package WebService::Google::Language;

use 5.006;

use strict;
use warnings;

our $VERSION = '0.14';

use Carp ();
use JSON 2.0 ();
use LWP::UserAgent;
use URI;

use constant GOOGLE_DETECT_URL    => '';
use constant GOOGLE_TRANSLATE_URL => '';
use constant API_VERSION          => '1.0';
use constant MAX_LENGTH           => 5000;
use constant URL_MAX_LENGTH       => 2073;

#  constructor

sub new {
  my $class = shift;
  my $self = bless {}, $class;

  unshift @_, 'referer' if @_ % 2;
  my %conf = @_;

  $self->referer(delete $conf{referer});

  for (qw'src dest key') {
    if (defined(my $value = delete $conf{$_})) {
      $self->{$_} = $value;

  for (qw'json ua') {
    if (defined(my $value = delete $conf{$_})) {
  unless ($self->json) {
  unless ($self->ua) {
    $conf{agent} = $class . ' ' . $class->VERSION
      unless defined $conf{agent};
    # respect proxy environment variables (reported by IZUT)
    $conf{env_proxy} = 1
      unless exists $conf{env_proxy};

  return $self;

#  public methods

sub translate {
  my $self = shift;
  unshift @_, 'text' if @_ % 2;
  my %args = @_;
  my $src  = $args{src}  || $self->{src}  || '';
  my $dest = $args{dest} || $self->{dest} || 'en';
  return $self->_request($args{text}, $src . '|' . $dest);

sub detect {
  my $self = shift;
  unshift @_, 'text' if @_ % 2;
  my %args = @_;
  return $self->_request($args{text});

*detect_language = \&detect;

sub ping {
  my $self = shift;
  return $self->ua
    ->get( GOOGLE_TRANSLATE_URL, referer => $self->referer )

#  accessors

sub json {
  my $self = shift;
  if (@_) {
    my $json = shift;
    Carp::croak q{'json' requires an object based on 'JSON'}
      unless $json && $json->isa('JSON');
    $self->{json} = $json;
    return $self;

sub referer {
  my $self = shift;
  if (@_) {
    my $referer = shift;
    unless (defined $referer && $referer =~ /\S/) {
      my $name    = q{'referer'};
      my $error   = 'requires a non-empty parameter';
      my $caller  = (caller(1))[3];
      Carp::croak $caller && $caller eq ref($self) . '::new'
        ? "Constructor $error $name"
        : "$name $error";
    $self->{referer} = $referer;
    return $self;

sub ua {
  my $self = shift;
  if (@_) {
    my $ua = shift;
    Carp::croak q{'ua' requires an object based on 'LWP::UserAgent'}
      unless $ua && $ua->isa('LWP::UserAgent');
    $self->{ua} = $ua;
    return $self;

#  private methods and functions

sub _request {
  my ($self, $text, $langpair) = @_;
  if (defined $text && $text =~ /\S/) {
    if (length $text > MAX_LENGTH) {
      Carp::croak 'Google does not allow submission of text exceeding '
        . MAX_LENGTH . ' characters in length';
  else {

  my ($uri, $response);
  my @param = ( v => API_VERSION );
  push @param, key => $self->{key} if defined $self->{key};
  if (defined $langpair) {
    $uri = URI->new(GOOGLE_TRANSLATE_URL);
    push @param, langpair => $langpair;
  else {
    $uri = URI->new(GOOGLE_DETECT_URL);
  push @param, q => $text;

  my $length = length $uri;
  if ($length > URL_MAX_LENGTH) {
    if (defined $langpair) {
      # POST only for translate
      $uri->query_form( [] );
      $response = $self->ua->post( $uri, \@param, referer => $self->referer );
    else {
      # detect can't be POSTed
      Carp::croak "The length of the generated URL for this request is $length bytes and exceeds the maximum of "
        . URL_MAX_LENGTH . ' bytes. Shorten your parameters.';
  else {
    $response = $self->ua->get( $uri, referer => $self->referer );

  if ($response->is_success) {
    my $result = eval { $self->json->decode($response->content) };
    if ($@) {
      Carp::croak "Couldn't parse response from '$uri': $@";
    else {
      return bless $result, 'WebService::Google::Language::Result';
  else {
    Carp::croak "An HTTP error occured while getting '$uri': " . $response->status_line;

sub _utf8_encode {
  if ($] < 5.007) {

    # on Perl 5.6 the JSON 2 module (JSON::PP56) provides the missing
    # utf8::encode function, but it seems to be broken
    # my own UTF8 encoder is tested on ActivePerl

    if (length $_[0] == do { use bytes; length $_[0] }) {
      $_[0] = pack 'U*', unpack 'C*', $_[0];
  else {

#  convenience accessor methods to result hash

package WebService::Google::Language::Result;

sub error {
  $_[0]->{responseStatus} && $_[0]->{responseStatus} != 200
    ? { code    => $_[0]->{responseStatus},
        message => $_[0]->{responseDetails},
    : undef

sub code { $_[0]->{responseStatus} }

sub message { $_[0]->{responseDetails} }

sub translation {
  $_[0]->{responseData} ? $_[0]->{responseData}{translatedText} : undef

sub language {
    ? $_[0]->{responseData}{language} ||
    : undef

sub is_reliable {
  $_[0]->{responseData} ? $_[0]->{responseData}{isReliable} : undef

sub confidence {
  $_[0]->{responseData} ? $_[0]->{responseData}{confidence} : undef



=head1 NAME

WebService::Google::Language - Perl interface to the Google AJAX Language API


Please take note of this statement by Google (see links):
"With the exception of the Translate v2 API, which is now available as a
paid service, the APIs included in this family have all been deprecated."

B<The v1 API, which this module is based on, WILL BE SHUT OFF COMPLETELY
on Dec 1, 2011>
(see L<>).

The live tests of this module already started failing sporadically
on Oct 29 and are now disabled by default.
To check if the API is still working try:

  export WGL_FORCE_LIVE_TESTS=1 && perl -Ilib -T t/05-methods.t


  use WebService::Google::Language;

  my $service = WebService::Google::Language->new(
    referer => '',
    src     => '',
    dest    => 'en',

  my $result = $service->translate('Hallo Welt');
  if ($result->error) {
    printf "Error code: %s\n", $result->code;
    printf "Message:    %s\n", $result->message;
  else {
    printf "Detected language: %s\n", $result->language;
    printf "Translation:       %s\n", $result->translation;

  $result = $service->detect('Bonjour tout le monde');
  printf "Detected language: %s\n", $result->language;
  printf "Is reliable:       %s\n", $result->is_reliable ? 'yes' : 'no';
  printf "Confidence:        %s\n", $result->confidence;


WebService::Google::Language is an object-oriented interface to the
Google AJAX Language API (L<>).

The AJAX Language API is a web service to translate and detect the language
of blocks of text.


=over 4

=item $service = WebService::Google::Language->new(%options);

Creates a new C<WebService::Google::Language> object and returns it.

Key/value pair arguments set up the initial state:

  Key       Usage         Expected value
  referer   mandatory     HTTP referer
  src       optional      default source language
  dest      optional      default destination language
  key       recommended   application's key
  ua        optional      an LWP::UserAgent object for reuse
  json      optional      a JSON object for reuse

Since Google demands a "valid and accurate http referer header" in
requests to their service, a non-empty referer string must be passed
to the constructor. Otherwise the constructor will fail.

Unless the key 'ua' contains an instance of C<LWP::UserAgent>, any additional
entries in the C<%options> hash will be passed unmodified to the constructor
of C<LWP::UserAgent>, which is used for performing the requests.

E.g. you can set your own user agent identification and specify a timeout
this way:

  $service = WebService::Google::Language->new(
    referer => '',
    agent   => 'My Application 2.0',
    timeout => 5,

Or reuse existing instances of C<LWP::UserAgent> and C<JSON> respectively:

  $service = WebService::Google::Language->new(
    referer => '',
    ua      => $my_ua_obj,
    json    => $my_json_obj,

=item $service = WebService::Google::Language->new($referer);

=item $service = WebService::Google::Language->new($referer, %options);

Since the referer is the only mandatory parameter, the constructor
can alternatively be called with an uneven parameter list. The first
element will then be taken as the referer, e.g.:

  $service = WebService::Google::Language->new('my-valid-referer');


=head1 METHODS

=over 4

=item $result = $service->translate($text, %args);

=item $result = $service->translate(%args);

The C<translate> method will request the translation of a given text.

Either place the C<$text> as the first parameter to this method or store
it into the arguments hash using the key 'text'.

The source and the destination language can be specified as values of
the keys 'src' and 'dest'. If these parameters are missing, the default
values specified on construction of the object will be used.

If the object has been constructed without default values, the translate
request will default to an empty string for the source language - i.e.
Google will attempt to identify the language of the given text automatically.
The destination language will be set to English (en).


  # initialize without custom language defaults
  $service = WebService::Google::Language->new('');

  # auto-detect source language and translate to English
  # (internal defaults)
  $result = $service->translate('Hallo Welt');

  # auto-detect source language and translate to French (fr)
  $result = $service->translate( 'Hallo Welt', dest => 'fr' );

  # set source to English and destination to German (de)
  %args = (
    text => 'Hello world',
    src  => 'en',
    dest => 'de',
  $result = $service->translate(%args);

See Google's documentation for supported languages, language codes
and valid language translation pairs.

=item $result = $service->detect($text);

=item $result = $service->detect( text => $text );

The C<detect> method will request the detection of the language of
a given text. C<$text> is the single parameter and can be passed directly
or as key 'text' of a hash.

=item $result = $service->detect_language($text);

If C<detect> as a method name is just not descriptive enough, there is
an alias C<detect_language> available.


  # detect language
  $result = $service->detect('Hallo Welt');
  # using the more verbose alias
  $result = $service->detect_language('Hallo Welt');

=item $boolean = $service->ping;

Checks if internet access to Google's service is available.

=item $json = $service->json;

Returns the C<JSON> object used by this instance.

=item $service = $service->json($json);

Sets the C<JSON> object to be used by this instance.
Setters return their instance and can be chained.

=item $ua = $service->ua;

=item $service = $service->ua($ua);

Returns/sets the C<LWP::UserAgent> object.

=item $referer = $service->referer;

=item $service = $service->referer($referer);

Returns/sets the referer string.



Google returns the result encoded as a JSON object which will be
automatically turned into a Perl hash with identically named keys.
See the description of the JSON response at Google's page for the meaning
of the JavaScript properties, which is identical to the Perl hash keys.

To provide some convenience accessor methods to the result, the hash
will be blessed into the package C<WebService::Google::Language::Result>.
The method names are derived from Google's JavaScript class reference
of the AJAX Language API.

The accessors marked as 'no' in the following table will always return
C<undef> for a result from C<translate> or C<detect> respectively.

  Accessor   translate  detect  description
  error         yes      yes    a hash with code and message on error
  code          yes      yes    HTTP-style status code
  message       yes      yes    human readable error message
  translation   yes      no     translated text
  language      yes      yes    detected source language
  is_reliable   no       yes    reliability of detected language
  confidence    no       yes    confidence level, ranging from 0 to 1.0

The L<"SYNOPSIS"> of this module includes a complete example of using the
accessor methods.


Google does not allow submission of text exceeding 5000 characters in length
to their service (see Terms of Use). This module will check the length of
text passed to its methods and will fail if text is too long (without sending
a request to Google).

=head1 TODO

=over 4

=item * Batch Interface

Incorporate the Batch Interface into this module

=item * Documentation

Explain the server-side length limitation of URLs for GET requests
which (currently) must be used by the C<detect> method.


=head1 SEE ALSO

=over 4

=item * Google AJAX Language API


=item * Terms of Use


=item * Supported languages


=item * Class reference


=item * L<LWP::UserAgent>


=head1 AUTHOR

Henning Manske <>


Thanks to Igor Sutton (IZUT) for submitting a patch to enable the use of
proxy environment variables within C<LWP::UserAgent>.

Thanks to Ilya Rubtsov for pointing out Google's change of the text length
limitation (see Terms of Use) and the existing server-side length limitation
of URLs when using GET request method.


Copyright (c) 2008-2011 Henning Manske. All rights reserved.

This module is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published
by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.

See L<>.

This module is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of