## Author: Achim Bohnet <ach@mpe.mpg.de>
##
## Copyright (c) 1997-1998 Achim Bohnet. All rights reserved.
## You can redistribute this document and/or modify it under the
## same terms as Perl itself.
##
## Update for Tk804.025, Steve Lidie, 2004/01/11.

=head1 NAME

Tk::mega - Perl/Tk support for writing widgets in pure Perl

=for category Derived Widgets

=head1 SYNOPSIS

Define the widget's new class name:

S<    >B<package Tk::>I<MyNewWidget>;

For composite widget classes:

S<    >B<use base qw/ Tk::container />; # where B<container> is I<Frame> or I<Toplevel>

For derived widget classes:

S<    >B<use base qw/ Tk::Derived Tk::DerivedWidget /;>

Install the new widget in Tk's namespace and establish class and instance
constructors.

S<    >B<Construct Tk::>I<Widget> I<'MyNewWidget'>;

S<    >B<sub ClassInit> { I<my ($self, $args) = @_; ...> }

S<    >B<sub Populate> { I<my ($self, $args) = @_; ...> }

=head1 DESCRIPTION

The goal of the mega-widget support of Perl/Tk is to make it
easy to write mega-widgets that obey the same protocol and
interface that the Tk core widgets support.
I<For mega-widget sample code please run the B<widget> demonstration program and go to the section B<Sample Perl Mega-Widgets>.>

There are two kinds of mega-widgets:

=over 4

=item * Composite Widgets

A composite widget is composed with one or more existing widgets.
The composite widget looks to the user like a simple single widget.
A well known example is the file selection box.

=item * Derived Widgets

A derived widget adds/modifies/removes properties and methods
from a single widget (this widget may itself be a mega-widget).

=back

=head1 MEGA-WIDGET SUPPORT

=head2 Advertise

Give a subwidget a symbolic name.

Usage:

S<    >I<$self>-E<gt>B<Advertise>(B<name>=E<gt>I<$widget>);

Gives a subwidget I<$widget> of the mega-widget I<$self> the
name B<name>.  One can retrieve the reference of an advertised subwidget
with the L<Subwidget|"Subwidget"> method.

B<Comment:> Mega-Widget Writers: Please make sure to document the
advertised widgets that are intended for I<public> use.
If there are none, document this fact, e.g.:

	=head1 ADVERTISED WIDGETS

	None.

=head2 Callback

Invoke a callback specified with an option.

Usage:

S<    >I<$self>-E<gt>B<Callback>(I<-option> ?,I<args> ...?);

B<Callback> executes the L<callback|Tk::callbacks> defined with
I<$self>-E<gt>B<ConfigSpecs>(I<-option>, [B<CALLBACK>, ...]);
If I<args> are given they are passed to the callback. If
I<-option> is not defined it does nothing.

=head2 ClassInit

Initialization of the mega-widget class.

Usage:

S<    >B<sub ClassInit> { I<my ($class, $mw) = @_;> ...  }

B<ClassInit> is called once for I<each> L<MainWindow|Tk::MainWindow>
just before the first widget instance of a class is created in
the widget tree of B<MainWindow>.

B<ClassInit> is often used to define bindings and/or other
resources shared by all instances, e.g., images.

Examples:

 $mw->bind($class,"<Tab>", sub { my $w = shift; $w->Insert("\t"); $w->focus; $w->break});
 $mw->bind($class,"<Return>", ['Insert',"\n"]);
 $mw->bind($class,"<Delete>",'Delete');

Notice that I<$class> is the class name (e.g. B<Tk::MyText>) and I<$mw> is the mainwindow.

Don't forget to call I<$class>-E<gt>B<SUPER::ClassInit($mw)> in
B<ClassInit>.

=head2 Component

Convenience function to create subwidgets.

Usage:

    $cw->Component('Whatever', 'AdvertisedName',
        -delegate => ['method1', 'method2', ...],
        ... more widget options ...,
    );

B<Component> does several things for you with one call:

=over 4

o Creates the widget

o Advertises it with a given name (overridden by 'Name' option)

o Delegates a set of methods to this widget (optional)

=back

Example:

    $cw->Component('Button', 'quitButton', -command => sub{$mw->'destroy'});

=head2 ConfigSpecs

Defines options and their treatment

Usage:

    $cw->ConfigSpecs(
        -option => [ where, dbname, dbclass, default],
        ...,
        DEFAULT => [where],
    );

Defines the options of a mega-widget and what actions
are triggered by configure/cget of an option
(see L<Tk::ConfigSpecs> and L<Tk::Derived> for details).

=head2 Construct

Make the new mega-widget known to B<Tk>.

Usage:

S<    >B<Construct> I<baseclass> B<'Name'>;

B<Construct> declares the new widget class so that your mega-widget
works like normal Perl/Tk widgets.

Examples:

S<    >B<Construct Tk::Widget> I<'Whatever'>;
S<    >B<Construct Tk::Menu>   I<'MyItem'>;

First example lets one use I<$widget>-E<gt>B<Whatever> to create
new B<Whatever> widget.

The second example restricts the usage of the B<MyItem> constructor
method to widgets that are derived from B<Menu>:
I<$isamenu>-E<gt>I<MyItem>.

=head2 CreateArgs

Process options before any widget is created:

S<    >B<sub CreateArgs> { I<my ($package, $parent, $args) = @_; ...; return @newargs;> }

I<$package> is the package of the mega-widget (e.g., B<Tk::MyText>,
I<$parent> the parent of the widget to be created and $args the hash
reference to the options specified in the widget constructor call.

Don't forget to call I<$package>-E<gt>B<SUPER::CreateArgs>(I<$parent>, I<$args>) in
B<CreateArgs>.

=head2 Delegates

Redirect a method of the mega-widget to a subwidget of
the composite widget

Usage:

    $cw->Delegates(
        'method1' => $subwidget1,
        'method2' => 'advertived_name',
        ...,
        'Construct' => $subwidget2,
        'DEFAULT'   => $subwidget3,
    );

The B<'Construct'> delegation has a special meaning.  After
'Construct' is delegated all Widget constructors are redirected.
E.g. after

S<    >I<$self>-E<gt>B<Delegates>(B<'Construct'>=E<gt>I<$subframe>);

a I<$self>-E<gt>B<Button> does really a I<$subframe>-E<gt>B<Button>
so the created button is a child of I<$subframe> and not I<$self>.

B<Comment:> Delegates works only with methods that I<$cw> does
not have itself.

=head2 InitObject

I<Note: this method should not, in general, be used, as it has been
superceeded by B<Populate> and specifying B<Tk::Derived> as one of the base
classes.>

Defines construction and interface of derived widgets.

Usage:

    sub InitObject {
	my ($derived, $args) = @_;
	...
    }

where I<$derived> is the widget reference of the already created
baseclass widget and I<$args> is the reference to a hash of
I<-option-value> pairs.

B<InitObject> is almost identical to L<Populate|"Populate"> method.
B<Populate> does some more 'magic' things useful for mega-widgets
with several widgets.

Don't forget to call I<$derived>-E<gt>B<SUPER::InitObject>(I<$args>) in
B<InitObject>.

=head2 OnDestroy

Define a callback invoked when the mega-widget is destroyed.

Usage:

S<    >I<$widget>-E<gt>B<OnDestroy>(I<callback>);

B<OnDestroy> installs a L<callback|Tk::callbacks> that's called
when a widget is going to to be destroyed.  Useful
for special cleanup actions.  It differs from a normal B<destroy>
in that all the widget's data structures are still intact.

B<Comment:> This method could be used with any widgets not just
for mega-widgets.  It's listed here because of its usefulness.

=head2 Populate

Defines construction and interface of the composite
widget.

Usage:

    sub Populate {
	my ($self, $args) = @_;
	...
    }

where I<$self> is the widget reference of the already created baseclass
widget and I<$args> is the
reference to a hash of I<-option-value> pairs.

Most the other support function are normally used inside the B<Populate>
subroutine.

Don't forget to call I<$cw>-E<gt>B<SUPER::Populate>(I<$args>) in
B<Populate>.

=head2 privateData

Set/get a private hash of a widget to storage
composite internal data

Usage:

S<    >I<$hashref> = I<$self>-E<gt>B<privateData>();

S<    >I<$another> = I<$self>-E<gt>B<privateData>(I<unique_key>|I<package>);

=head2 Subwidget

Get the widget reference of an advertised subwidget.

S<    >I<@subwidget> = I<$cw>-E<gt>B<Subwidget>();

S<    >I<$subwidget> = I<$cw>-E<gt>B<Subwidget>(I<name>);

S<    >I<@subwidget> = I<$cw>-E<gt>B<Subwidget>(I<name> ?,...?);

Returns the widget reference(s) of the subwidget known under the given
name(s). Without arguments, return all known subwidgets of I<$cw>. See
L<Advertise|"Advertise"> method how to define I<name> for a subwidget.

B<Comment:> Mega-Widget Users: Use B<Subwidget> to get I<only>
documented subwidgets.

=head1 PITFALLS

=over 4

=item * Resource DB class name

Some of the standard options use a resource date base class
that is not equal to the resource database name.  E.g.,

  Switch:            Name:             Class:

  -padx              padX              Pad
  -activerelief      activeRelief      Relief
  -activebackground  activeBackground  Foreground
  -status            undef             undef

One should do the same when one defines one of these
options via B<ConfigSpecs>.

=item * Method delegation

Redirecting methods to a subwidget with B<Delegate>
can only work if the base widget itself does have a
method with this name.  Therefore one can't ``I<delegate>''
any of the methods listed in L<Tk::Widget|Tk::Widget>.
A common problematic method is B<bind>.  In this case
one as to explicitely redirect the method.

  sub bind {
      my $self = shift;
      my $to = $self->privateData->{'my_bind_target'};
      $to->bind(@_);
  }

=item * privateData

Graham Barr wrote: ... It is probably
more private than most people think. Not all calls to privateData will
return that same HASH reference. The HASH reference that is returned
depends on the package it was called from, a different HASH is returned
for each package. This allows a widget to hold private data, but then
if it is sub-classed the sub-class will get a different HASH and so not
cause duplicate name clashes.

But privateData does take an optional argument if you want to
force which HASH is returned.

=item * Scrolled and Composite

B<Scrolled>(I<Kind>,...) constructor can not be used with B<Composite>.
One has to use $cw->B<Composite>(B<Scrl>I<Kind> =E<gt> B<'name'>, ...);

=back

=head1 MISSING

Of course Perl/Tk does not define support function for
all necessities.  Here's a short list of things you have to
handle yourself:

=over 4

=item *

No support to define construction-time only options.

=item *

No support to remove an option that is known to the
base widget.

=item *

It's hard to define B<undef> as fallback for an widget
option that is not already B<undef>.

=item *

Frame in Perl/Tk carries magic and overhead not needed
for composite widget class definition.

=item *

No support methods for bindings that are shared between all
widgets of a composite widget (makes sense at all?)

=back

=head1 KEYWORDS

mega, composite, derived, widget

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Tk::composite|Tk::composite>
L<Tk::ConfigSpecs|Tk::ConfigSpecs>
L<Tk::option|Tk::option>
L<Tk::callbacks|Tk::callbacks>
L<Tk::bind|Tk::bind>

=cut