Bread::Board::Manual::Concepts::Typemap - An overview of the typemapping feature


version 0.37


A new (read: experimental) feature of Bread::Board is typemapped services. These are services which are mapped to a particular type rather then just a name. This feature has the potential to make obsolete a large amount of the Bread::Board configuration by simply asking Bread::Board to figure things out on its own. Here is a small example of how this works.

  # define the classes making sure
  # to specify required items and
  # their types

      package Stapler;
      use Moose;

      package Desk;
      use Moose;

      package Chair;
      use Moose;

      package Cubicle;
      use Moose;

      has 'desk'  => ( is => 'ro', isa => 'Desk',  required => 1 );
      has 'chair' => ( is => 'ro', isa => 'Chair', required => 1 );

      package Employee;
      use Moose;

      has [ 'first_name', 'last_name' ] => (
          is       => 'ro',
          isa      => 'Str',
          required => 1,

      has 'stapler' => ( is => 'rw', isa => 'Stapler', predicate => 'has_stapler' );

      has 'work_area' => ( is => 'ro', isa => 'Cubicle', required => 1 );

  # now create the container, and
  # map the Employee type and ask
  # Bread::Board to infer all the
  # other relationships

  my $c = container 'Initech' => as {
      typemap 'Employee' => infer;

  # now you can create new Employee objects
  # by calling ->resolve with the type and
  # supplying the required parameters (see
  # below for details).

  my $micheal = $c->resolve(
      type       => 'Employee',
      parameters => {
          first_name => 'Micheal',
          last_name  => 'Bolton'

  my $cube = $micheal->work_area; # this will be a Cubicle object
  $cube->desk;  # this will be a Desk object
  $cube->chair; # this will be a Chair object

  $micheal->has_stapler; # this is false

  # We can create another Employee object
  # and this time we pass in the optional
  # parameter for the non-required 'stapler'
  # attribute

  my $milton = $c->resolve(
      type       => 'Employee',
      parameters => {
          first_name => 'Milton',
          last_name  => 'Waddams',
          stapler    => Stapler->new

  $milton->has_stapler; # this is true

In the above example, we created a number of Moose classes that had specific required relationships. When we called infer for the Employee object, Bread::Board figured out those relationships and set up dependencies and parameters accordingly.

For the work_area object, we saw the Cubicle type and then basically called infer on the Cubicle object. We then saw the Desk and Chair objects and called infer on those as well. The result of this recursive inference was that the Employee, Cubicle, Desk and Chair relationships were modeled in Bread::Board as dependent services.

Bread::Board also took it one step further.

We were able to resolve the Cubicle, Desk and Chair types automatically because they were already defined by Moose as subtypes of the Object type. We knew that it could introspect those classes and get more information. However, this was not the case with the first_name and last_name attributes of the Employee object. In that case, we determined that we couldn't resolve those objects and (because it was a top-level inference) instead turned them into required parameters for the inferred Employee service.

And lastly, with a top-level inference (not one caused by recursion) Bread::Board will also look at all the remaining non-required attributes and turn them into optional parameters. In this case we have a stapler attribute that is not required and so is listed as an optional parameter, meaning that it is not required, but still subject to type checking.


This example should give a good basic overview of this feature and more details can be found in the test suite (t/07*.t). These show examples of how to typemap roles to concrete classes and how to supply hints to infer to help Bread::Board figure out specific details.

As I mentioned above, this feature should be considered experimental and we are still working out details and writing tests for it. Any contributions are welcome.


Stevan Little <>


Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.


This software is copyright (c) 2019, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2011, 2009 by Infinity Interactive.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.