 NAME
 SYNOPSIS
 DESCRIPTION
 CONSTRUCTOR
 METHODS
 METHODS (Constraints)
 SEE ALSO
 AUTHOR
 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
NAME
Algorithm::CP::IZ  Perl interface for iZC library
SYNOPSIS
use Algorithm::CP::IZ;
my $iz = Algorithm::CP::IZ>new();
my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
my $v2 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
$iz>Add($v1, $v2)>Eq(12);
my $rc = $iz>search([$v1, $v2]);
if ($rc) {
print "ok\n";
print "v1 = ", $v1>value, "\n";
print "v2 = ", $v2>value, "\n";
}
else {
print "fail\n";
}
DESCRIPTION
Algorithm::CP::IZ is a simple interface of iZC constraint programming library.
Functions declared in iz.h are mapped to:
 methods of Algorithm::CP::IZ

initialize, variable constructor, most of constraints and search related functions
 methods of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int

accessors of variable attributes and some constraints
Please refer to iZC reference manual to see specific meaning of methods.
SIMPLE CASE
In most simple case, this library will be used like following steps:
# initialize
use Algorithm::CP::IZ;
my $iz = Algorithm::CP::IZ>new();
# construct variables
my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
my $v2 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
# add constraints ("v1 + v2 = 12" in this case)
$iz>Add($v1, $v2)>Eq(12);
# search solution
my $rc = $iz>search([$v1, $v2]);
# you may get "v1 = 3, v2 = 9"
print "v1 = $v1, v2 = $v2\n";
CONSTRUCTOR
 new

Initialize iZC library (cs_init is called). For limitation of iZC, living instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ must be only one per process.
METHODS
 create_int(INT)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance. Its domain contains INT.
 create_int(VALUES [, NAME])

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance. Its domain contains values specified by VALUES(arrayref).
 create_int(MIN, MAX, [, NAME])

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance. Its domain is {MIN..MAX}.
 search(VARIABLES [, PARAMS])

Try to instantiate all VARIABLES(arrayref).
PARAMS will be hashref containning following keys.
 FindFreeVar

FindFreeVar specifies variable selection strategy. Choose constants from Algorithm::CP::IZ::FindFreeVar or specify your own function as coderef here.
Most simple function will be following. (select from first)
sub simple_find_free_var{ my $array = shift; # VARIABLES is in parameter my $n = scalar @$array; for my $i (0..$n1) { return $i if ($array>[$i]>is_free); } return 1; # no free variable };
 Criteria

Criteria specifies value selection strategy. Specify your own function as coderef here.
sub sample_criteria { # position in VARIABLES, and candidate value my ($index, $val) = @_; # first value used in search is # minimum value returned by criteria. return $val; };
 MaxFail

Upper limit of fail count while searching solutions.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 find_all(VARIABLES, CALLBACK [, PARAMS])

Find all solutions. CALLBACK(coderef) is called for each solution. (First parameter of CALLBACK is VARIABLE)
# this callback collects all solutions in @r my @r; sub callback { my $var_array = shift; push(@r, [map { $_>value } @$var_array]); };
PARAMS will be hashref containning following keys.
 FindFreeVar

Same as search method.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 get_nb_fails

Returns fail count while search solution.
 get_nb_choice_points

Returns choice count while search solution.
 save_context

Save current status of variables and constraints.
my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9); $iz>save_context; # current status is saved. $v1>Le(5); # $v1 is {1..5} $iz>restore_context; # $v1 is restored to {1..9}
Returns integer which will be used for restore_context_until.
 restore_context

Restore status of variables and constraints to last point which 'save_context' is called.
 restore_context_until(LABEL)

Restore status of variables and constraints to point of label which 'save_context' returns.
 restore_all

Restore status of variables and constraints to point of first 'save_context' call.
 backtrack(VAR, INDEX, CALLBACK)

Set a callback function which will be called when context is restored to current status.
VAR is an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
INDEX is an integer value.
CALLBACK is a coderef which takes parameters like:
sub callback { # $var = VAR, $index = INDEX my ($var, $index) = @_; }
 event_all_known(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when all variables in VARIABLES are instantiated.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_known(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when any variable in VARIABLES is instantiated.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # $val is instantited now. # $index is position in $variables. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($val, $index, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_new_min(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when lower bound of any variable in VARIABLES is changed.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # minimum value of $var is changed from $old_min. # $var is same as $variables[$index]. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($var, $index, $old_min, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_new_max(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when upper bound of any variable in VARIABLES is changed.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # maximum value of $var is changed from $old_max. # $var is same as $variables[$index]. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($var, $index, $old_max, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_neq(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when value of any variable is removed in VARIABLES is changed.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # $val is removed from $var. # $var is same as $variables[$index]. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($var, $index, $val, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
METHODS (Constraints)
 Add(VAR1, VAR2 [, VAR3....])

Create new Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = VAR1 + VAR2 + ....
 Mul(VAR1, VAR2 [, VAR3....])

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = VAR1 * VAR2 * ....
 Sub(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = VAR1  VAR2
 Div(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = VAR1 / VAR2
 ScalProd(VARIABLES, COEFFICIENTS)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = COEFFICIENTS[0]*VARIABLES[0] + COEFFICIENTS[1]*VARIABLES[1] + ...
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int, and COEFFICIENTS is an arreyref contains integer values.
 AllNeq(VARIABLES)

Constraint all variables in VARIABLES to be different each other.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 Sigma(VARIABLES)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = VARIABLES[0] + VARIABLES[1] + ...
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Abs(VAR)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = abs(VAR)
 Min(VARIABLES)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = minimum value of (VARIABLES[0], VARIABLES[1], ...)
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Max(VARIABLES)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
CREATED = maximum value of (VARIABLES[0], VARIABLES[1], ...)
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 IfEq(VAR1, VAR2, VAL1, VAL2)

Constraint VAR1 and VAR2 to be:
VAR1 is instantiated to VAL1 and VAR2 is instantiated to VAL2. VAR2 is instantiated to VAL2 and VAR1 is instantiated to VAL1.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 IfNeq(VAR1, VAR2, VAL1, VAL2)

Constraint VAR1 and VAR2 to be:
pair (VAR1, VAR2) != pair (VAL1, VAL2)
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 OccurDomain(VAL, VARIABLES)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents count of VAL in VARIABLES.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 OccurConstraints(VAR, VAL, VARIABLES)

Constraint VAR to represent count of VAL in VARIABLES.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 Index(VARIABLES, VAL)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents position of VAL in VARIABLES.
VAL = VARIABLES[CREATED]
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Element(VAR, VALUES)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents value at VAR in VARIABLES.
CREATED = VARIABLES[VAR]
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 ReifEq(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents VAR1 == VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 == VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifNeq(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents VAR1 != VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 != VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifLt(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents VAR1 < VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 < VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifLe(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents VAR1 <= VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 <= VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifGt(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents VAR1 > VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 > VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifGe(VAR1, VAR2)

Create Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance represents VAR1 >= VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 >= VAR2 otherwise to 0.
SEE ALSO
Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int Algorithm::CP::IZ::FindFreeVar
AUTHOR
Toshimitsu FUJIWARA, <tttfjw at gmail.com>
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Copyright (C) 2015 by Toshimitsu FUJIWARA
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