Returns the first element from C<@list>.   This differs from
L<shift|perlfunc/shift> in that it does not change the array.

    my $first = @list->head;

=head4 tail

Returns all but the first element from C<@list>.

    my @list = qw(foo bar baz quux);
    my @rest = @list->tail;  # [ 'bar', 'baz', 'quux' ]

Optionally, you can pass a number as argument to ask for the last C<$n>
elements:

    @rest = @list->tail(2); # [ 'baz', 'quux' ]

=head4 slice

Returns a list containing the elements from C<@list> at the indices
C<@indices>. In scalar context, returns an array reference.

    # Return $list[1], $list[2], $list[4] and $list[8].
    my @sublist = @list->slice(1,2,4,8);

=head4 range

C<range> returns a list containing the elements from C<@list> with indices
ranging from C<$lower_idx> to C<$upper_idx>. It returns an array reference
in scalar context.

    my @sublist = @list->range( $lower_idx, $upper_idx );

=head4 last_index

    my $index = @array->last_index(qr/.../);

Returns the highest index whose element matches the given regular expression.

    my $index = @array->last_index(\&filter);

Returns the highest index for an element on which the filter returns true.
The &filter is passed in each value of the @array.

    my @things = qw(pear poll potato tomato);
    my $last_p = @things->last_index(qr/^p/); # 2

Called with no arguments, it corresponds to C<$#array> giving the
highest index of the array.

    my $index = @array->last_index;

=head4 first_index

Works just like L<last_index> but it will return the index of the I<first>
matching element.

    my $first_index = @array->first_index;    # 0

    my @things = qw(pear poll potato tomato);
    my $last_p = @things->first_index(qr/^t/); # 3

=head4 at

    my $value = $array->at($index);

Equivalent to C<< $array->[$index] >>.

=head3 Hash Methods

Hash methods work on both hashes and hash references.

The built in functions work as normal:

L<delete|perlfunc/delete>, L<exists|perlfunc/exists>, L<keys|perlfunc/keys>,
L<values|perlfunc/values>, L<bless|perlfunc/bless>, L<tie|perlfunc/tie>,
L<tied|perlfunc/tied>, L<ref|perlfunc/ref>, L<undef|perlfunc/undef>,

=head4 at, get

    my @values = %hash->get(@keys);

Returns the @values of @keys.

=head4 put

    %hash->put(%other_hash);

Overlays %other_hash on top of %hash.

   my $h = {a => 1, b => 2};
   $h->put(b => 99, c => 3);    # (a => 1, b => 99, c => 3)

=head4 set

Synonym for L<put>.

=head4 each

Like C<foreach> but for hash references. For each key in the hash, the
code reference is invoked with the key and the corresponding value as
arguments:

  my $hashref = { foo => 10, bar => 20, baz => 30, quux => 40 };
  $hashref->each(sub { print $_[0], ' is ', $_[1], "\n" });

Or:

  my %hash = ( foo => 10, bar => 20, baz => 30, quux => 40 );
  %hash->each(sub { print $_[0], ' is ', $_[1], "\n" });

Unlike regular C<each>, this each will always iterate through the entire hash.

Hash keys appear in random order that varies from run to run (this is
intentional, to avoid calculated attacks designed to trigger
algorithmic worst case scenario in C<perl>'s hash tables).

You can get a sorted C<foreach> by combining C<keys>, C<sort>, and C<foreach>:

   %hash->keys->sort->foreach(sub {
      print $_[0], ' is ', $hash{$_[0]}, "\n";
   });

=head4 lock_keys

    %hash->lock_keys;

Works as L<Hash::Util/lock_keys>.  No more keys may be added to the hash.

=head4 slice

Takes a list of hash keys and returns the corresponding values e.g.

  my %hash = (
      one   => 'two',
      three => 'four',
      five  => 'six'
  );

  print %hash->slice(qw(one five))->join(' and '); # prints "two and six"

=head4 flip

Exchanges values for keys in a hash:

    my %things = ( foo => 1, bar => 2, baz => 5 );
    my %flipped = %things->flip; # { 1 => foo, 2 => bar, 5 => baz }

If there is more than one occurrence of a certain value, any one of the
keys may end up as the value.  This is because of the random ordering
of hash keys.

    # Could be { 1 => foo }, { 1 => bar }, or { 1 => baz }
    { foo => 1, bar => 1, baz => 1 }->flip;

Because references cannot usefully be keys, it will not work where the
values are references.

    { foo => [ 'bar', 'baz' ] }->flip; # dies

=head4 flatten

    my %hash = $hash_ref->flatten;

Dereferences a hash reference.

=head3 Code Methods

Methods which work on code references.

These are simple wrappers around the Perl core functions.
L<bless|perlfunc/bless>, L<ref|perlfunc/ref>,

Due to Perl's precedence rules, some autoboxed literals may need to be
parenthesized.  For instance, this works:

  my $curried = sub { ... }->curry();

This does not:

  my $curried = \&foo->curry();

The solution is to wrap the reference in parentheses:

  my $curried = (\&foo)->curry();


=head4 curry

    my $curried_code = $code->curry(5);

Currying takes a code reference and provides the same code, but with
the first argument filled in.

    my $greet_world = sub {
        my($greeting, $place) = @_;
        return "$greeting, $place!";
    };
    print $greet_world->("Hello", "world");  # "Hello, world!"

    my $howdy_world = $greet_world->curry("Howdy");
    print $howdy_world->("Texas");           # "Howdy, Texas!"


=head2 What's Missing?

=over 4

=item *

File and socket operations are already implemented in an object-oriented
fashion care of L<IO::Handle>, L<IO::Socket::INET>, and L<IO::Any>.

=item *

Functions listed in the L<perlfunc> headings

=over 4

=item *

"System V interprocess communication functions",

=item *

"Fetching user and group info",

=item *

"Fetching network info",

=item *

"Keywords related to perl modules",

=item *

"Functions for processes and process groups",

=item *

"Keywords related to scoping",

=item *

"Time-related functions",

=item *

"Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program",

=item *

"Functions for filehandles, files, or directories",

=item *

"Input and output functions".

=back

=item *

(Most) binary operators

=back

These things are likely implemented in an object oriented fashion by other
CPAN modules, are keywords and not functions, take no arguments, or don't
make sense as part of the string, number, array, hash, or code API.

=head2 Autoboxing

I<This section quotes four pages from the manuscript of Perl 6 Now: The
Core Ideas Illustrated with Perl 5 by Scott Walters. The text appears in
the book starting at page 248. This copy lacks the benefit of copyedit -
the finished product is of higher quality.>

A I<box> is an object that contains a primitive variable.  Boxes are used
to endow primitive types with the capabilities of objects which
essential in strongly typed languages but never strictly required in Perl.
Programmers might write something like C<< my $number = Int->new(5) >>.
This is manual boxing.  To I<autobox> is to convert a simple type into an
object type automatically, or only conceptually.  This is done by the language.

I<autobox>ing makes a language look to programmers as if everything is an
object while the interpreter is free to implement data storage however it
pleases.  Autoboxing is really making simple types such as numbers,
strings, and arrays appear to be objects.

C<int>, C<num>, C<bit>, C<str>, and other types with lower case names, are
primitives.  They're fast to operate on, and require no more memory to
store than the data held strictly requires.  C<Int>, C<Num>, C<Bit>,
C<Str>, and other types with an initial capital letter, are objects.  These
may be subclassed (inherited from) and accept traits, among other things.
These objects are provided by the system for the sole purpose of
representing primitive types as objects, though this has many ancillary
benefits such as making C<is> and C<has> work.  Perl provides C<Int> to
encapsulate an C<int>, C<Num> to encapsulate a C<num>, C<Bit> to
encapsulate a C<bit>, and so on.  As Perl's implementations of hashes and
dynamically expandable arrays store any type, not just objects, Perl
programmers almost never are required to box primitive types in objects.
Perl's power makes this feature less essential than it is in other
languages.

I<autobox>ing makes primitive objects and they're boxed versions
equivalent.  An C<int> may be used as an C<Int> with no constructor call,
no passing, nothing.  This applies to constants too, not just variables.
This is a more Perl 6 way of doing things.

  # Perl 6 - autoboxing associates classes with primitives types:

  print 4.sqrt, "\n";

  print [ 1 .. 20 ].elems, "\n";

The language is free to implement data storage however it wishes but the
programmer sees the variables as objects.

Expressions using autoboxing read somewhat like Latin suffixes.  In the
autoboxing mind-set, you might not say that something is "made more
mnemonic", but has been "mnemonicified".

Autoboxing may be mixed with normal function calls.
In the case where the methods are available as functions and the functions are
available as methods, it is only a matter of personal taste how the expression should be written:

  # Calling methods on numbers and strings, these three lines are equivalent
  # Perl 6

  print sqrt 4;
  print 4.sqrt;
  4.sqrt.print;

The first of these three equivalents assumes that a global C<sqrt()>
function exists.  This first example would fail to operate if this global
function were removed and only a method in the C<Num> package was left.

Perl 5 had the beginnings of autoboxing with filehandles:

  use IO::Handle;
  open my $file, '<', 'file.txt' or die $!;
  $file->read(my $data, -s $file);

Here, C<read> is a method on a filehandle we opened but I<never blessed>.
This lets us say things like C<< $file->print(...) >> rather than the often
ambagious C<< print $file ... >>.

To many people, much of the time, it makes more conceptual sense as well.

=head3 Reasons to Box Primitive Types

What good is all of this?

=over 4

=item *

Makes conceptual sense to programmers used to object interfaces as I<the> way
to perform options.

=item *

Alternative idiom. Doesn't require the programmer to write or read
expressions with complex precedence rules or strange operators.

=item *

Many times that parenthesis would otherwise have to span a large
expression, the expression may be rewritten such that the parenthesis span
only a few primitive types.

=item *

Code may often be written with fewer temporary variables.

=item *

Autoboxing provides the benefits of boxed types without the memory bloat of
actually using objects to represent primitives. Autoboxing "fakes it".

=item *

Strings, numbers, arrays, hashes, and so on, each have their own API.
Documentation for an C<exists> method for arrays doesn't have to explain
how hashes are handled and vice versa.

=item *

Perl tries to accommodate the notion that the "subject" of a statement
should be the first thing on the line, and autoboxing furthers this agenda.

=back

Perl is an idiomatic language and this is an important idiom.

=head3 Subject First: An Aside

Perl's design philosophy promotes the idea that the language should be
flexible enough to allow programmers to place the subject of a statement
first.  For example, C<< die $! unless read $file, 60 >> looks like the
primary purpose of the statement is to C<die>.

While that might be the programmers primary goal, when it isn't, the
programmer can communicate his real primary intention to programmers by
reversing the order of clauses while keeping the exact same logic: C<< read
$file, 60 or die $! >>.

Autoboxing is another way of putting the subject first.

Nouns make good subjects, and in programming, variables, constants, and
object names are the nouns.  Function and method names are verbs.  C<<
$noun->verb() >> focuses the readers attention on the thing being acted on
rather than the action being performed.  Compare to C<< $verb($noun) >>.

=head3 Autoboxing and Method Results

Let's look at some examples of ways an expression could be
written.

  # Various ways to do the same thing:

  print(reverse(sort(keys(%hash))));          # Perl 5 - pathological parenthetic
  print reverse sort keys %hash;              # Perl 5 - no unneeded parenthesis

  print(reverse(sort(%hash,keys))));          # Perl 6 - pathological
  print reverse sort %hash.keys;              # Perl 6 - no unneeded parenthesis

  %hash.keys ==> sort ==> reverse ==> print;  # Perl 6 - pipeline operator

  %hash.keys.sort.reverse.print;              # Perl 6 - autobox

  %hash->keys->sort->reverse->print;          # Perl 5 - autobox

This section deals with the last two of these equivalents.
These are method calls

  use autobox::Core;
  use Perl6::Contexts;

  my %hash = (foo => 'bar', baz => 'quux');

  %hash->keys->sort->reverse->print;          # Perl 5 - autobox

  # prints "foo baz"

Each method call returns an array reference, in this example.  Another
method call is immediately performed on this value.  This feeding of the
next method call with the result of the previous call is the common mode of
use of autoboxing.  Providing no other arguments to the method calls,
however, is not common.

C<Perl6::Contexts> recognizes object context as provided by C<< -> >> and
coerces C<%hash> and C<@array> into references, suitable for use with
C<autobox>.  (Note that C<autobox> also does this automatically as of
version 2.40.)

C<autobox> associates primitive types, such as references of various sorts,
with classes.  C<autobox::Core> throws into those classes methods wrapping
Perl's built-in functions.  In the interest of full disclosure,
C<Perl6::Contexts> and C<autobox::Core> are my creations.

=head3 Autobox to Simplify Expressions

One of my pet peeves in programming is parenthesis that span large
expression.  It seems like about the time I'm getting ready to close the
parenthesis I opened on the other side of the line, I realize that I've
forgotten something, and I have to arrow back over or grab the mouse.

When the expression is too long to fit on a single line, it gets broken up,
then I must decide how to indent it if it grows to 3 or more lines.

  # Perl 5 - a somewhat complex expression

  print join("\n", map { CGI::param($_) } @cgi_vars), "\n";
  # Perl 5 - again, using autobox:

  @cgi_vars->map(sub { CGI::param($_[0]) })->join("\n")->concat("\n")->print;

The autoboxed version isn't shorter, but it reads from left to right, and
the parenthesis from the C<join()> don't span nearly as many characters.
The complex expression serving as the value being C<join()>ed in the
non-autoboxed version becomes, in the autoboxed version, a value to call
the C<join()> method on.

This C<print> statement takes a list of CGI parameter names, reads the
values for each parameter, joins them together with newlines, and prints
them with a newline after the last one.

Pretending that this expression were much larger and it had to be broken to span
several lines, or pretending that comments are to be placed after each part of
the expression, you might reformat it as such:

  @cgi_vars->map(sub { CGI::param($_[0]) })  # turn CGI arg names into values
           ->join("\n")                      # join with newlines
           ->concat("\n")                    # give it a trailing newline
           ->print;                          # print them all out

I<Here ends the text quoted from the Perl 6 Now manuscript.>


=head1 BUGS

Yes. Report them to the author, scott@slowass.net, or post them to
GitHub's bug tracker at L<https://github.com/scrottie/autobox-Core/issues>.

The API is not yet stable -- Perl 6-ish things and local extensions are
still being renamed.

=head1 HISTORY

See the Changes file.

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright (C) 2009, 2010, 2011 by Scott Walters and various contributors listed (and unlisted) below.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.8.9 or,
at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without
any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness
for a particular purpose.


=head1 SEE ALSO

=over 1

=item L<autobox>

=item L<Moose::Autobox>

=item L<Perl6::Contexts>

=item L<http://github.com/gitpan/autobox-Core>

=item L<IO::Any>

=item Perl 6: L<< http://dev.perl.org/perl6/apocalypse/ >>.

=back


=head1 AUTHORS

Scott Walters, scott@slowass.net.

Tomasz Konojacki has been assisting with maint.

Jacinta Richardson improved documentation and tidied up the interface.

Michael Schwern and the L<perl5i> contributors for tests, code, and feedback.

JJ contributed a C<strip> method for scalars - thanks JJ!

Ricardo SIGNES contributed patches.

Thanks to Matt Spear, who contributed tests and definitions for numeric operations.

Mitchell N Charity reported a bug and sent a fix.

Thanks to chocolateboy for L<autobox> and for the encouragement.

Thanks to Bruno Vecchi for bug fixes and many, many new tests going into version 0.8.

Thanks to L<http://github.com/daxim> daxim/Lars DIECKOW pushing in fixes and patches from the RT queue
along with fixes to build and additional doc examples.

Thanks to Johan Lindstrom for bug reports.

Thanks to everyone else who sent fixes or suggestions -- apologies if I failed to include you here!

=cut

#
# SCALAR
#

package autobox::Core::SCALAR;

#       Functions for SCALARs or strings
#          "chomp", "chop", "chr", "crypt", "hex", "index", "lc",
#           "lcfirst", "length", "oct", "ord", "pack",
#           "q/STRING/", "qq/STRING/", "reverse", "rindex",
#           "sprintf", "substr", "tr///", "uc", "ucfirst", "y///"

# current doesn't handle scalar references - get can't call method chomp on unblessed reference etc when i try to support it

sub chomp      { CORE::chomp($_[0]); }
sub chop       { CORE::chop($_[0]); }
sub chr        { CORE::chr($_[0]); }
sub crypt      { CORE::crypt($_[0], $_[1]); }
sub index      { $_[2] ? CORE::index($_[0], $_[1], $_[2]) : CORE::index($_[0], $_[1]); }
sub lc         { CORE::lc($_[0]); }
sub lcfirst    { CORE::lcfirst($_[0]); }
sub length     { CORE::length($_[0]); }
sub ord        { CORE::ord($_[0]); }
sub pack       { CORE::pack(shift, @_); }
sub reverse    {
    # Always reverse scalars as strings, never as a single element list.
    return scalar CORE::reverse($_[0]);
}

sub rindex {
    return CORE::rindex($_[0], $_[1]) if @_ == 2;
    return CORE::rindex($_[0], $_[1], @_[2.. $#_]);
}

sub sprintf { CORE::sprintf($_[0], $_[1], @_[2.. $#_]); }

sub substr {
    return CORE::substr($_[0], $_[1]) if @_ == 2;
    return CORE::substr($_[0], $_[1], @_[2 .. $#_]);
}

sub uc         { CORE::uc($_[0]); }
sub ucfirst    { CORE::ucfirst($_[0]); }
sub unpack     { CORE::unpack($_[0], @_[1..$#_]); }
sub quotemeta  { CORE::quotemeta($_[0]); }
sub vec        { CORE::vec($_[0], $_[1], $_[2]); }
sub undef      { $_[0] = undef }
sub defined    { CORE::defined($_[0]) }
sub m          { my @ms = $_[0] =~ m{$_[1]} ;  return @ms ? \@ms : undef }
sub nm         { my @ms = $_[0] =~ m{$_[1]} ;  return @ms ? undef : \@ms }
sub split      { wantarray ? split $_[1], $_[0] : [ split $_[1], $_[0] ] }
sub s          {
    my $success = ( $_[0] =~ s{$_[1]}{$_[2]} ) ? 1 : 0;
    if (Want::want('LIST')) {
        Want::rreturn ($_[0]);
    } elsif (Want::want('BOOL')) {   # this needs to happen before the SCALAR context test
        Want::rreturn $success;
    } elsif (Want::want(qw'SCALAR')) {
        Want::rreturn $_[0];
    }
    return;  # "You have to put this at the end to keep the compiler happy" from Want docs
}

sub eval       { CORE::eval "$_[0]"; }
sub system     { CORE::system @_; }
sub backtick   { `$_[0]`; }
sub qx         { `$_[0]`; }     # per #16, "backtick should probably be called qx"

#       Numeric functions

sub abs       { CORE::abs($_[0]) }
sub atan2     { CORE::atan2($_[0], $_[1]) }
sub cos       { CORE::cos($_[0]) }
sub exp       { CORE::exp($_[0]) }
sub int       { CORE::int($_[0]) }
sub log       { CORE::log($_[0]) }
sub oct       { CORE::oct($_[0]) }
sub hex       { CORE::hex($_[0]); }
sub sin       { CORE::sin($_[0]) }
sub sqrt      { CORE::sqrt($_[0]) }

# functions for array creation
sub to {
    my $res = $_[0] < $_[1] ? [$_[0]..$_[1]] : [CORE::reverse $_[1]..$_[0]];
    return wantarray ? @$res : $res
}
sub upto {
    return wantarray ? ($_[0]..$_[1]) : [ $_[0]..$_[1] ]
}
sub downto  {
    my $res = [ CORE::reverse $_[1]..$_[0] ];
    return wantarray ? @$res : $res
}

# Lars D didn't explain the intention of this code either in a comment or in docs and I don't see the point
#sub times {
#   if ($_[1]) {
#     for (0..$_[0]-1) { $_[1]->($_); }; $_[0];
#   } else {
#       0..$_[0]-1
#   }
#}

# doesn't minipulate scalars but works on scalars

sub print { CORE::print @_; }
sub say   { CORE::print @_, "\n"}

# operators that work on scalars:

sub concat { CORE::join '', @_; }
sub strip  {
    my $s = CORE::shift;
    $s =~ s/^\s+//; $s =~ s/\s+$//;
    return $s;
}

# operator schizzle
sub and  { $_[0] && $_[1]; }
sub dec  { my $t = CORE::shift @_; --$t; }
sub inc  { my $t = CORE::shift @_; ++$t; }
sub mod  { $_[0] % $_[1]; }
sub neg  { -$_[0]; }
sub not  { !$_[0]; }
sub or   { $_[0] || $_[1]; }
sub pow  { $_[0] ** $_[1]; }
sub xor  { $_[0] xor $_[1]; }

# rpt should go
sub repeat  { $_[0] x $_[1]; }
sub rpt  { $_[0] x $_[1]; }

# sub bless (\%$)   { CORE::bless $_[0], $_[1] } # HASH, ARRAY, CODE already have a bless() and blessing a non-reference works (autobox finds the reference in the pad or stash!).  "can't bless a non-referenc value" for non-reference lexical and package scalars.  this would work for (\$foo)->bless but then, unlike arrays, we couldn't find the reference to the variable again later so there's not much point I can see.

# from perl5i:


sub title_case {
    my ($string) = @_;
    $string =~ s/\b(\w)/\U$1/g;
    return $string;
}


sub center {
    my ($string, $size, $char) = @_;
    Carp::carp("Use of uninitialized value for size in center()") if !defined $size;
    $size = defined($size) ? $size : 0;
    $char = defined($char) ? $char : ' ';

    if (CORE::length $char > 1) {
        my $bad = $char;
        $char = CORE::substr $char, 0, 1;
        Carp::carp("'$bad' is longer than one character, using '$char' instead");
    }

    my $len             = CORE::length $string;

    return $string if $size <= $len;

    my $padlen          = $size - $len;

    # pad right with half the remaining characters
    my $rpad            = CORE::int( $padlen / 2 );

    # bias the left padding to one more space, if $size - $len is odd
    my $lpad            = $padlen - $rpad;

    return $char x $lpad . $string . $char x $rpad;
}

sub ltrim {
    my ($string,$trim_charset) = @_;
    $trim_charset = '\s' unless defined $trim_charset;
    my $re = qr/^[$trim_charset]*/;
    $string =~ s/$re//;
    return $string;
}


sub rtrim {
    my ($string,$trim_charset) = @_;
    $trim_charset = '\s' unless defined $trim_charset;
    my $re = qr/[$trim_charset]*$/;
    $string =~ s/$re//;
    return $string;
}


sub trim {
    my $charset = $_[1];

    return rtrim(ltrim($_[0], $charset), $charset);
}

# POSIX is huge
#require POSIX;
#*ceil  = \&POSIX::ceil;
#*floor = \&POSIX::floor;
#*round_up   = \&ceil;
#*round_down = \&floor;
#sub round {
#    abs($_[0] - int($_[0])) < 0.5 ? round_down($_[0])
#                                  : round_up($_[0])
#}

require Scalar::Util;
*is_number = \&Scalar::Util::looks_like_number;
sub is_positive         { Scalar::Util::looks_like_number($_[0]) && $_[0] > 0 }
sub is_negative         { Scalar::Util::looks_like_number($_[0]) && $_[0] < 0 }
sub is_integer          { Scalar::Util::looks_like_number($_[0]) && ((CORE::int($_[0]) - $_[0]) == 0) }
*is_int = \&is_integer;
sub is_decimal          { Scalar::Util::looks_like_number($_[0]) && ((CORE::int($_[0]) - $_[0]) != 0) }


##########################################################

#
# HASH
#

package autobox::Core::HASH;

use Carp 'croak';

#       Functions for real %HASHes

sub delete  {
    my $hash = CORE::shift;

    my @res = ();
    foreach(@_) {
        push @res, CORE::delete $hash->{$_};
    }

    return wantarray ? @res : \@res
}

sub exists {
    my $hash = CORE::shift;
    return CORE::exists $hash->{$_[0]};
}

sub keys {
    return wantarray ? CORE::keys %{$_[0]} : [ CORE::keys %{$_[0]} ];
}

sub values {
    return wantarray ? CORE::values %{$_[0]} : [ CORE::values %{$_[0]} ]
}

# local extensions

sub get { @{$_[0]}{@_[1..$#_]}; }
*at = *get;

sub put {
    my $h = CORE::shift @_;
    my %h = @_;

    while(my ($k, $v) = CORE::each %h) {
        $h->{$k} = $v;
    };

    return $h;
}

sub set {
    my $h = CORE::shift @_;
    my %h = @_;
    while(my ($k, $v) = CORE::each %h) {
        $h->{$k} = $v;
    };

    return $h;
}

sub flatten { %{$_[0]} }

sub each {
    my $hash = CORE::shift;
    my $cb = CORE::shift;

    # Reset the each iterator. (This is efficient in void context)
    CORE::keys %$hash;

    while((my $k, my $v) = CORE::each(%$hash)) {
        # local $_ = $v; # XXX may I break stuff?
        $cb->($k, $v);
    }

    return;
}

#       Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness

sub bless  { CORE::bless $_[0], $_[1] }
sub tie    { CORE::tie   $_[0], @_[1 .. $#_] }
sub tied   { CORE::tied  $_[0] }
sub ref    { CORE::ref   $_[0] }

sub undef  { $_[0] = {} }

sub slice {
    my ($h, @keys) = @_;
    wantarray ? @{$h}{@keys} : [ @{$h}{@keys} ];
}

# okey, ::Util stuff should be core

use Hash::Util;

sub lock_keys { Hash::Util::lock_keys(%{$_[0]}); $_[0]; }

# from perl5i

sub flip {
    croak "Can't flip hash with references as values"
        if grep { CORE::ref } CORE::values %{$_[0]};

    return wantarray ? reverse %{$_[0]} : { reverse %{$_[0]} };
}

#
# ARRAY
#
##############################################################################################
package autobox::Core::ARRAY;

use Carp 'croak';

#       Functions for list data

# at one moment, perl5i had this in it:

#sub grep {
#    my ( $array, $filter ) = @_;
#    my @result = CORE::grep { $_ ~~ $filter } @$array;
#    return wantarray ? @result : \@result;
#}

sub grep {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    my $filter = CORE::shift;
    my @result;

    if( CORE::ref $filter eq 'Regexp' ) {
        @result = CORE::grep { m/$filter/ } @$arr;
    } elsif( ! CORE::ref $filter ) {
        @result = CORE::grep { $filter eq $_ } @$arr;  # find all of the exact matches
    } else {
        @result = CORE::grep { $filter->($_) } @$arr;
    }

    return wantarray ? @result : \@result;
}

# last version: sub map (\@&) { my $arr = CORE::shift; my $sub = shift; [ CORE::map { $sub->($_) } @$arr ]; }

sub map {
    my( $array, $code ) = @_;
    my @result = CORE::map { $code->($_) } @$array;
    return wantarray ? @result : \@result;
}

sub join { my $arr = CORE::shift; my $sep = CORE::shift; CORE::join $sep, @$arr; }

sub reverse { my @res = CORE::reverse @{$_[0]}; wantarray ? @res : \@res; }

sub sort {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    my $sub = CORE::shift() || sub { $a cmp $b };
    my @res = CORE::sort { $sub->($a, $b) } @$arr;
    return wantarray ? @res : \@res;
}

# functionalish stuff

sub sum { my $arr = CORE::shift; my $res = 0; $res += $_ foreach(@$arr); $res; }

sub mean { my $arr = CORE::shift; my $res = 0; $res += $_ foreach(@$arr); $res/@$arr; }

sub var {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    my $mean = 0;
    $mean += $_ foreach(@$arr);
    $mean /= @$arr;
    my $res = 0;
    $res += ($_-$mean)**2 foreach (@$arr);
    $res/@$arr;
}

sub svar {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    my $mean = 0;
    $mean += $_ foreach(@$arr);
    $mean /= @$arr;
    my $res = 0;
    $res += ($_-$mean)**2 foreach (@$arr);
    $res/(@$arr-1);
}

sub max {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    my $max = $arr->[0];
    foreach (@$arr) {
        $max = $_ if $_ > $max
    }

    return $max;
}

sub min {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    my $min = $arr->[0];
    foreach (@$arr) {
        $min = $_ if $_ < $min
    }

    return $min;
}

# Functions for real @ARRAYs

sub pop  { CORE::pop @{$_[0]}; }

sub push {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    CORE::push @$arr, @_;
    return wantarray ? return @$arr : $arr;
}

sub unshift {
    my $a = CORE::shift;
    CORE::unshift(@$a, @_);
    return wantarray ? @$a : $a;
}

sub delete  {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    CORE::delete $arr->[$_[0]];
    return wantarray ? @$arr : $arr
}

sub vdelete {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    @$arr = CORE::grep {$_ ne $_[0]} @$arr;
    return wantarray ? @$arr : $arr
}

sub shift   {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    return CORE::shift @$arr;
}

sub undef   { $_[0] = [] }

# doesn't modify array

sub exists {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    return CORE::scalar( CORE::grep {$_ eq $_[0]} @$arr ) > 0;
}

sub at {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    return $arr->[$_[0]];
}

sub count {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;
    return CORE::scalar(CORE::grep {$_ eq $_[0]} @$arr);
}

sub uniq {
    my $arr = CORE::shift;

    # shamelessly stolen from List::MoreUtils
    # fix for code stolen from List::MoreUtils shamelessly stolen from List::MoreUtils

    my %seen = ();
    my $k;
    my $seen_undef;
    my @res = CORE::grep { CORE::defined $_ ? not $seen{ $k = $_ }++ : CORE::not $seen_undef++ } @$arr;
    return wantarray ? @res : \@res;
}

# tied and blessed

sub bless  { CORE::bless $_[0], $_[1] }
sub tie    { CORE::tie   $_[0], @_[1 .. $#_] }
sub tied   { CORE::tied  $_[0] }
sub ref    { CORE::ref   $_[0] }

# perl 6-ish extensions to Perl 5 core stuff

# sub first(\@) { my $arr = CORE::shift; $arr->[0]; } # old, incompat version

sub first {
    # from perl5i, modified
    # XXX needs test.  take from perl5i?
    my ( $array, $filter ) = @_;

    if ( @_ == 1 ) {
        return $array->[0];
    } elsif ( CORE::ref $filter eq "Regexp" ) {
        return List::Util::first( sub { $_ =~ m/$filter/ }, @$array );
    } elsif ( ! CORE::ref $filter ) {
        return List::Util::first( sub { $_ eq $filter }, @$array );
    } else {
        return List::Util::first( sub { $filter->() }, @$array );
    }
}

sub size   { my $arr = CORE::shift; CORE::scalar @$arr; }
sub elems  { my $arr = CORE::shift; CORE::scalar @$arr; } # Larry announced it would be elems, not size
sub length { my $arr = CORE::shift; CORE::scalar @$arr; }

# misc

sub each {
    # same as foreach(), apo12 mentions this
    # XXX should we try to build a result list if we're in non-void context?
    my $arr = CORE::shift; my $sub = CORE::shift;
    foreach my $i (@$arr) {
        # local $_ = $i; # XXX may I break stuff?
        $sub->($i);
    }
}

sub foreach {
    my $arr = CORE::shift; my $sub = CORE::shift;
    foreach my $i (@$arr) {
        # local $_ = $i; # XXX may I break stuff?
        $sub->($i);
    }
}

sub for {
    my $arr = CORE::shift; my $sub = CORE::shift;
    for(my $i = 0; $i <= $#$arr; $i++) {
        # local $_ = $arr->[$i]; # XXX may I break stuff?
        $sub->($i, $arr->[$i], $arr);
    }
}

sub print { my $arr = CORE::shift; my @arr = @$arr; CORE::print "@arr"; }
sub say   { my $arr = CORE::shift; my @arr = @$arr; CORE::print "@arr\n"; }

# local

sub elements { ( @{$_[0]} ) }
sub flatten  { ( @{$_[0]} ) }

sub head {
    return $_[0]->[0];
}

sub slice {
    my $list = CORE::shift;
    # the rest of the arguments in @_ are the indices to take

    return wantarray ? @$list[@_] : [@{$list}[@_]];
}

sub range {
    my ($array, $lower, $upper) = @_;

    my @slice = @{$array}[$lower .. $upper];

    return wantarray ? @slice : \@slice;

}

sub tail {
    my $last = $#{$_[0]};

    my $first = defined $_[1] ? $last - $_[1] + 1 : 1;

    Carp::croak("Not enough elements in array") if $first < 0;

    # Yeah... avert your eyes
    return wantarray ? @{$_[0]}[$first .. $last] : [@{$_[0]}[$first .. $last]];
}

sub first_index {
    if (@_ == 1) {
        return 0;
    }
    else {
        my ($array, $arg) = @_;

        my $filter = CORE::ref($arg) eq 'Regexp' ? sub { $_[0] =~ $arg } : $arg;

        foreach my $i (0 .. $#$array) {
            return $i if $filter->($array->[$i]);
        }

        return
    }
}

sub last_index {
    if (@_ == 1) {
        return $#{$_[0]};
    }
    else {
        my ($array, $arg) = @_;

        my $filter = CORE::ref($arg) eq 'Regexp' ? sub { $_[0] =~ $arg } : $arg;

        foreach my $i (CORE::reverse 0 .. $#$array ) {
            return $i if $filter->($array->[$i]);
        }

        return
    }
}

##############################################################################################

#
# CODE
#

package autobox::Core::CODE;

sub bless    { CORE::bless $_[0], $_[1] }
sub ref      { CORE::ref   $_[0] }

# perl 6-isms

sub curry  { my $code = CORE::shift; my @args = @_; sub { CORE::unshift @_, @args; goto &$code; }; }

1;