package Text::Autoformat;
$Text::Autoformat::VERSION = '1.75';
use 5.006;
use strict;
use warnings;
use Carp;

require Exporter;

use Text::Reform qw( form tag break_at break_with break_wrap break_TeX );
use Text::Autoformat::Hang;
use Text::Autoformat::NullHang;

our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
our @EXPORT = qw( autoformat );
our @EXPORT_OK =
    qw( form tag break_at break_with break_wrap break_TeX ignore_headers );


my %std_highlight_ignore = map {$_=>1} qw {
    a an at as and are
    but by 
    ere
    for from
    in into is
    of on onto or over
    per
    the to that than
    until unto upon
    via
    with while whilst within without
};

my $STD_HIGHLIGHT_IGNORES = sub {
    my ($word) = @_;
    return $std_highlight_ignore{lc $word} ? recase($word,'lower') : recase($word,'title');
};

my @entities = qw {
    Á   á      Â    â        Æ    æ
    À   à      Α    α        Ã   ã
    Ä     ä        Β     β         Ç   ç
    Χ      χ         Δ    δ        É   é
    Ê    ê       È   è       Ε  ε
    Η      η         Ð      ð          Ë     ë
    Γ    γ       Í   í       Î    î
    Ì   ì      Ι     ι         Ï     ï
    Κ    κ       Λ   λ       Μ       μ
    Ñ   ñ      Ν       ν           Ó   ó
    Ô    ô       Œ    œ        Ò   ò
    Ω    ω       Ο  ο      Õ   õ
    Ö     ö        Φ      φ          Π       π
    ″    ′       Ψ      ψ          Ρ      ρ
    Š   š      Σ    σ        Τ      τ
    Θ    θ       Þ    þ        Ú   ú
    Û    û       Ù   ù       Υ  υ
    Ü     ü        Ξ       ξ           Ý   ý
    Ÿ     ÿ        Ζ     ζ         
};

my %lower_entities = @entities;
my %upper_entities = reverse @entities;

my %casing = (
    lower => [ \%lower_entities,  \%lower_entities,
           sub { $_ = lc },   sub { $_ = lc } ],
    upper => [ \%upper_entities,  \%upper_entities,
           sub { $_ = uc },   sub { $_ = uc } ],
    title => [ \%upper_entities,  \%lower_entities,
           sub { $_ = ucfirst lc }, sub { $_ = lc } ],
);

my $default_margin = 72;
my $default_widow  = 10;

$Text::Autoformat::widow_slack = 0.1;


sub defn($)
{
    return $_[0] if defined $_[0];
    return "";
}

my $ignore_headers = qr/
    \A
    (?: From \b .* $)?
    (?: [^:\n]+ : .* \n
        (?: [ \t] .* \n)*
    )+
    \s*
    \Z
    /mx;
my $ignore_indent  = qr/^[^\S\n].*(\n[^\S\n].*)*$/;

sub ignore_headers { $_[0] && /$ignore_headers/ }

# BITS OF A TEXT LINE

my $quotechar = qq{[!#%=|:;]};
my $quotechunk = qq{(?:$quotechar(?![a-z])|(?:[a-z]\\w*)?>+)};
my $QUOTER = qq{(?:(?i)(?:$quotechunk(?:[ \\t]*$quotechunk)*))};

my $separator = q/(?:[-_]{2,}|[=#*]{3,}|[+~]{4,})/;

use overload;
sub autoformat  # ($text, %args)
{
    my ($text,%args,$toSTDOUT);

    foreach ( @_ )
    {
        if (ref eq 'HASH')
            { %args = (%args, %$_) }
        elsif (!defined($text) && !ref || overload::Method($_,'""'))
            { $text = "$_" }
        else {
            croak q{Usage: autoformat([text],[{options}])}
        }
    }

    unless (defined $text) {
        $text = join("",<STDIN>);
        $toSTDOUT = !defined wantarray();
    }

    return $text unless $text =~ /\S/;

    $args{right}   = $default_margin unless exists $args{right};
    $args{justify} = "" unless exists $args{justify};
    $args{widow}   = 0 if ($args{justify}||"") =~ /full/;
    $args{widow}   = $default_widow unless exists $args{widow};
    $args{case}    = '' unless exists $args{case};
    $args{lists}   = 1 unless exists $args{lists};
    $args{squeeze} = 1 unless exists $args{squeeze};
    $args{gap}     = 0 unless exists $args{gap};
    $args{break}  = break_at('-') unless exists $args{break};
    $args{impfill} = ! exists $args{fill};
    $args{expfill} = $args{fill};
    $args{tabspace} = 8 unless exists $args{tabspace};
    $args{renumber} = 1 unless exists $args{renumber};
    $args{autocentre} = 1 unless exists $args{autocentre};
    $args{_centred} = 1 if $args{justify} =~ /cent(er(ed)?|red?)/;
    $args{all} ||= $args{mail};

    # SPECIAL IGNORANCE...
    if ($args{ignore}) {
        $args{all} = 1;
        $args{ignore} = _build_ignore( $args{ignore} );
    }
    else {
        $args{ignore} = sub{0};
    }

    if ( $args{mail} ) {
        my $ignore = $args{ignore};
        $args{ignore} = sub { $ignore->(@_) || ignore_headers(@_) };
    }
    
    # DETABIFY
    my @rawlines = split /\n/, $text;
    use Text::Tabs; $tabstop = $args{tabspace};
    @rawlines = expand(@rawlines);

    # HANDLE QUOTING CHANGE
    my $quoter = exists $args{quoter} ? $args{quoter} : $QUOTER;
    $quoter =~ s/<QUOTER>/$QUOTER/g;

    # PARSE EACH LINE

    my $pre = 0;
    my @lines;
    foreach (@rawlines)
    {
            push @lines, { raw     => $_ };
            s/\A([ \t]*)($quoter?)([ \t]*)//
                or die "Internal Error ($@) on '$_'";
            $lines[-1]{presig} =  $lines[-1]{prespace}   = defn $1;
            $lines[-1]{presig} .= $lines[-1]{quoter}     = defn $2;
            $lines[-1]{presig} .= $lines[-1]{quotespace} = defn $3;

            $lines[-1]{hang} = Text::Autoformat::Hang->new($_, $args{lists});

            s/([ \t]*)(.*?)(\s*)$//
                or die "Internal Error ($@) on '$_'";
            $lines[-1]{hangspace} = defn $1;
            $lines[-1]{text} = defn $2;
            $lines[-1]{empty} = $lines[-1]{hang}->empty() && $2 !~ /\S/;
            $lines[-1]{separator} = $lines[-1]{text} =~ /^$separator$/;
    }

    # SUBDIVIDE DOCUMENT INTO COHERENT SUBSECTIONS

    my @chunks;
    push @chunks, [shift @lines];
    foreach my $line (@lines)
    {
        if ($line->{separator} ||
            $line->{quoter} ne $chunks[-1][-1]->{quoter} ||
            $line->{empty} ||
            @chunks && $chunks[-1][-1]->{empty})
        {
            push @chunks, [$line];
        }
        else
        {
            push @{$chunks[-1]}, $line;
        }
    }



 # DETECT CENTRED PARAS

    CHUNK: foreach my $chunk ( @chunks )
    {
        next CHUNK if !$args{autocentre} || @$chunk < 2 || $chunk->[0]{hang};
        my @length;
        my $ave = 0;
        foreach my $line (@$chunk)
        {
            my $prespace = $line->{quoter}  ? $line->{quotespace}
                            : $line->{prespace};
            my $pagewidth = 
                2*length($prespace) + length($line->{text});
            push @length, [length $prespace,$pagewidth];
            $ave += $pagewidth;
        }
        $ave /= @length;
        my $diffpre = 0;
        foreach my $l (0..$#length)
        {
            next CHUNK unless abs($length[$l][1]-$ave) <= 2;
            $diffpre ||= $length[$l-1][0] != $length[$l][0]
                if $l > 0;
        }
        next CHUNK unless $diffpre;
        foreach my $line (@$chunk)
        {
            $line->{centred} = 1;
            ($line->{quoter} ? $line->{quotespace}
                     : $line->{prespace}) = "";
        }
    }

    # REDIVIDE INTO PARAGRAPHS

    my @paras;
    foreach my $chunk ( @chunks )
    {
        my $first = 1;
        my $firstfrom;
        foreach my $line ( @{$chunk} )
        {
            if ($first ||
                $line->{quoter} ne $paras[-1]->{quoter} ||
                $paras[-1]->{separator} ||
                !$line->{hang}->empty
               )
            {
                push @paras, $line;
                $first = 0;
                $firstfrom = length($line->{raw}) - length($line->{text});
            }
            else
            {
                my $extraspace = length($line->{raw}) - length($line->{text}) - $firstfrom;
                $extraspace = 0 if $extraspace < 0;
                $paras[-1]->{text} .= "\n" . q{ }x$extraspace . $line->{text};
                $paras[-1]->{raw} .= "\n" . $line->{raw};
            }
        }
    }

    # SELECT PARAS TO HANDLE

    my $remainder = "";
    if ($args{all}) { # STOP AT MAIL TERMINATOR IF $args{mail}
        my $lastignored = 1;
        for my $index (0..$#paras) {
            local $_ = $paras[$index]{raw} . "\n";
            $paras[$index]{ignore} = $args{ignore}($lastignored);
            $lastignored &&= $paras[$index]{ignore};
            next unless $args{mail} && /^--\s*$/;
            $remainder = join "\n", map { $_->{raw} } splice @paras, $index;
                $remainder .= "\n" unless $remainder =~ /\n\z/;
            last;
        }
    }
    else { # JUST THE FIRST PARA
        $remainder = join "\n", map { $_->{raw} } @paras[1..$#paras];
            $remainder .= "\n" unless $remainder =~ /\n\z/;
        @paras = ( $paras[0] );
    }

    # RE-CASE TEXT
    if ($args{case}) {
        foreach my $para ( @paras ) {
            next if $para->{ignore};
            if (ref $args{case} eq 'CODE') {
                $para->{text} = entitle($para->{text}, $args{case});
            }
            elsif ($args{case} =~ /upper/i) {
                $para->{text} = recase($para->{text}, 'upper');
            }
            elsif ($args{case} =~ /lower/i) {
                $para->{text} = recase($para->{text}, 'lower');
            }
            elsif ($args{case} =~ /title/i) {
                $para->{text} = entitle($para->{text}, 0);
            }
            elsif ($args{case} =~ /highlight/i) {
                $para->{text} = entitle($para->{text}, $STD_HIGHLIGHT_IGNORES);
            }
            elsif ($args{case} =~ /sentence(\s*)/i) {
                my $trailer = $1;
                $args{squeeze}=0 if $trailer && $trailer ne " ";
                ensentence();
                $para->{text} =~ s/(\S+(\s+|$))/ensentence($1, $trailer)/ge;
            }
            $para->{text} =~ s/\b([A-Z])[.]/\U$1./gi; # ABBREVS
        }
    }

    # ALIGN QUOTERS
    # DETERMINE HANGING MARKER TYPE (BULLET, ALPHA, ROMAN, ETC.)

    my %sigs;
    my $lastquoted = 0;
    my $lastprespace = 0;
    for my $i ( 0..$#paras )
    {
        my $para = $paras[$i];
        next if $para->{ignore};

     if ($para->{quoter})
        {
            if ($lastquoted) { $para->{prespace} = $lastprespace }
            else         { $lastquoted = 1; $lastprespace = $para->{prespace} }
        }
        else
        {
            $lastquoted = 0;
        }
    }

# RENUMBER PARAGRAPHS

    for my $para ( @paras ) {
        next if $para->{ignore};
        my $sig = $para->{presig} . $para->{hang}->signature();
        push @{$sigs{$sig}{hangref}}, $para;
        $sigs{$sig}{hangfields} = $para->{hang}->fields()-1
            unless defined $sigs{$sig}{hangfields};
    }

    while (my ($sig,$val) = each %sigs) {
        next unless $sig =~ /rom/;
        field: for my $field ( 0..$val->{hangfields} )
        {
            my $romlen = 0;
            foreach my $para ( @{$val->{hangref}} )
            {
                my $hang = $para->{hang};
                my $fieldtype = $hang->field($field);
                next field 
                    unless $fieldtype && $fieldtype =~ /rom|let/;
                if ($fieldtype eq 'let') {
                    foreach my $para ( @{$val->{hangref}} ) {
                        $hang->field($field=>'let')
                    }
                }
                else {
                    $romlen += length $hang->val($field);
                }
            }
            # NO ROMAN LETTER > 1 CHAR -> ALPHABETICS
            if ($romlen <= @{$val->{hangref}}) {
                foreach my $para ( @{$val->{hangref}} ) {
                    $para->{hang}->field($field=>'let')
                }
            }
        }
    }

    my %prev;

    for my $para ( @paras ) {
        next if $para->{ignore};
        my $sig = $para->{presig} . $para->{hang}->signature();
        if ($args{renumber}) {
            unless ($para->{quoter}) {
                $para->{hang}->incr($prev{""}, $prev{$sig});
                $prev{""} = $prev{$sig} = $para->{hang}
                    unless $para->{hang}->empty;
            }
        }
            
        # COLLECT MAXIMAL HANG LENGTHS BY SIGNATURE

        my $siglen = $para->{hang}->length();
        $sigs{$sig}{hanglen} = $siglen
            if ! $sigs{$sig}{hanglen} ||
               $sigs{$sig}{hanglen} < $siglen;
    }

    # PROPAGATE MAXIMAL HANG LENGTH

    while (my ($sig,$val) = each %sigs)
    {
        foreach (@{$val->{hangref}}) {
            $_->{hanglen} = $val->{hanglen};
        }
    }

    # BUILD FORMAT FOR EACH PARA THEN FILL IT 

    $text = "";
    my $gap = @paras && $paras[0]->{empty} ? 0 : $args{gap};
    for my $para ( @paras )
    {
        if ($para->{empty}) {
            $gap += 1 + ($para->{text} =~ tr/\n/\n/);
        }
        if ($para->{ignore}) {
            $text .= (!$para->{empty} ? "\n"x($args{gap}-$gap > 0 ? ($args{gap}-$gap) : 0) : "") ;
            $text .= $para->{raw};
            $text .= "\n" unless $para->{raw} =~ /\n\z/;
        }
        else {
            my $leftmargin = $args{left} ? " "x($args{left}-1)
                     : $para->{prespace};
            my $hlen = $para->{hanglen} || $para->{hang}->length;
            my $hfield = ($hlen==1 ? '~' : '>'x$hlen);
            my @hang;
            push @hang, $para->{hang}->stringify if $hlen;
            my $format = $leftmargin
               . quotemeta($para->{quoter})
               . $para->{quotespace}
               . $hfield
               . $para->{hangspace};
            my $rightslack = int (($args{right}-length $leftmargin)*$Text::Autoformat::widow_slack);
            my ($widow_okay, $rightindent, $firsttext, $newtext) = (0,0);
            do {
                my $tlen = $args{right}-$rightindent-length($leftmargin
                            . $para->{quoter}
                            . $para->{quotespace}
                            . $hfield
                            . $para->{hangspace});
                next if blockquote($text,$para, $format, $tlen, \@hang, \%args);
                my $tfield = ( $tlen==1                          ? '~'
                     : $para->{centred}||$args{_centred} ? '|'x$tlen
                     : $args{justify} eq 'right'         ? ']'x$tlen
                     : $args{justify} eq 'full'          ? '['x($tlen-2) . ']]'
                     : $para->{centred}||$args{_centred} ? '|'x$tlen
                     :                                     '['x$tlen
                         );
            my $tryformat = "$format$tfield";
            $newtext = (!$para->{empty} ? "\n"x($args{gap} > $gap ? ($args{gap}-$gap) : 0) : "") 
                     . form( { squeeze=>$args{squeeze}, trim=>1,
                       break=>$args{break},
                       fill => !(!($args{expfill}
                        || $args{impfill} &&
                           !$para->{centred}))
                       },
                    $tryformat, @hang,
                    $para->{text});
            $firsttext ||= $newtext;
            (my $widow) = $newtext =~ /([^\n]*)$/;
            $widow =~ s/^\s+//;
            $widow_okay = $para->{empty} || length($widow) >= $args{widow};
            } until $widow_okay || ++$rightindent > $rightslack;
    
            $text .= $widow_okay ? $newtext : $firsttext;
        }
        $gap = 0 unless $para->{empty};
    }


    # RETURN FORMATTED TEXT

    if ($toSTDOUT) { print STDOUT $text . $remainder; return }
    return $text . $remainder;
}

sub _build_ignore {
    my $ignore_arg = shift;
    my $ig_type = ref $ignore_arg;
    my $ignore;
    if ($ig_type eq 'Regexp') {
        my $regex = $ignore_arg;
        $ignore = sub { /$regex/ };
    } elsif ($ig_type eq 'ARRAY') {
        my @elements = map { _build_ignore($_) } @$ignore_arg;
        $ignore = sub {
            for my $sub (@elements) { return 1 if $sub->(@_) }
            return 0;
        };
    }
    elsif ($ignore_arg =~ /^indent/i) {
        $ignore = sub { ignore_headers(@_) || /$ignore_indent/ };
    }
    else {
        $ignore = $ignore_arg;
    }
    croak "Expected suboutine reference as value for -ignore option"
        if ref $ignore ne 'CODE';
    return $ignore;
}

my $alpha = qr/[^\W\d_]/;
my $notalpha = qr/[\W\d_]/;
my $word = qr/\pL(?:\pL'?)*/;
my $upper = qr/[^\Wa-z\d_]/;
my $lower = qr/[^\WA-Z\d_]/;
my $mixed = qr/$alpha*?(?:$lower$upper|$upper$lower)$alpha*/;

sub recase {
    my ($origtext, $case) = @_;
    my ($entities, $other_entities, $first, $rest) = @{$casing{$case}};

    my $text = "";
    my @pieces = split /(&[a-z]+;)/i, $origtext;
    push @pieces, "" if @pieces % 2;
    return $text unless @pieces;
    local $_ = shift @pieces;
    if (length $_) {
        $entities = $other_entities;
        &$first;
        $text .= $_;
    }
    return $text unless @pieces;
    $_ = shift @pieces;
    $text .= $entities->{$_} || $_;
    while (@pieces) {
        $_ = shift @pieces; &$rest; $text .= $_;
        $_ = shift @pieces; $text .= $other_entities->{$_} || $_;
    }
    return $text;
}

my $alword = qr{(?:\pL|&[a-z]+;)(?:[\pL']|&[a-z]+;)*}i;

sub entitle {
    my ($text, $retitler_ref) = @_;

    # put into lowercase if on stop list, else titlecase
    $text =~ s{($alword)}
              { $retitler_ref ? $retitler_ref->($1) : recase($1,'title') }gex;

    if ($retitler_ref == $STD_HIGHLIGHT_IGNORES) {
        # First and final words always capitalized...
        $text =~ s/^($alword) /recase($1,'title')/ex;
        $text =~ s/ ($alword)$/recase($1,'title')/ex;

        # treat parethesized portion as a complete title
        $text =~ s/\( ($alword) /'('.recase($1,'title')/ex;
        $text =~ s/($alword) \) /recase($1,'title').')'/ex;

        # capitalize first word following colon or semi-colon
        $text =~ s/ ( [:;] \s+ ) ($alword) /$1 . recase($2,'title')/ex;
    }

    return $text;
}

my $gen_abbrev = join '|',
    qw{ etc[.]  pp[.]   ph[.]?d[.] },
    '(?:[A-Z][.])(?:[A-Z][.])+',
    '(^[^a-zA-Z]*([a-z][.])+)';

my $term = q{(?:[.]|[!?]+)};

my $eos = 1;
my $brsent = 0;

sub ensentence {
    do { $eos = 1; return } unless @_;
    my ($str, $trailer) = @_;
    if ($str =~ /^([^a-z]*)I[^a-z]*?($term?)[^a-z]*$/i) {
        $eos = $2;
        $brsent = $1 =~ /^[[(]/;
        return uc $str
    }
    unless ($str =~ /[a-z].*[A-Z]|[A-Z].*[a-z]/) {
        $str = lc $str;
    }
    if ($eos) {
        $str =~ s/([a-z])/uc $1/ie;
        $brsent = $str =~ /^[[(]/;
    }
    $eos = $str !~ /^($gen_abbrev)[^a-z]*\s/i
        && $str =~ /[a-z][^a-z]*$term([^a-z]*)\s/
        && !($1=~/[])]/ && !$brsent);
    $str =~ s/\s+$/$trailer/ if $eos && $trailer;
    return $str;
}

# blockquote($text,$para, $format, $tlen, \@hang, \%args);
sub blockquote {
    my ($dummy, $para, $format, $tlen, $hang, $args) = @_;

    $para->{text} =~
        / \A(\s*)       # $1 - leading whitespace (quotation)
       (["']|``)        # $2 - opening quotemark
       (.*)         # $3 - quotation
       (''|\2)      # $4 closing quotemark
       \s*?\n       # trailing whitespace
       (\1[ ]+)     # $5 - leading whitespace (attribution)
       (--|-)       # $6 - attribution introducer
       (.*?$)       # $7 - attribution line 1
       ((\5.*?$)*)      # $8 - attributions lines 2-N
       \s*\Z
     /xsm
     or return;

    #print "[$1][$2][$3][$4][$5][$6][$7]\n";
    my $indent = length $1;
    my $text = $2.$3.$4;
    my $qindent = length $2;
    my $aindent = length $5;
    my $attribintro = $6;
    my $attrib = $7.$8;
    $text =~ s/\n/ /g;

    $_[0] .= 

                form {squeeze=>$args->{squeeze}, trim=>1,
          fill => $args->{expfill}
                   },
       $format . q{ }x$indent . q{<}x$tlen,
             @$hang, $text,
       $format . q{ }x($qindent) . q{[}x($tlen-$qindent), 
             @$hang, $text,
       {squeeze=>0},
       $format . q{ } x $aindent . q{>> } . q{[}x($tlen-$aindent-3),
             @$hang, $attribintro, $attrib;
    return 1;
}

1;

__END__

=head1 NAME

Text::Autoformat - Automatic text wrapping and reformatting

=head1 VERSION

This document describes version 1.72 of Text::Autoformat

=head1 SYNOPSIS

 # Minimal use: read from STDIN, format to STDOUT...

    use Text::Autoformat;
    autoformat;

 # In-memory formatting...

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext;

 # Configuration...

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { %options };

 # Margins (1..72 by default)...

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { left=>8, right=>70 };

 # Justification (left by default)...

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { justify => 'left' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { justify => 'right' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { justify => 'full' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { justify => 'centre' };

 # Filling (does so by default)...

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { fill=>0 };

 # Squeezing whitespace (does so by default)...

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { squeeze=>0 };

 # Select appropriate tabspacing (default is 8 spaces per tab):

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { tabspace=>4 };

 # Case conversions...

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { case => 'lower' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { case => 'upper' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { case => 'sentence' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { case => 'title' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { case => 'highlight' };
    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { case => \&my_case_func };

 # Selective reformatting

    $formatted = autoformat $rawtext, { ignore=>qr/^\t/ };


=head1 BACKGROUND

=head2 The problem

Perl plaintext formatters just aren't smart enough. Given a typical
piece of plaintext in need of formatting:

        In comp.lang.perl.misc you wrote:
        : > <CN = Clooless Noobie> writes:
        : > CN> PERL sux because:
        : > CN>    * It doesn't have a switch statement and you have to put $
        : > CN>signs in front of everything
        : > CN>    * There are too many OR operators: having |, || and 'or'
        : > CN>operators is confusing
        : > CN>    * VB rools, yeah!!!!!!!!!
        : > CN> So anyway, how can I stop reloads on a web page?
        : > CN> Email replies only, thanks - I don't read this newsgroup.
        : >
        : > Begone, sirrah! You are a pathetic, Bill-loving, microcephalic
        : > script-infant.
        : Sheesh, what's with this group - ask a question, get toasted! And how
        : *dare* you accuse me of Ianuphilia!

both the venerable Unix L<fmt> tool and Perl's standard Text::Wrap module
produce:

        In comp.lang.perl.misc you wrote:  : > <CN = Clooless Noobie>
        writes:  : > CN> PERL sux because:  : > CN>    * It doesn't
        have a switch statement and you have to put $ : > CN>signs in
        front of everything : > CN>    * There are too many OR
        operators: having |, || and 'or' : > CN>operators is confusing
        : > CN>    * VB rools, yeah!!!!!!!!!  : > CN> So anyway, how
        can I stop reloads on a web page?  : > CN> Email replies only,
        thanks - I don't read this newsgroup.  : > : > Begone, sirrah!
        You are a pathetic, Bill-loving, microcephalic : >
        script-infant.  : Sheesh, what's with this group - ask a
        question, get toasted! And how : *dare* you accuse me of
        Ianuphilia!

Other formatting modules -- such as Text::Correct and Text::Format --
provide more control over their output, but produce equally poor results
when applied to arbitrary input. They simply don't understand the
structural conventions of the text they're reformatting.

=head2 The solution

The Text::Autoformat module provides a subroutine named C<autoformat> that
wraps text to specified margins. However, C<autoformat> reformats its
input by analysing the text's structure, so it wraps the above example
like so:

        In comp.lang.perl.misc you wrote:
        : > <CN = Clooless Noobie> writes:
        : > CN> PERL sux because:
        : > CN>    * It doesn't have a switch statement and you
        : > CN>      have to put $ signs in front of everything
        : > CN>    * There are too many OR operators: having |, ||
        : > CN>      and 'or' operators is confusing
        : > CN>    * VB rools, yeah!!!!!!!!! So anyway, how can I
        : > CN>      stop reloads on a web page? Email replies
        : > CN>      only, thanks - I don't read this newsgroup.
        : >
        : > Begone, sirrah! You are a pathetic, Bill-loving,
        : > microcephalic script-infant.
        : Sheesh, what's with this group - ask a question, get toasted!
        : And how *dare* you accuse me of Ianuphilia!

Note that the various quoting conventions have been observed. In fact,
their structure has been used to determine where some paragraphs begin.
Furthermore C<autoformat> correctly distinguished between the leading
'*' bullets of the nested list (which were outdented) and the leading
emphatic '*' of "*dare*" (which was inlined).

=head1 DESCRIPTION

=head2 Paragraphs

The fundamental task of the C<autoformat> subroutine is to identify and
rearrange independent paragraphs in a text. Paragraphs typically consist
of a series of lines containing at least one non-whitespace character,
followed by one or more lines containing only optional whitespace.
This is a more liberal definition than many other formatters
use: most require an empty line to terminate a paragraph. Paragraphs may
also be denoted by bulleting, numbering, or quoting (see the following
sections).

Once a paragraph has been isolated, C<autoformat> fills and re-wraps its
lines according to the margins that are specified in its argument list.
These are placed after the text to be formatted, in a hash reference:

        $tidied = autoformat($messy, {left=>20, right=>60});

By default, C<autoformat> uses a left margin of 1 (first column) and a
right margin of 72.

You can also control whether (and how) C<autoformat> breaks words at the
end of a line, using the C<'break'> option:

    # Turn off all hyphenation
    use Text::Autoformat qw(autoformat break_wrap);
        $tidied = autoformat($messy, {break=>break_wrap});

    # Default hyphenation
    use Text::Autoformat qw(autoformat break_at);
        $tidied = autoformat($messy, {break=>break_at('-')});

    # Use TeX::Hyphen module's hyphenation (module must be installed)
    use Text::Autoformat qw(autoformat break_TeX);
        $tidied = autoformat($messy, {break=>break_TeX});


Normally, C<autoformat> only reformats the first paragraph it encounters,
and leaves the remainder of the text unaltered. This behaviour is useful
because it allows a one-liner invoking the subroutine to be mapped
onto a convenient keystroke in a text editor, to provide 
one-paragraph-at-a-time reformatting:

        % cat .exrc

        map f !Gperl -MText::Autoformat -e'autoformat'

(Note that to facilitate such one-liners, if C<autoformat> is called
in a void context without any text data, it takes its text from
C<STDIN> and writes its result to C<STDOUT>).

To enable C<autoformat> to rearrange the entire input text at once, the
C<all> argument is used:

        $tidied_all = autoformat($messy, {left=>20, right=>60, all=>1});

C<autoformat> can also be directed to selectively reformat paragraphs,
using the C<ignore> argument:

        $tidied_some = autoformat($messy, {ignore=>qr/^[ \t]/});

The value for C<ignore> may be a C<qr>'d regex, a subroutine reference,
or the special string C<'indented'>.

If a regex is specified, any paragraph whose original text matches that
regex will not be reformatted (i.e. it will be printed verbatim).

If a subroutine is specified, that subroutine will be called once for
each paragraph (with C<$_> set to the paragraph's text). The subroutine is
expected to return a true or false value. If it returns true, the
paragraph will not be reformatted.

If the value of the C<ignore> option is the string C<'indented'>,
C<autoformat> will ignore any paragraph in which I<every> line begins with a
whitespace.

You may also specify multiple C<ignore> options by including them in 
an array-ref:

        $tidied_mesg = autoformat($messy, {ignore=>[qr/1/,'indented']});

One other special case of ignorance is ignoring mail headers and signature.
This option is specified using the C<mail> argument:

        $tidied_mesg = autoformat($messy_mesg, {mail=>1});

Note that the C<ignore> or C<mail> options automatically imply C<all>.


=head2 Bulleting and (re-)numbering

Often plaintext will include lists that are either:

        * bulleted,
        * simply numbered (i.e. 1., 2., 3., etc.), or
        * hierarchically numbered (1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2, 2.1. and so forth).

In such lists, each bulleted item is implicitly a separate paragraph,
and is formatted individually, with the appropriate indentation:

        * bulleted,
        * simply numbered (i.e. 1., 2., 3.,
          etc.), or
        * hierarchically numbered (1, 1.1,
          1.2, 1.3, 2, 2.1. and so forth).

More importantly, if the points are numbered, the numbering is
checked and reordered. For example, a list whose points have been
rearranged:

        1. Analyze problem
        3. Design algorithm
        1. Code solution
        5. Test
        4. Ship

would be renumbered automatically by C<autoformat>:

        1. Analyze problem
        2. Design algorithm
        3. Code solution
        4. Test
        5. Ship

The same reordering would be performed if the "numbering" was by letters
(C<a.> C<b.> C<c.> etc.) or Roman numerals (C<i.> C<ii.> C<iii.)> or by
some combination of these (C<1a.> C<1b.> C<2a.> C<2b.> etc.) Handling
disordered lists of letters and Roman numerals presents an interesting
challenge. A list such as:

        A. Put cat in box.
        D. Close lid.
        E. Activate Geiger counter.

should be reordered as C<A.> C<B.> C<C.,> whereas:

        I. Put cat in box.
        D. Close lid.
        XLI. Activate Geiger counter.

should be reordered C<I.> C<II.> C<III.> 

The C<autoformat> subroutine solves this problem by always interpreting 
alphabetic bullets as being letters, unless the full list consists
only of valid Roman numerals, at least one of which is two or
more characters long.

Note that renumbering starts at the first number actually given, rather than
restarting at the first possible number. To renumber from 1 (or A.) you must
change the first numbered bullet to that.

If automatic renumbering isn't wanted, just specify the C<'renumber'>
option with a false value. 

Note that normal numbers above 1000 at the start of a line are no longer
considered to be paragraph numbering. Numbered paragraphs running that
high are exceptionally rare, and much rarer than paragraphs that look
like these:

        Although it has long been popular (especially in the year
        2001) to point out that we now live in the Future, many
        of the promised miracles of Future Life have failed to
        eventuate. This is a new phenomenon (it didn't happen in
        1001) because the idea that the future might be different
        is a new phenomenon.

which the former numbering rules caused to be formatted like this:

        Although it has long been popular (especially in the year

        2001) to point out that we now live in the Future, many of the
              promised miracles of Future Life have failed to eventuate.
              This is a new phenomenon (it didn't happen in

        2002) because the idea that the future might be different is a
              new phenomenon.

but which are now formatted:

        Although it has long been popular (especially in the year 2001)
        to point out that we now live in the Future, many of the
        promised miracles of Future Life have failed to eventuate. This
        is a new phenomenon (it didn't happen in 1001) because the idea
        that the future might be different is a new phenomenon.

If you want numbers less than 1000 (or other characters strings currently
treated as bullets) to be ignored in this way, you can turn of list formatting
entirely by setting the C<'lists'> option to a false value.

You can also select which kinds of lists are recognized, by using a string as
the value of lists:

    # Don't recognize Roman numerals or alphabetics as list markers...
    autoformat { lists => 'number, bullet' }, $text;

    # Don't recognize bullets or numbers as list markers...
    autoformat { lists => 'roman, alpha' }, $text;

    # Recognize everything except Roman numerals as list markers...
    autoformat { lists => 'number, bullet, alpha' }, $text;

The string should contain one or more of the following words: C<number>,
C<bullet>, C<alpha>, C<roman>. C<autoformat()> will ignore any list type that
doesn't appear in the C<'lists'> string.

=head2 Quoting

Another case in which contiguous lines may be interpreted as belonging
to different paragraphs, is where they are quoted with distinct quoters.
For example:

        : > CN> So anyway, how can I stop reloads on a web page? Email
        : > CN> replies only, thanks - I don't read this newsgroup.
        : > Begone, sirrah! You are a pathetic, Bill-loving,
        : > microcephalic script-infant.
        : Sheesh, what's with this group - ask a question, get toasted!
        : And how *dare* you accuse me of Ianuphilia!

C<autoformat> recognizes the various quoting conventions used in this
example and treats it as three paragraphs to be independently
reformatted.

You may also override the default set of recognized quoters by specifying
a C<'quoter'> argument when calling C<autoformat()>. For example, to
format lines such as:

        // This is a comment
        // in the standard C(++)
        // comment-to-EOL
        // format

specify:

    autoformat($text, { quoter =E<gt> qr{//} })

Instead of completely replacing the existing set of quoters, you can
I<extend> them by specifying a pattern that includes the metasequence
C<< <QUOTER> >>, which is then replaced by the module's standard pattern
for quoters. So, for example, to add C<//> to the set of existing quoters:

    autoformat($text, { quoter =E<gt> qr{//|<QUOTER>} })


Block quotations present a different challenge. A typical formatter
would render the following quotation:

        "We are all of us in the gutter, but some of us are looking at
         the stars"
                                -- Oscar Wilde

like so:

        "We are all of us in the gutter, but some of us are looking at
        the stars" -- Oscar Wilde

C<autoformat> recognizes the quotation structure by matching the
following regular expression against the text component of each
paragraph:

        / \A(\s*) # leading whitespace for quotation (["']|``) # opening
        quotemark (.*) # quotation (''|\2) # closing quotemark \s*?\n #
        trailing whitespace after quotation (\1[ ]+) # leading
        whitespace for attribution
                                #   (must be indented more than
                                #   quotation)
          (--|-) # attribution introducer ([^\n]*?\n) # first
          attribution line ((\5[^\n]*?$)*) # other attribution lines
                                #   (indented no less than first line)
          \s*\Z # optional whitespace to end of paragraph /xsm

When reformatted (see below), the indentation and the attribution
structure will be preserved:

        "We are all of us in the gutter, but some of us are looking
         at the stars"
                                -- Oscar Wilde

=head2 Widow control

Note that in the last example, C<autoformat> broke the line at column
68, four characters earlier than it should have. It did so because, if
the full margin width had been used, the formatting would have left the
last two words by themselves on an oddly short last line:

        "We are all of us in the gutter, but some of us are looking at
        the stars"

This phenomenon is known as "widowing" and is heavily frowned upon in
typesetting circles. It looks ugly in plaintext too, so C<autoformat>
avoids it by stealing extra words from earlier lines in a paragraph, so
as to leave enough for a reasonable last line. The heuristic used is
that final lines must be at least 10 characters long (though this number
may be adjusted by passing a C<widow =E<gt> I<minlength>> argument to
C<autoformat>).

If the last line is too short, the paragraph's right margin is reduced
by one column, and the paragraph is reformatted. This process iterates
until either the last line exceeds nine characters or the margins have
been narrowed by 10% of their original separation. In the latter case,
the reformatter gives up and uses its original formatting.


=head2 Justification

The C<autoformat> subroutine also takes a named argument: C<{justify
=E<gt> I<type>}>, which specifies how each paragraph is to be justified.
The options are: C<'left'> (the default), C<'right',> C<'centre'> (or
C<'center'>), and C<'full'>. These act on the complete paragraph text
(but I<not> on any quoters before that text). For example, with
C<'right'> justification:

        R3>     Now is the Winter of our discontent made
        R3> glorious Summer by this son of York. And all
        R3> the clouds that lour'd upon our house In the
        R3>              deep bosom of the ocean buried.

Full justification is interesting in a fixed-width medium like plaintext
because it usually results in uneven spacing between words. Typically,
formatters provide this by distributing the extra spaces into the first
available gaps of each line:

        R3> Now  is  the  Winter  of our discontent made
        R3> glorious Summer by this son of York. And all
        R3> the  clouds  that  lour'd  upon our house In
        R3> the deep bosom of the ocean buried.

This produces a rather jarring visual effect, so C<autoformat> reverses
the strategy and inserts extra spaces at the end of lines:

        R3> Now is the  Winter of  our  discontent  made
        R3> glorious Summer by this son of York. And all
        R3> the clouds that lour'd  upon  our  house  In
        R3> the deep bosom of the ocean buried.

Most readers find this less disconcerting.

=head2 Implicit centring

Even if explicit centring is not specified, C<autoformat> will attempt
to automatically detect centred paragraphs and preserve their
justification. It does this by examining each line of the paragraph and
asking: "if this line were part of a centred paragraph, where would the
centre line have been?"

The answer can be determined by adding the length of leading whitespace
before the first word, plus half the length of the full set of words on
the line. That is, for a single line:

        $line =~ /^(\s*)(.*?)(\s*)$/ $centre =
        length($1)+0.5*length($2);

By making the same estimate for every line, and then comparing the
estimates, it is possible to deduce whether all the lines are centred
with respect to the same axis of symmetry (with an allowance of
E<plusmn>1 to cater for the inevitable rounding when the centre
positions of even-length rows were originally computed). If a common
axis of symmetry is detected, C<autoformat> assumes that the lines are
supposed to be centred, and switches to centre-justification mode for
that paragraph.

Note that this behaviour can to switched off entirely by setting the
C<"autocentre"> argument false.

=head2 Case transformations

The C<autoformat> subroutine can also optionally perform case
conversions on the text it processes. The C<{case =E<gt> I<type>}>
argument allows the user to specify six different conversions:

=over 4

=item C<'upper'>

This mode unconditionally converts every letter in the reformatted text
to upper-case;

=item C<'lower'>

This mode unconditionally converts every letter in the reformatted text
to lower-case;

=item C<'sentence'>

This mode attempts to generate correctly-cased sentences from the input
text. That is, the first letter after a sentence-terminating punctuator
is converted to upper-case. Then, each subsequent word in the sentence
is converted to lower-case, unless that word is originally mixed-case or
contains punctuation. For example, under C<{case =E<gt> 'sentence'}>:

        'POVERTY, MISERY, ETC. are the lot of the PhD candidate. alas!'

becomes:

        'Poverty, misery, etc. are the lot of the PhD candidate. Alas!'

Note that C<autoformat> is clever enough to recognize that the period
after abbreviations such as C<etc.> is not a sentence terminator.

If the argument is specified as C<'sentence '> (with one or more
trailing whitespace characters) those characters are used to replace the
single space that appears at the end of the sentence. For example,
C<autoformat($text, {case=E<gt>'sentence '}>) would produce:

        'Poverty, misery, etc. are the lot of the PhD candidate. Alas!'

=item C<'title'>

This mode behaves like C<'sentence'> except that the first letter of
I<every> word is capitalized:

        'What I Did On My Summer Vacation In Monterey'

=item C<'highlight'>

This mode behaves like C<'title'> except that trivial words are not
capitalized:

        'What I Did on my Summer Vacation in Monterey'

=item C<sub{...}>

If the argument for C<'case'> is a subroutine reference, that subroutine
is applied to each word and the result replaces the word in the text.

For example, to convert a string to hostage-case:

    my $ransom_note = sub {
        return join "",                    # ^  Reconcatenate
               map {/[aeiou]/i ? lc : uc}  # |  uPPeR aND LoWeR each
               split //,                   # |  Break into chars
               shift;                      # |  Take argument
    };

    $text = autoformat($text, {case => $ransom_note });
    # "FoR eXaMPLe, To CoNVeRT a STRiNG To HoSTaGe-CaSe:"

Or to highlight particular words:

    my @SPECIAL = qw( perl camel wall );
    sub highlight_specials {
        my ($word) = @_;
        return $word ~~ @SPECIAL ? uc($word) : $word;
    }

    $text = autoformat($text, {case => \&highlight_specials});
    # "It is easier for a CAMEL to pass through a WALL of PERL..."


=back

=head2 Selective reformatting

You can select which paragraphs C<autoformat> actually reformats (or,
rather, those it I<doesn't> reformat) using the C<"ignore"> flag.

For example:

        # Reformat all paras except those containing "verbatim"...
        print autoformat { all => 1, ignore => qr/verbatim/i }, $text;

        # Reformat all paras except those less that 3 lines long...
        print autoformat { all => 1, ignore => sub { tr/\n/\n/ < 3
        } }, $text;

        # Reformat all paras except those that are indented...
        print autoformat { all => 1, ignore => qr/^\s/m }, $text;

        # Reformat all paras except those that are indented (easier)...
        print autoformat { all => 1, ignore => 'indented' }, $text;


=head2 Handling tabs

Text::Autoformat replaces any tabs in the text it's formatting with the
appropriate number of spaces (using Text::Tabs to do its dirty work). It
normally assumes that each tab is equivalent to 8 space characters, but you
can change that default using the 'tabspace' option:

        print autoformat { tabspace => 4 }, $text;


=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Text::Reform> - provides functions for manual text wrapping and reformatting.

L<Text::Aligner> - provides a single function for justifying strings
according to various styles.

L<Text::Format> - a class that provides methods for formatting
text in various ways.

L<Data::Formatter::Text> - format various Perl data structures as text,
in different ways according to the type of data.

=head1 REPOSITORY

L<https://github.com/neilb/Text-Autoformat>

=head1 AUTHOR

Damian Conway (damian@conway.org)

=head1 BUGS

There are undoubtedly serious bugs lurking somewhere in code this funky
:-) Bug reports and other feedback are most welcome.

=head1 LICENCE AND COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 1997-2007, Damian Conway C<< <DCONWAY@CPAN.org> >>. All rights reserved.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See L<perlartistic>.


=head1 DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY

BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE
ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH
YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENCE, BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE
THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING
RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A
FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF
SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGES.