=head1 NAME

Win32::Process::Info::WMI - Provide process information via WMI.


This package fetches process information on a given Windows
machine, using Microsoft's Windows Management Implementation.

 use Win32::Process::Info
 $pi = Win32::Process::Info->new (undef, 'WMI');
 $pi->Set (elapsed_as_seconds => 0);	# In clunks, not seconds.
 @pids = $pi->ListPids ();	# Get all known PIDs
 @info = $pi->GetProcInfo ();	# Get the max


This package is B<not> intended to be used independently;
instead, it is a subclass of Win32::Process::Info, and should
only be called via that package.


This package implements the WMI-specific methods of

This package returns Windows process IDs, even under Cygwin.

The following methods should be considered public:

=over 4


package Win32::Process::Info::WMI;

use strict;
use warnings;

use base qw{ Win32::Process::Info };

our $VERSION = '1.022';

use vars qw{%mutator};
use Carp;
use Time::Local;
use Win32::OLE qw{in with};
use Win32::OLE::Const;
use Win32::OLE::Variant;

%mutator = %Win32::Procecss::Info::mutator;

my %pariah = map {($_ => 1)} grep {$_} split ';',
my $no_user_info = $ENV{PERL_WIN32_PROCESS_INFO_WMI_PARIAH} &&
my $assert_debug_priv = $ENV{PERL_WIN32_PROCESS_INFO_WMI_DEBUG};

#	note that "new" is >>>NOT<<< considered a public
#	method.

my $wmi_const;

my %lglarg = map {($_, 1)} qw{assert_debug_priv host password user variant};

sub new {
my $class = shift;
$class = ref $class if ref $class;

my $arg = shift;
my @ilg = grep {!$lglarg{$_}} keys %$arg;
@ilg and
    croak "Error - Win32::Process::Info::WMI argument(s) (@ilg) illegal";

my $mach = $arg->{host} || '';
$mach =~ s|^[\\/]+||;
my $user = $arg->{user} || '';
my $pass = $arg->{password} || '';
$arg->{assert_debug_priv} ||= $assert_debug_priv;

my $old_warn = Win32::OLE->Option ('Warn');
Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => 0);

#	Under at least some circumstances, I have found that I have
#	access when using the monicker, and not if using the locator;
#	especially under NT 4.0 with the retrofitted WMI. So use the
#	monicker unless I have a username/password.

my $wmi;

if ($user) {
    my $locator = Win32::OLE->new ('WbemScripting.SWbemLocator') or do {
	Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => $old_warn);
	croak "Error - Win32::Process::Info::WMI failed to get SWBemLocator object:\n",

    $wmi_const ||= Win32::OLE::Const->Load ($locator) or do {
	Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => $old_warn);
	croak "Error - Win32::Process::Info::WMI failed to load WMI type library:\n",

# Note that MSDN says that the following doesn't work under NT 4.0.
##$wmi->Security_->Privileges->AddAsString ('SeDebugPrivilege', 1);

    $locator->{Security_}{ImpersonationLevel} =
    $locator->{Security_}{Privileges}->Add ($wmi_const->{wbemPrivilegeDebug})
	if $arg->{assert_debug_priv};

    $wmi = $locator->ConnectServer (
	$mach,				# Server
	'root/cimv2',			# Namespace
	$user,				# User (with optional domain)
	$pass,				# Password
	'',				# Locale
	'',				# Authority
##	wbemConnectFlagUseMaxWait,	# Flag
  else {
    my $mm = $mach || '.';
    $wmi = Win32::OLE->GetObject (
		$arg->{assert_debug_priv} ? ',(Debug)' : '']}}!//$mm/root/cimv2");

$wmi or do {
    Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => $old_warn);
    croak "Error - Win32::Process::Info::WMI failed to get winmgs object:\n",

$wmi_const ||= Win32::OLE::Const->Load ($wmi) or do {
    Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => $old_warn);
    croak "Error - Win32::Process::Info::WMI failed to load WMI type library:\n",

#	Whew! we're through with that! Manufacture and return the
#	desired object.

Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => $old_warn);
my $self = {%Win32::Process::Info::static};
$self->{machine} = $mach;
$self->{password} = $pass;
$self->{user} = $pass;
$self->{wmi} = $wmi;
$self->{_attr} = undef;	# Cache for keys.
bless $self, $class;
return $self;

=item @info = $pi->GetProcInfo ();

This method returns a list of anonymous hashes, each containing
information on one process. If no arguments are passed, the
list represents all processes in the system. You can pass a
list of process IDs, and get out a list of the attributes of
all such processes that actually exist. If you call this
method in scalar context, you get a reference to the list.

What keys are available depend both on the variant in use and
the setting of b<use_wmi_names>. Assuming B<use_wmi_names> is
TRUE, you can hope to get at least the following keys for a
"normal" process (i.e. not the idle process, which is PID 0,
nor the system, which is PID 8) to which you have access:

    CSName (= machine name)
    Caption (seems to generally equal Name)
    Description (seems to equal Caption)
    Owner (*)
    OwnerSid (*)

You may find other keys available as well.

* - Keys marked with an asterisk are computed, and may not always
be present.


sub _get_proc_objects {
my $self = shift;
my $my_pid = $self->My_Pid();
my @procs = @_ ?
    map {
	my $pi = $_ eq '.' ? $my_pid : $_;
	my $obj = $self->{wmi}->Get ("Win32_Process='$pi'");
	Win32::OLE->LastError ? () : ($obj)	
	} @_ :
    (in $self->{wmi}->InstancesOf ('Win32_Process'));

if (@procs && !$self->{_attr}) {
    my $atls = $self->{_attr} = [];
    $self->{_xfrm} = {
	KernelModeTime	=> \&Win32::Process::Info::_clunks_to_desired,
	UserModeTime	=> \&Win32::Process::Info::_clunks_to_desired,

    foreach my $attr (in $procs[0]->{Properties_}) {
	my $name = $attr->{Name};
	my $type = $attr->{CIMType};
	push @$atls, $name;
	$self->{_xfrm}{$name} = \&Win32::Process::Info::_date_to_time_t
	    if $type == $wmi_const->{wbemCimtypeDatetime};
$self->{_attr} = {map {($_->{Name}, $_->{CIMType})}
	in $procs[0]->{Properties_}}
    if (@procs && !$self->{_attr});

return @procs;

sub GetProcInfo {
my $self = shift;
my $opt = ref $_[0] eq 'HASH' ? shift : {};
my @pinf;
my %username;
my ($sid, $user, $domain);
my $old_warn = Win32::OLE->Option ('Warn');
Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => 0);

my $skip_user = $no_user_info || $opt->{no_user_info};
unless ($skip_user) {
    $sid = Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
##    $sid = Variant (VT_BSTR, '');
    $user = Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
    $domain = Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
#	The following plausable ways of caching the variant to try to
#	stem the associated memory leak result in an access violation
#	the second time through (i.e. the first time the object is
#	retrieved from cache rather than being manufactured). God knows
#	why, but so far He has not let me in on the secret. Sometimes
#	There's an OLE type mismatch error before the access violation
#	is reported, but sometimes not.
##    $sid = $self->{_variant}{sid} ||= Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
##    $user = $self->{_variant}{user} ||= Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
##    $domain = $self->{_variant}{domain} ||= Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
##    $sid = $Win32::Process::Info::WMI::sid ||= Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
##    $user = $Win32::Process::Info::WMI::user ||= Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');
##    $domain = $Win32::Process::Info::WMI::domain ||= Variant (VT_BYREF | VT_BSTR, '');

foreach my $proc (_get_proc_objects ($self, @_)) {
    my $phash = $self->_build_hash (
	undef, map {($_, $proc->{$_})} @{$self->{_attr}});
    push @pinf, $phash;
    my $oid;

#	The test for executable path is extremely ad-hoc, but the best
#	way I have come up with so far to strain out the System and
#	Idle processes. The methods can misbehave badly on these, and
#	I have found no other way of identifying them. Idle is always
#	process 0, but it seems to me that I have seen once a system
#	whose System process ID was not 8. This test was actually
#	removed at one point, but is reinstated since finding a set of
#	slides on the NT startup which bolsters my confidence in it.
#	But it still looks like ad-hocery to me.

    eval {
	return unless $proc->{ExecutablePath};
	return if $skip_user || $pariah{lc $proc->{Name}};
	$sid->Put ('');
	$proc->GetOwnerSid ($sid);
	$oid = $sid->Get ();
	return unless $oid;
	$phash->{OwnerSid} = $oid;
	unless ($username{$oid}) {
	    $username{$oid} =
	    $proc->GetOwner ($user, $domain) ? $oid :
		"@{[$domain->Get ()]}\\@{[$user->Get ()]}";
	$phash->{Owner} = $username{$oid};
Win32::OLE->Option (Warn => $old_warn);
return wantarray ? @pinf : \@pinf;

=item @pids = $pi->ListPids ();

This method lists all known process IDs in the system. If
called in scalar context, it returns a reference to the
list of PIDs. If you pass in a list of pids, the return will
be the intersection of the argument list and the actual PIDs
in the system.


sub ListPids {
my $self = shift;
my @pinf;
foreach my $proc (_get_proc_objects ($self, @_)) {
    push @pinf, $proc->{ProcessId};
return wantarray ? @pinf : \@pinf;
source of the following list:
  string Caption  ;
  string CreationClassName  ;
  datetime CreationDate  ;
  string CSCreationClassName  ;
  string CSName  ;
  string Description  ;
  string ExecutablePath  ;
  uint16 ExecutionState  ;
  string Handle  ;
  uint32 HandleCount  ;
  datetime InstallDate  ;
  uint64 KernelModeTime  ;
  uint32 MaximumWorkingSetSize  ;
  uint32 MinimumWorkingSetSize  ;
  string Name  ;
  string OSCreationClassName  ;
  string OSName  ;
  uint64 OtherOperationCount  ;
  uint64 OtherTransferCount  ;
  uint32 PageFaults  ;
  uint32 PageFileUsage  ;
  uint32 ParentProcessId  ;
  uint32 PeakPageFileUsage  ;
  uint64 PeakVirtualSize  ;
  uint32 PeakWorkingSetSize  ;
  uint32 Priority  ;
  uint64 PrivatePageCount  ;
  uint32 ProcessId  ;
  uint32 QuotaNonPagedPoolUsage  ;
  uint32 QuotaPagedPoolUsage  ;
  uint32 QuotaPeakNonPagedPoolUsage  ;
  uint32 QuotaPeakPagedPoolUsage  ;
  uint64 ReadOperationCount  ;
  uint64 ReadTransferCount  ;
  uint32 SessionId  ;
  string Status  ;
  datetime TerminationDate  ;
  uint32 ThreadCount  ;
  uint64 UserModeTime  ;
  uint64 VirtualSize  ;
  string WindowsVersion  ;
  uint64 WorkingSetSize  ;
  uint64 WriteOperationCount  ;
  uint64 WriteTransferCount  ;



It should be obvious that this library must run under some
flavor of Windows.

This library uses the following libraries:

  use Win32::OLE::Const;
  use Win32::OLE::Variant;

As of ActivePerl 630, none of the variant libraries use any libraries
that are not included with ActivePerl. Your mileage may vary.


This module would not exist without the following people:

Jenda Krynicky, whose "How2 create a PPM distribution"
(F<http://jenda.krynicky.cz/perl/PPM.html>) gave me a leg up on
both PPM and tar distributions.

Dave Roth, F<http://www.roth.net/perl/>, author of
B<Win32 Perl Programming: Administrators Handbook>, which is
published by Macmillan Technical Publishing, ISBN 1-57870-215-1

=head1 AUTHOR

Thomas R. Wyant, III (F<wyant at cpan dot org>)


Copyright (C) 2001-2005 by E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Inc.

Copyright (C) 2007, 2010-2011, 2013-2014 by Thomas R. Wyant, III

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl 5.10.0. For more details, see the full text
of the licenses in the directory LICENSES.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of
merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.


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