use strict;
use warnings;
package Test::LWP::UserAgent; # git description: v0.032-3-g468b77d
# vim: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 tw=115 et :
# ABSTRACT: A LWP::UserAgent suitable for simulating and testing network calls
# KEYWORDS: testing useragent networking mock server client

our $VERSION = '0.033';

use parent 'LWP::UserAgent';
use Scalar::Util qw(blessed reftype);
use Storable 'freeze';
use HTTP::Request;
use HTTP::Response;
use URI;
use HTTP::Date;
use HTTP::Status qw(:constants status_message);
use Try::Tiny;
use Safe::Isa;
use Carp;
use namespace::clean 0.19 -also => [qw(__isa_coderef __is_regexp __isa_response)];

my @response_map;
my $network_fallback;
my $last_useragent;

sub new
    my ($class, %options) = @_;

    my $_network_fallback = delete $options{network_fallback};

    my $self = $class->SUPER::new(%options);
    $self->{__last_http_request_sent} = undef;
    $self->{__last_http_response_received} = undef;
    $self->{__response_map} = [];
    $self->{__network_fallback} = $_network_fallback;

    # strips default User-Agent header added by LWP::UserAgent, to make it
    # easier to define literal HTTP::Requests to match against
    $self->agent(undef) if defined $self->agent and $self->agent eq $self->_agent;

    return $self;

sub map_response
    my ($self, $request_specification, $response) = @_;

    if (not defined $response and blessed $self)
        # mask a global domain mapping
        my $matched;
        foreach my $mapping (@{$self->{__response_map}})
            if ($mapping->[0] eq $request_specification)
                $matched = 1;
                undef $mapping->[1];

        push @{$self->{__response_map}}, [ $request_specification, undef ]
            if not $matched;


    my ($isa_response, $error_message) = __isa_response($response);
    if (not $isa_response)
        if (try { $response->can('request') })
            my $oldres = $response;
            $response = sub { $oldres->request($_[0]) };
            carp 'map_response: ', $error_message;

    if (blessed $self)
        push @{$self->{__response_map}}, [ $request_specification, $response ];
        push @response_map, [ $request_specification, $response ];
    return $self;

sub map_network_response
    my ($self, $request_specification) = @_;

    push (
        @{ blessed($self) ? $self->{__response_map} : \@response_map },
        [ $request_specification, $self->_response_send_request ],

    return $self;

sub unmap_all
    my ($self, $instance_only) = @_;

    if (blessed $self)
        $self->{__response_map} = [];
        @response_map = () unless $instance_only;
        carp 'instance-only unmap requests make no sense when called globally'
            if $instance_only;
        @response_map = ();
    return $self;

sub register_psgi
    my ($self, $domain, $app) = @_;

    return $self->map_response($domain, undef) if not defined $app;

    carp 'register_psgi: app is not a coderef, it\'s a ', ref($app)
        unless __isa_coderef($app);

    return $self->map_response($domain, $self->_psgi_to_response($app));

sub unregister_psgi
    my ($self, $domain, $instance_only) = @_;

    if (blessed $self)
        @{$self->{__response_map}} = grep { $_->[0] ne $domain } @{$self->{__response_map}};

        @response_map = grep { $_->[0] ne $domain } @response_map
            unless $instance_only;
        @response_map = grep { $_->[0] ne $domain } @response_map;
    return $self;

sub last_http_request_sent
    my $self = shift;
    return blessed($self)
        ? $self->{__last_http_request_sent}
        : $last_useragent
            ? $last_useragent->last_http_request_sent
            : undef;

sub last_http_response_received
    my $self = shift;
    return blessed($self)
        ? $self->{__last_http_response_received}
        : $last_useragent
            ? $last_useragent->last_http_response_received
            : undef;

sub last_useragent
    return $last_useragent;

sub network_fallback
    my ($self, $value) = @_;

    if (@_ == 1)
        return blessed $self
            ? $self->{__network_fallback}
            : $network_fallback;

    return $self->{__network_fallback} = $value if blessed $self;
    $network_fallback = $value;

sub send_request
    my ($self, $request, $arg, $size) = @_;

    $self->progress('begin', $request);
    my $matched_response = $self->run_handlers('request_send', $request);

    my $uri = $request->uri;

    foreach my $entry (@{$self->{__response_map}}, @response_map)
        last if $matched_response;
        next if not defined $entry;
        my ($request_desc, $response) = @$entry;

        if ($request_desc->$_isa('HTTP::Request'))
            local $Storable::canonical = 1;
            $matched_response = $response, last
                if freeze($request) eq freeze($request_desc);
        elsif (__is_regexp($request_desc))
            $matched_response = $response, last
                if $uri =~ $request_desc;
        elsif (__isa_coderef($request_desc))
            $matched_response = $response, last
                if $request_desc->($request);
            $uri = URI->new($uri) if not $uri->$_isa('URI');
            $matched_response = $response, last
                if $uri->host eq $request_desc;

    $last_useragent = $self;
    $self->{__last_http_request_sent} = $request;

    if (not defined $matched_response and
        ($self->{__network_fallback} or $network_fallback))
        my $response = $self->SUPER::send_request($request, $arg, $size);
        $self->{__last_http_response_received} = $response;
        return $response;

    my $response = defined $matched_response
        ? $matched_response
        : HTTP::Response->new('404');

    if (__isa_coderef($response))
        # emulates handling in LWP::UserAgent::send_request
        if ($self->use_eval)
            $response = try { $response->($request) }
            catch {
                my $exception = $_;
                if ($exception->$_isa('HTTP::Response'))
                    $response = $exception;
                    my $full = $exception;
                    (my $status = $exception) =~ s/\n.*//s;
                    $status =~ s/ at .* line \d+.*//s;  # remove file/line number
                    my $code = ($status =~ s/^(\d\d\d)\s+//) ? $1 : HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR;
                    # note that _new_response did not always take a fourth
                    # parameter - content used to always be "$code $message"
                    $response = LWP::UserAgent::_new_response($request, $code, $status, $full);
            $response = $response->($request);

    if (not $response->$_isa('HTTP::Response'))
        carp 'response from coderef is not a HTTP::Response, it\'s a ',
            (blessed($response) || ( ref($response) ? ('unblessed ' . ref($response)) : 'non-reference' ));

        $response = LWP::UserAgent::_new_response($request, HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR, status_message(HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR));
        $response->request($request);  # record request for reference
        $response->header('Client-Date' => HTTP::Date::time2str(time));

    # handle any additional arguments that were provided, such as saving the
    # content to a file.  this also runs additional handlers for us.
    my $protocol = LWP::Protocol->new('no-schemes-from-TLWPUA', $self);
    my $complete;
    $response = $protocol->collect($arg, $response, sub {
        # remove content from $response and stream it back
        return \'' if $complete;
        my $content = $response->content;

    $self->run_handlers('response_done', $response);
    $self->progress('end', $response);

    $self->{__last_http_response_received} = $response;

    return $response;

# turns a PSGI app into a subref returning an HTTP::Response
sub _psgi_to_response
    my ($self, $app) = @_;

    carp 'register_psgi: did you forget to load HTTP::Message::PSGI?'
        unless HTTP::Request->can('to_psgi') and HTTP::Response->can('from_psgi');

    return sub { HTTP::Response->from_psgi($app->($_[0]->to_psgi)) };

# returns a subref that returns an HTTP::Response from a real network request
sub _response_send_request
    my $self = shift;

    # we cannot call ::request here, or we end up in an infinite loop
    return sub { $self->SUPER::send_request($_[0]) } if blessed $self;
    return sub { LWP::UserAgent->new->send_request($_[0]) };

sub __isa_coderef
    ref $_[0] eq 'CODE'
        or (reftype($_[0]) || '') eq 'CODE'
        or overload::Method($_[0], '&{}')

sub __is_regexp
    re->can('is_regexp') ? re::is_regexp($_[0]) : ref($_[0]) eq 'Regexp';

# returns true if is expected type for all response mappings,
# or (false, error message);
sub __isa_response
    __isa_coderef($_[0]) || $_[0]->$_isa('HTTP::Response')
        ? (1)
        : (0, 'response is not a coderef or an HTTP::Response, it\'s a '
                . (blessed($_[0]) || ( ref($_[0]) ? 'unblessed ' . ref($_[0]) : 'non-reference' )));




=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Test::LWP::UserAgent - A LWP::UserAgent suitable for simulating and testing network calls

=head1 VERSION

version 0.033


In your application code:

    use URI;
    use HTTP::Request::Common;
    use LWP::UserAgent;

    my $useragent = $self->useragent || LWP::UserAgent->new;

    my $uri = URI->new('');
    my $request = POST($uri, a => 1);
    my $response = $useragent->request($request);

Then, in your tests:

    use Test::LWP::UserAgent;
    use Test::More;

    my $useragent = Test::LWP::UserAgent->new;
        qr{}, HTTP::Response->new('200', 'OK', ['Content-Type' => 'text/plain'], ''));
        qr{}, HTTP::Response->new('500', 'ERROR', ['Content-Type' => 'text/plain'], ''));

    # now, do something that sends a request, and test how your application
    # responds to that response


This module is a subclass of L<LWP::UserAgent> which overrides a few key
low-level methods that are concerned with actually sending your request over
the network, allowing an interception of that request and simulating a
particular response.  This greatly facilitates testing of client networking
code where the server follows a known protocol.

The synopsis describes a typical case where you want to test how your
application reacts to various responses from the server.  This module will let
you send back various responses depending on the request, without having to
set up a real server to test against.  This can be invaluable when you need to
test edge cases or error conditions that are not normally returned from the

There are a lot of different ways you can set up the response mappings, and
hook into this module; see the documentation for the individual interface

You can use a L<PSGI> app to handle the requests - see F<examples/call_psgi.t>
in this distribution, and also L</register_psgi> below.

OR, you can route some or all requests through the network as normal, but
still gain the hooks provided by this class to test what was sent and

    my $useragent = Test::LWP::UserAgent->new(network_fallback => 1);



    # ... generate a request...

    # and then in your tests:
        'timeout was overridden properly',
        'uri my code should have constructed',
        'I should have gotten an OK response',

=for stopwords useragent

=head2 Ensuring the right useragent is used

Note that L<LWP::UserAgent> itself is not monkey-patched - you must use
this module (or a subclass) to send your request, or it cannot be caught and

One common mechanism to swap out the useragent implementation is via a
lazily-built Moose attribute; if no override is provided at construction time,
default to C<< LWP::UserAgent->new(%options) >>.

Additionally, most methods can be called as class methods, which will store
the settings globally, so that any instance of L<Test::LWP::UserAgent> can use
them, which can simplify some of your application code.

=head1 METHODS

=head2 C<new>

Accepts all options as in L<LWP::UserAgent>, including C<use_eval>, an
undocumented boolean which is enabled by default. When set, sending the HTTP
request is wrapped in an C<< eval {} >>, allowing all exceptions to be caught
and an appropriate error response (usually HTTP 500) to be returned. You may
want to unset this if you really want to test extraordinary errors within your
networking code.  Normally, you should leave it alone, as L<LWP::UserAgent> and
this module are capable of handling normal errors.

Plus, this option is added:


=item * C<< network_fallback => <boolean> >>

If true, requests passing through this object that do not match a
previously-configured mapping or registration will be directed to the network.
(To only divert I<matched> requests rather than unmatched requests, use
C<map_network_response>, see below.)

This option is also available as a read/write accessor via
C<< $useragent->network_fallback(<value?>) >>.


B<All other methods below may be called on a specific object instance, or as a class method.>
If the method invoked on a blessed object, the action performed or data returned is
limited to just that object; if it is called as a class method, the action or data is
global and affects all instances (although specific instances may have overrides; see below).

=head2 C<map_response($request_specification, $http_response)>

With this method, you set up what L<HTTP::Response> should be returned for each
request received.

The request match specification can be described in multiple ways:


=item * string

The string is matched identically against the C<host> field of the L<URI> in the request.

    $test_ua->map_response('', HTTP::Response->new('500'));

=item * regexp

The regexp is matched against the URI in the request.

    $test_ua->map_response(qr{foo/bar}, HTTP::Response->new('200'));
    $test_ua->map_response(qr{baz/quux}, HTTP::Response->new('500'));

=item * code

The provided coderef is passed a single argument, the L<HTTP::Request>, and
returns a boolean indicating if there is a match.

    # matches all GET and POST requests
    $test_ua->map_response(sub {
            my $request = shift;
            return 1 if $request->method eq 'GET' || $request->method eq 'POST';

=item * L<HTTP::Request> object

The L<HTTP::Request> object is matched identically (including all query
parameters, headers etc) against the provided object.


The response can be represented in multiple ways:


=item *

a literal L<HTTP::Response> object:


=item *

as a coderef that is run at the time of matching, with the request passed as
the single argument:

    sub {
        my $request = shift;
        return HTTP::Response->new(...);

=item *

=for stopwords thusly

a blessed object that implements the C<request> method, which will be saved as
a coderef thusly (this allows you to use your own dispatcher implementation):

    sub {
        my $request = shift;
        return $response->request($request);


Instance mappings take priority over global (class method) mappings - if no
matches are found from mappings added to the instance, the global mappings are
then examined. When no matches have been found, a 404 response is returned.

This method returns the C<Test::LWP::UserAgent> object or class.

=head2 C<map_network_response($request_specification)>

Same as C<map_response> above, only requests that match this specification will
not use a response that you specify, but instead uses a real L<LWP::UserAgent>
to dispatch your request to the network.

If called on an instance, all options passed to the constructor (e.g. timeout)
are used for making the real network call. If called as a class method, a
pristine L<LWP::UserAgent> object with no customized options will be used

This method returns the C<Test::LWP::UserAgent> object or class.

=head2 C<unmap_all(instance_only?)>

When called as a class method, removes all mappings set up globally (across all
objects). Mappings set up on an individual object will still remain.

When called as an object method, removes I<all> mappings both globally and on
this instance, unless a true value is passed as an argument, in which only
mappings local to the object will be removed. (Any true value will do, so you
can pass a meaningful string.)

This method returns the C<Test::LWP::UserAgent> object or class.

=head2 C<register_psgi($domain, $app)>

Register a particular L<PSGI> app (code reference) to be used when requests
for a domain are received (matches are made exactly against
C<< $request->uri->host >>).  The request is passed to the C<$app> for processing,
and the L<PSGI> response is converted back to an L<HTTP::Response> (you must
already have loaded L<HTTP::Message::PSGI> or equivalent, as this is not done
for you).

You can also use C<register_psgi> with a regular expression as the first
argument, or any of the other forms used by C<map_response>, if you wish, as
calling C<< $test_ua->register_psgi($domain, $app) >> is equivalent to:

        sub { HTTP::Response->from_psgi($app->($_[0]->to_psgi)) },

This feature is useful for testing your PSGI applications, or for simulating
a server so as to test your client code.

You might find using L<Plack::Test> or L<Plack::Test::ExternalServer> easier
for your needs, so check those out as well.

This method returns the C<Test::LWP::UserAgent> object or class.

=head2 C<unregister_psgi($domain, instance_only?)>

When called as a class method, removes a domain->PSGI app entry that had been
registered globally.  Some mappings set up on an individual object may still

When called as an object method, removes a domain registration that was made
both globally and locally, unless a true value was passed as the second
argument, in which case only the registration local to the object will be
removed. This allows a different mapping made globally to take over.

If you want to mask a global registration on just one particular instance,
then add C<undef> as a mapping on your instance:

    $useragent->map_response($domain, undef);

This method returns the C<Test::LWP::UserAgent> object or class.

=head2 C<last_http_request_sent>

The last L<HTTP::Request> object that this object (if called on an object) or
module (if called as a class method) processed, whether or not it matched a
mapping you set up earlier.

Note that this is also available via C<< last_http_response_received->request >>.

=head2 C<last_http_response_received>

The last L<HTTP::Response> object that this module returned, as a result of a
mapping you set up earlier with C<map_response>. You shouldn't normally need to
use this, as you know what you responded with - you should instead be testing
how your code reacted to receiving this response.

=head2 C<last_useragent>

The last Test::LWP::UserAgent object that was used to send a request.
Obviously this only provides new information if called as a class method; you
can use this if you don't have direct control over the useragent itself, to
get the object that was used, to verify options such as the network timeout.

=head2 C<network_fallback>

=for stopwords ORed

Getter/setter method for the network_fallback preference that will be used on
this object (if called as an instance method), or globally, if called as a
class method.  Note that the actual behaviour used on an object is the ORed
value of the instance setting and the global setting.

=head2 C<send_request($request)>

This is the only method from L<LWP::UserAgent> that has been overridden, which
processes the L<HTTP::Request>, sends to the network, then creates the
L<HTTP::Response> object from the reply received. Here, we loop through your
local and global domain registrations, and local and global mappings (in this
order) and returns the B<first match found>; otherwise, a simple 404 response is
returned (unless C<network_fallback> was specified as a constructor option,
in which case unmatched requests will be delivered to the network.)

All other methods from L<LWP::UserAgent> are available unchanged.

=head1 Usage with SOAP requests

=head2 L<SOAP::Lite>

To use this module when communicating via L<SOAP::Lite> with a SOAP server (either a real one,
with live network requests, L<see above|/network_fallback> or with one simulated
with mapped responses), simply do this:

    use SOAP::Lite;
    use SOAP::Transport::HTTP;
    $SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Client::USERAGENT_CLASS = 'Test::LWP::UserAgent';

You must then make all your configuration changes and mappings globally.


=head2 L<XML::Compile::SOAP>

=for stopwords WSDL

When using L<XML::Compile::SOAP> with a compiled WSDL, you can change the
useragent object via L<XML::Compile::Transport::SOAPHTTP>:

    my $call = $wsdl->compileClient(
        transport => XML::Compile::Transport::SOAPHTTP->new(
            user_agent => $useragent,
            address => $wsdl->endPoint,

See also L<XML::Compile::SOAP::FAQ/Adding HTTP headers>.


Most mock libraries on the CPAN use L<Test::MockObject>, which is widely considered
not good practice (among other things, C<@ISA> is violated, it requires
knowing far too much about the module's internals, and is very clumsy to work
with).  (L<This blog entry|>
is one of many that chronicles its issues.)

This module is a direct descendant of L<LWP::UserAgent>, exports nothing into
your namespace, and all access is via method calls, so it is fully inheritable
should you desire to add more features or override some bits of functionality.

(Aside from the constructor), it only overrides the one method in L<LWP::UserAgent> that issues calls to the
network, so real L<HTTP::Request> and L<HTTP::Headers> objects are used
throughout. It provides a method (C<last_http_request_sent>) to access the last
L<HTTP::Request>, for testing things like the URI and headers that your code
sent to L<LWP::UserAgent>.


=for stopwords AirG Yury Zavarin mst

L<AirG Inc.|>, my former employer, and the first user of this distribution.

mst - Matt S. Trout <>, for the better name of this
distribution, and for the PSGI registration concept.

Also Yury Zavarin, whose L<Test::Mock::LWP::Dispatch> inspired me to write this
module, and from where I borrowed some aspects of the API.

=head1 SEE ALSO

=over 4

=item *

L<Perl advent article, 2012|>

=item *


=item *


=item *

L<URI>, L<HTTP::Request>, L<HTTP::Response>

=item *


=item *

L<PSGI>, L<HTTP::Message::PSGI>, L<LWP::Protocol::PSGI>,

=item *

L<Plack::Test>, L<Plack::Test::ExternalServer>


=head1 SUPPORT

Bugs may be submitted through L<the RT bug tracker|>
(or L<|>).

There is also a mailing list available for users of this distribution, at

There is also an irc channel available for users of this distribution, at
L<C<#perl> on C<>|irc://>.

I am also usually active on irc, as 'ether' at C<>.

=head1 AUTHOR

Karen Etheridge <>


=for stopwords Tom Hukins

Tom Hukins <>


This software is copyright (c) 2012 by Karen Etheridge.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.