package Web::Machine;
# ABSTRACT: A Perl port of Webmachine

use strict;
use warnings;

our $VERSION = '0.17';

use Try::Tiny;
use Carp         qw[ confess ];
use Scalar::Util qw[ blessed ];
use Module::Runtime qw[ use_package_optimistically ];

use Plack::Request;
use Plack::Response;

use Web::Machine::Util qw[ inflate_headers ];
use Web::Machine::FSM;

use parent 'Plack::Component';

sub new {
    my ($class, %args) = @_;

    (exists $args{'resource'}
        && (not blessed $args{'resource'})
            && use_package_optimistically($args{'resource'})->isa('Web::Machine::Resource'))
                || confess 'You must pass in a resource for this Web::Machine';

    if (exists $args{'request_class'}) {
        use_package_optimistically($args{'request_class'})->isa('Plack::Request')
            || confess 'The request_class class must inherit from Plack::Request';
    }
    else {
        $args{'request_class'} = 'Plack::Request';
    }

    $class->SUPER::new( \%args );
}

sub inflate_request {
    my ($self, $env) = @_;
    inflate_headers( $self->{request_class}->new( $env ) );
}

sub create_fsm {
    my $self = shift;
    Web::Machine::FSM->new( tracing => $self->{'tracing'} )
}

sub create_resource {
    my ($self, $request) = @_;
    $self->{'resource'}->new(
        request  => $request,
        response => $request->new_response,
        @{ $self->{'resource_args'} || [] },
    );
}

sub finalize_response {
    my ($self, $response) = @_;
    $response->finalize;
}

sub call {
    my ($self, $env) = @_;

    my $request = try { $self->inflate_request($env) };

    return $self->finalize_response( Plack::Response->new( 400 ) )
        unless defined $request;

    my $resource = $self->create_resource( $request );
    my $fsm      = $self->create_fsm;

    if ($self->{'streaming'}) {
        return sub {
            my $responder = shift;

            my $response = $self->finalize_response( $fsm->run( $resource ) );

            if (my $cb = $env->{'web.machine.streaming_push'}) {
                pop @$response;
                my $writer = $responder->($response);
                $cb->($writer);
            }
            else {
                $responder->($response);
            }
        }
    }
    else {
        my $response = $self->finalize_response( $fsm->run( $resource ) );

        if ($env->{'web.machine.streaming_push'}) {
            die "Can't do a streaming push response "
              . "unless the 'streaming' option was set";
        }
        else {
            return $response;
        }
    }
}

1;

__END__

=pod

=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Web::Machine - A Perl port of Webmachine

=head1 VERSION

version 0.17

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  use strict;
  use warnings;

  use Web::Machine;

  {
      package HelloWorld::Resource;
      use strict;
      use warnings;

      use parent 'Web::Machine::Resource';

      sub content_types_provided { [{ 'text/html' => 'to_html' }] }

      sub to_html {
          q{<html>
              <head>
                  <title>Hello World Resource</title>
              </head>
              <body>
                  <h1>Hello World</h1>
              </body>
           </html>}
      }
  }

  Web::Machine->new( resource => 'HelloWorld::Resource' )->to_app;

=head1 DESCRIPTION

C<Web::Machine> provides a RESTful web framework modeled as a state
machine. You define one or more resource classes. Each resource represents a
single RESTful URI end point, such as a user, an email, etc. The resource
class can also be the target for C<POST> requests to create a new user, email,
etc.

Each resource is a state machine, and each request for a resource is handled
by running the request through that state machine.

C<Web::Machine> is built on top of L<Plack>, but it handles the full request
and response cycle.

See L<Web::Machine::Manual> for more details on using C<Web::Machine> in
general, and how C<Web::Machine> and L<Plack> interact.

This is a port of L<Webmachine|https://github.com/basho/webmachine>, actually
it is much closer to L<the Ruby
version|https://github.com/seancribbs/webmachine-ruby>, with a little bit of
L<the JavaScript version|https://github.com/tautologistics/nodemachine> and
even some of L<the Python version|https://github.com/benoitc/pywebmachine>
thrown in for good measure.

You can learn a bit about Web::Machine's history from the slides for my L<2012
YAPC::NA talk|https://speakerdeck.com/stevan_little/rest-from-the-trenches>.

To learn more about Webmachine, take a look at the links in the SEE ALSO
section.

=head1 METHODS

NOTE: This module is a L<Plack::Component> subclass and so follows the interface
set forward by that module.

=over 4

=item C<< new( resource => $resource_classname, ?resource_args => $arg_list, ?tracing => 1|0, ?streaming => 1|0, ?request_class => $request_class ) >>

The constructor expects to get a C<$resource_classname>, which it will use to
load and create an instance of the resource class. If that class requires any
additional arguments, they can be specified with the C<resource_args>
parameter. The contents of the C<resource_args> parameter will be made
available to the C<init()> method of C<Web::Machine::Resource>.

The C<new> method can also take an optional C<tracing> parameter which it will
pass on to L<Web::Machine::FSM> and an optional C<streaming> parameter, which
if true will run the request in a L<PSGI|http://plackperl.org/> streaming
response. This can be useful if you need to run your content generation
asynchronously.

The optional C<request_class> parameter accepts the name of a module that will
be used as the request object. The module must be a class that inherits from
L<Plack::Request>. Use this if you have a subclass of L<Plack::Request> that
you would like to use in your L<Web::Machine::Resource>.

=item C<inflate_request( $env )>

This takes a raw PSGI C<$env> and inflates it into a L<Plack::Request> instance.
By default this also uses L<HTTP::Headers::ActionPack> to inflate the headers
of the request to be complex objects.

=item C<create_fsm>

This will create the L<Web::Machine::FSM> object to run. It will get passed
the value of the C<tracing> constructor parameter.

=item C<create_resource( $request )>

This will create the L<Web::Machine::Resource> instance using the class specified
in the C<resource> constructor parameter. It will pass in the C<$request> object
and call C<new_response> on the C<$request> object to get a L<Plack::Response>
instance.

=item C<finalize_response( $response )>

Given a C<$response> which is a L<Plack::Response> object, this will finalize
it and return a raw PSGI response.

=item C<call( $env )>

This is the C<call> method overridden from the L<Plack::Component> superclass.

=back

=head1 DEBUGGING

If you set the C<WM_DEBUG> environment variable to C<1> we will print
out information about the path taken through the state machine to STDERR.

If you set C<WM_DEBUG> to C<diag> then debugging information will be printed
using L<Test::More>'s C<diag()> sub instead.

=head1 SEE ALSO

=over 4

=item The diagram - L<https://github.com/Webmachine/webmachine/wiki/Diagram>

=item Original Erlang - L<https://github.com/basho/webmachine>

=item Ruby port - L<https://github.com/seancribbs/webmachine-ruby>

=item Node JS port - L<https://github.com/tautologistics/nodemachine>

=item Python port - L<https://github.com/benoitc/pywebmachine>

=item 2012 YAPC::NA slides - L<https://speakerdeck.com/stevan_little/rest-from-the-trenches>

=item an elaborate machine is indispensable: a blog post by Justin Sheehy - L<http://blog.therestfulway.com/2008/09/webmachine-is-resource-server-for-web.html>

=item Resources, For Real This Time (with Webmachine): a video by Sean Cribbs - L<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=odRrLK87s_Y>

=back

=head1 SUPPORT

bugs may be submitted through L<https://github.com/houseabsolute/webmachine-perl/issues>.

=head1 AUTHORS

=over 4

=item *

Stevan Little <stevan@cpan.org>

=item *

Dave Rolsky <autarch@urth.org>

=back

=head1 CONTRIBUTORS

=for stopwords Andreas Marienborg Andrew Nelson Arthur Axel 'fREW' Schmidt Carlos Fernando Avila Gratz Fayland Lam George Hartzell Gregory Oschwald Jesse Luehrs John SJ Anderson Mike Raynham Nathan Cutler Olaf Alders Stevan Little Thomas Sibley

=over 4

=item *

Andreas Marienborg <andreas.marienborg@gmail.com>

=item *

Andrew Nelson <anelson@cpan.org>

=item *

Arthur Axel 'fREW' Schmidt <frioux@gmail.com>

=item *

Carlos Fernando Avila Gratz <cafe@q1software.com>

=item *

Fayland Lam <fayland@gmail.com>

=item *

George Hartzell <hartzell@alerce.com>

=item *

Gregory Oschwald <goschwald@maxmind.com>

=item *

Jesse Luehrs <doy@tozt.net>

=item *

John SJ Anderson <genehack@genehack.org>

=item *

Mike Raynham <enquiries@mikeraynham.co.uk>

=item *

Nathan Cutler <ncutler@suse.cz>

=item *

Olaf Alders <olaf@wundersolutions.com>

=item *

Stevan Little <stevan.little@gmail.com>

=item *

Thomas Sibley <tsibley@cpan.org>

=back

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE

This software is copyright (c) 2016 by Infinity Interactive, Inc.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

=cut