=head1 NAME

VirtualFS::ISO9660 - Perl extension allowing programs to open files inside
ISO-9660 format CD images.

=head1 SYNOPSIS

	$ref = new VirtualFS::ISO9660('file.iso') or die "Can't open file.iso: $!";
	$ref = new VirtualFS::ISO9660('file.iso', -verbose => 1);
	
	$ref->opendir($dh, '/') or die "Can't open rootdir in file.iso";
	print "files in file.iso's root directory:\n";
	for ($dh->readdir) { print "\t$_\n"; }
	print "let's see that again!";
	$dh->rewinddir();
	for ($dh->readdir) { print "\t$_\n"; }
	# there is no $dh->closedir; just undef $dh or something when you're done
	# with it.

	# NOTE! ONLY THE 3-ARGUMENT FORM OF open IS SUPPORTED!
	$ref->open($fh, '<', '/MANIFEST');
	print "the MANIFEST file contains:\n";
	# this will have to do until perl adds STAT support for tied filehandles
	@stats1 = tied($fh)->STAT;
	@stats2 = $ref->stat('/MANIFEST');
	while (<$fh>) {
		print "$_\n";
	}
	# unlike closedir, $fh is a "real" (tied) filehandle, and you close it
	# normally.
	close $fh;

=head1 DESCRIPTION

Linux systems (and probably other Unix-y OSes like *BSD) have a 'loop' device that
allow you to take a filesystem embedded in another file, and mount it as if it
were normal media:

		mount file.iso /cdrom -t iso9660 -o ro,loop
		
Unfortunately, this suffers from some problems:

=over

=item *

Windows users cannot benefit from this. (I<You> may not think that Windows is
important, but you are not the only person on the planet.)

=item * 

For the systems that *do* support such a loop device, this only works if the
kernel has been compiled loop device compiled in; thus, using this feature 
may require recompilation of the kernel.

=item *

And for systems that have a loop device, and for which the loop device is
enabled, a user also must normally be root in order to execute the mount
command.  Not everybody has root on the machines they're using.

=back

VirtualFS::ISO9660 was written to avoid these three issues entirely, by
internally emulating a ISO-9660 filesystem driver.  It can be used to list
the contents of a directory (with ->opendir() and ->readdir()), and it can be
used to open files inside the ISO image and read their contents.

=head2 VirtualFS::ISO9660 Public Methods

=head3 C<new>

Constructs a new VirtualFS::ISO9660 object tied to a specific file, specified by
C<filename>.
If options are specified, they are a set of (name, value) pairs (think flattened
hash). Currently, no options are defined.

Examples:

	# open foo.iso with default options
	$x = new VirtualFS::ISO9660 ('foo.iso');
	# open bar.iso, disabling Joliet support (this is moot because this module
	# does not yet support Joliet)
	$y = new VirtualFS::ISO9660 ('bar.iso', -nojoliet => 1);

=head3 C<opendir>

	$x->opendir(my $ref, $path) or die "can't open $path\: $!";

Open a directory specified by C<path>.  It doesn't matter if C<path> starts with '/',
since everything has to be absolute (there is no current directory to be relative to).
Note that, since there is no such thing as a tied directory handle, $ref MUST be
a scalar lvalue capable of holding a reference to an object.  Unlike the real
C<opendir>, where C<opendir($dirh, 'bar')> would make $dirh a reference to the GLOB
containing the IO handle, this method simply creates an object. 

=head3 C<stat>

	@s = $x->stat('/');
	@s = $x->stat('/COPYRIGH');	# note that ISO9660 limits filenames to 8 characters
	
Emulates the L<perlfunc/stat> builtin. Returns the same arguments, in the same
order.  Zeroes most values.  The first two values (device and inode), which are
numbers when returned by the real C<stat>, are actually references to data related
to file being statted.

=head3 C<identifier>

	%all_ids = $o->identifier;
	$one_id  = $o->identifier('system');
	@several_ids = $o->identifier('system', 'publisher');

Pulls stuff out of the Volume Descriptor.
The valid keys are 'system', 'volume', 'volume_set', 'publisher', 'preparer', and 'application'.

=head3 C<id_file>

See C<identifier> for instructions on use. Here, the keys are 'copyright', 'abstract', and 'biblio'.

NOTE: These accessors will probably change in the future. As in, within the next few versions.

=head2 VirtualFS::ISO9660 Internal Methods/Functions

These functions are documented so that people who want to hack at this module
can better understand how it works.

=head3 C<__readsectors>

	__readsectors($filehandle, $buffer, $firstsector); # reads 1 sector
	__readsectors($filehandle, $buffer, $firstsector, $N); # reads $N sectors

This internal function is used to read one or more sectors out of the ISO image.
Each CD-ROM sector is 2048 bytes.

=head3 C<__extract_pathtablerec>

	$info = __extract_pathtablerec($data);	# leaves $data alone
	$info = __extract_pathtablerec(\$data); # strips the record it reads from $data

This function is used to process the path tables (somewhat of a cached copy of the
directory tree located on the CD-ROM).	It reads and decodes exactly one path table
entry.

=head3 C<__extract_pathtable>

	$pathtable = __extract_pathtable($pathtabledata, $pathtabledatasize);
	
This function calls _extract_pathtablerec repeatedly to extract every path table
entry into one large array, then returns a reference to that array.

=head3 C<__build_pathtree>

	$pathtree = __build_pathtree(__extract_pathtable($ptdata, $ptdatasize));

This function converts the flat array generated by __extract_pathtable into
a hierarchical nest of hashes and arrayrefs that reflects the actual directory
tree.

=head3 C<__extract_direntry>

	$direntry = __extract_direntry($rawentry);
	
Extracts the contents of $rawentry into a hash, then returns a reference to
that hash.

=head3 C<__extract_voldesc>

	$voldesc = __extract_voldesc($rawvd);
	
Extracts the contents of $rawvd into a hash, then returns a reference to that
hash.

=head3 C<__startpos>

	$filepos = $iso9660obj->__startpos('/autorun.inf');
	$rootpos = $iso9660obj->__startpos('/');
	
Returns the fileposition in the .ISO where the contents of the specified file
or directory begin.  Intended as a debugging aid for those with a decent hex
editor/viewer open to the .ISO image.

=head3 C<__stat>

	@s = $iso9660obj->__stat($href);
	
$href is a hash reference containing the information from a directory entry.
This function is the backend for C<VirtualFS::ISO9660::stat> as well
as C<VirtualFS::ISO9660::FileHandle::STAT>.

=head2 VirtualFS::ISO9660::DirHandle Public Methods

These are the public methods for the object referenced by $dirh after successfully
calling:

	$iso9660obj->opendir($dirh, '/');
	

=head3 C<readdir>

This is the biggie. Works almost exactly like the real C<readdir>:

	$one_file = $dirh->readdir;
	@all_files = $dirh->readdir;

=head3 C<rewinddir>

Just like the real C<rewinddir>:

	print "here are the files:\n";
	for my $filename ($dirh->readdir) {
		print "$filename\n";
	}
	$dirh->rewinddir;
	print "and here they are again:\n";
	for my $filename ($dirh->readdir) {
		print "$filename\n";
	}

=head3 C<closedir>

This function is only there for completeness; it is a no-op.  If you really
want to close the handle, then just throw away the reference to the object.

=head2 VirtualFS::ISO9660::DirHandle Internal Methods/Functions

=head3 C<__readdir>

This method reads exactly one directory entry and returns exactly one filename.
It is called once for C<$dirh->readdir> in scalar context and looped over for
array context.

=head2 VirtualFS::ISO9660::FileHandle Public Methods

=head3 C<STAT>

This method does the equivalent of L<perlfunc/stat> on this virtual filehandle.

=head2 VirtualFS::ISO9660::FileHandle Internal Methods/Functions

TIEHANDLE, GETC, READ, and READLINE, for tying purposes.

Also includes a __READLINE method; this is related to READLINE the exact
same way that VirtualFS::ISO9660:DirHandle's C<__readdir> and C<readdir> methods
are related.

=head1 AUTHOR

Stevie-O, soberholtzerE<#64>freedompay.com

=head1 BUGS AND THEIR FRIENDS

=over

=item *

The C<stat $fh> syntax doesn't work when $fh is a tied filehandle.  This means 
that other things that depend on stat, like just about everything in -X, won't work either.
For this, you'd need to do:

	@stats = tied($fh)->STAT();

It would be nice if someone could patch Perl to provide this functionality.

=item *

The following features do NOT work on the magic filehandles:

=over

=item *

binmode

=item *

seek

=item *

tell

=item *

eof

=back

This is because L<perltie> (or at least 5.8.0's perltie) mentions them, but does not document how to use them.
It also mentions an OPEN, but I have *no* idea what that does.

=cut