 NAME
 SYNOPSIS
 DESCRIPTION
 CONSTRUCTOR
 METHODS
 METHODS (Constraints)
 SEE ALSO
 AUTHOR
 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
NAME
Algorithm::CP::IZ  Perl interface for iZC library
SYNOPSIS
use Algorithm::CP::IZ;
my $iz = Algorithm::CP::IZ>new();
my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
my $v2 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
$iz>Add($v1, $v2)>Eq(12);
my $rc = $iz>search([$v1, $v2]);
if ($rc) {
print "ok\n";
print "v1 = ", $v1>value, "\n";
print "v2 = ", $v2>value, "\n";
}
else {
print "fail\n";
}
DESCRIPTION
Algorithm::CP::IZ is a simple interface of iZC constraint programming library.
Functions declared in iz.h are mapped to:
 methods of Algorithm::CP::IZ

initialize, variable constructor, most of constraints and search related functions
 methods of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int

accessors of variable attributes and some relationship constraints
Please refer to iZC reference manual to see specific meaning of methods.
SIMPLE CASE
In most simple case, this library will be used like following steps:
# initialize
use Algorithm::CP::IZ;
my $iz = Algorithm::CP::IZ>new();
# construct variables
my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
my $v2 = $iz>create_int(1, 9);
# add constraints ("v1 + v2 = 12" in this case)
$iz>Add($v1, $v2)>Eq(12);
# search solution
my $rc = $iz>search([$v1, $v2]);
# you may get "v1 = 3, v2 = 9"
print "v1 = $v1, v2 = $v2\n";
CONSTRUCTOR
 new

Initialize iZC library (cs_init is called). For limitation of iZC, living instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ must be only one per process.
METHODS
 create_int(INT)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int. Its domain contains INT.
 create_int(VALUES [, NAME])

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int. Its domain contains values specified by VALUES(arrayref).
 create_int(MIN, MAX, [, NAME])

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int. Its domain is {MIN..MAX}.
 search(VARIABLES [, PARAMS])

Try to instantiate all VARIABLES(arrayref).
PARAMS will be hashref containning following keys.
 FindFreeVar

FindFreeVar specifies variable selection strategy. Choose constants from Algorithm::CP::IZ::FindFreeVar or specify your own function as coderef here.
Most simple function will be following. (select from first)
sub simple_find_free_var{ my $array = shift; # VARIABLES is in parameter my $n = scalar @$array; for my $i (0..$n1) { return $i if ($array>[$i]>is_free); } return 1; # no free variable };
 Criteria

Criteria specifies value selection strategy. Specify your own function as coderef here.
sub sample_criteria { # position in VARIABLES, and candidate value my ($index, $val) = @_; # first value used in search is # minimum value returned by criteria. return $val; };
(If ValueSelector is specified, this parameter is ignored.)
 MaxFail

Upper limit of fail count while searching solutions.
 ValueSelectors

Arrayref of Algorithm::CP::IZ::ValueSelector instances created via get_value_selector or create_value_selector_simple method.
(If ValueSelector is specified, this parameter is ignored.)
 MaxFailFunc

CodeRef of subroutine which returns maxfail for restart.
 NoGoodSet

A Algorithm::CP::IZ::NoGoodSet instance which collects NoGoods.
 Notify

Specify a notify object receives following notification by search function.
search_start search_end before_value_selection after_value_selection enter leave found
if OBJECT is a object, method having notification name will be called.
if OBJECT is a hashref, notification name must be a key of hash and value must be a coderef.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 find_all(VARIABLES, CALLBACK [, PARAMS])

Find all solutions. CALLBACK(coderef) is called for each solution. (First parameter of CALLBACK is VARIABLE)
# this callback collects all solutions in @r my @r; sub callback { my $var_array = shift; push(@r, [map { $_>value } @$var_array]); };
PARAMS will be hashref containning following keys.
 FindFreeVar

Same as search method.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 get_nb_fails

Returns fail count while searching solution.
 get_nb_choice_points

Returns choice count while searching solution.
 save_context

Save current status of variables and constraints.
my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9); $iz>save_context; # current status is saved. $v1>Le(5); # $v1 is {1..5} $iz>restore_context; # $v1 is restored to {1..9}
Returns integer which will be used for restore_context_until.
 restore_context

Restore status of variables and constraints to last point which 'save_context' is called.
 restore_context_until(LABEL)

Restore status of variables and constraints to point of label which 'save_context' returns.
 restore_all

Restore status of variables and constraints to point of first 'save_context' call.
 forget_save_context

Last save_context point is forgotten by calling this function.
 forgest_save_context_until(LABEL)

save_context points until LABEL are forgotten by calling this function.
 cancel_search

Cancel running search from other thread or signal handler. Context will be restored using restore_context_until if needed.
 backtrack(VAR, INDEX, CALLBACK)

Set a callback function which will be called when context is restored to current status.
VAR is an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
INDEX is an integer value.
CALLBACK is a coderef which takes parameters like:
sub callback { # $var = VAR, $index = INDEX my ($var, $index) = @_; }
 event_all_known(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when all variables in VARIABLES are instantiated.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_known(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when any variable in VARIABLES is instantiated.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # $val is instantited now. # $index is position in $variables. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($val, $index, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_new_min(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when lower bound of any variable in VARIABLES is changed.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # minimum value of $var is changed from $old_min. # $var is same as $variables[$index]. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($var, $index, $old_min, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_new_max(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when upper bound of any variable in VARIABLES is changed.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # maximum value of $var is changed from $old_max. # $var is same as $variables[$index]. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($var, $index, $old_max, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 event_neq(VARIABLES, CALLBACK, EXTRA)

Set a callback function which will be called when value of any variable is removed in VARIABLES is changed.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
CALLBACK is a coderef and takes parameters and must return like:
sub callback { # $val is removed from $var. # $var is same as $variables[$index]. # $variables and $extra are same as parameter. my ($var, $index, $val, $variables, $extra) = @_; # return 1(success) or 0(fail) return 1; }
EXTRA is a just a data passed to callbeck as parameter (it can be anything).
 get_version

Returns version string like "3.5.0". undef will be returned if getVersion() is not supported in iZC (old version).
 get_value_selector(ID)

Get builtin value selector (instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::ValueSelector) specifed by ID. ID must be selected from following constants defined in package Algorithm::CP::IZ.
 CS_VALUE_SELECTOR_MIN_TO_MAX
 CS_VALUE_SELECTOR_MAX_TO_MIN
 CS_VALUE_SELECTOR_LOWER_AND_UPPER
 CS_VALUE_SELECTOR_UPPER_AND_LOWER
 CS_VALUE_SELECTOR_MEDIAN_AND_REST
(These values are exported by Algorithm::CP::IZ and can be imported using tag 'value_selector')
Returned object will be used as a parameter ValueSelectors when calling "search" method.
use Algorithm::CP::IZ qw(:value_selector); my $vs = $iz>get_value_selector(CS_VALUE_SELECTOR_MIN_TO_MAX); my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9); my $v2 = $iz>create_int(1, 9); $iz>Add($v1, $v2)>Eq(12); my $rc = $iz>search([$v1, $v2], { ValueSelectors => [ $vs, $vs ], });
 create_value_selector_simple(CLASS_NAME)

Create user defined valueseelctor defined by class named CLASS_NAME. This class must have constructor named "new" and method namaed "next".
use Algorithm::CP::IZ qw(:value_selector); package VSSample1; sub new { my $class = shift; my ($v, $index) = @_; my $self = { _pos => 0, }; bless $self, $class; } sub next { my $self = shift; my ($v, $index) = @_; my $pos = $self>{_pos}; my $domain = $v>domain; # return empty after enumerate all values return if ($pos >= @$domain); my @ret = (CS_VALUE_SELECTION_EQ, $domain>[$pos]); $self>{_pos} = ++$pos; # return pair of (CS_VALUE_SELECTION_*, value) return @ret; } my $v1 = $iz>create_int(1, 9); my $v2 = $iz>create_int(1, 9); $iz>Add($v1, $v2)>Eq(12); my $vs = $iz>create_value_selector_simple("VSSample1"); my $rc = $iz>search([$v1, $v2], { ValueSelectors => [ $vs, $vs ], });
 create_no_good_set(VARIABLES, PRE_FILTER, MAX_NO_GOOD, EXT)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::NoGoodSet. Returned object will be used as a parameter NoGoodSet when calling "search" method.
METHODS (Constraints)
 Add(VAR1, VAR2 [, VAR3....])

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int constrainted to be:
Created_instance = VAR1 + VAR2 + ....
 Mul(VAR1, VAR2 [, VAR3....])

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int constrainted to be:
Created_instance = VAR1 * VAR2 * ....
 Sub(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int constrainted to be:
Created_instance = VAR1  VAR2
 Div(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int constrainted to be:
Created_instance = VAR1 / VAR2
 ScalProd(VARIABLES, COEFFICIENTS)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int constrainted to be:
Created_instance = COEFFICIENTS[0]*VARIABLES[0] + COEFFICIENTS[1]*VARIABLES[1] + ...
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int, and COEFFICIENTS is an arreyref contains integer values.
 AllNeq(VARIABLES)

Constraint all variables in VARIABLES to be different each other.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 Sigma(VARIABLES)

Create an Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int instance constrainted to be:
Created_instance = VARIABLES[0] + VARIABLES[1] + ...
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Abs(VAR)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int constrainted to be:
Created_instance = abs(VAR)
 Min(VARIABLES)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int constrainted to be:
Created_value = minimum value of (VARIABLES[0], VARIABLES[1], ...)
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Max(VARIABLES)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int to be:
Created_instance = maximum value of (VARIABLES[0], VARIABLES[1], ...)
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 IfEq(VAR1, VAR2, VAL1, VAL2)

Constraint VAR1 and VAR2 to be:
VAR1 is instantiated to VAL1 and VAR2 is instantiated to VAL2. VAR2 is instantiated to VAL2 and VAR1 is instantiated to VAL1.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 IfNeq(VAR1, VAR2, VAL1, VAL2)

Constraint VAR1 and VAR2 to be:
pair (VAR1, VAR2) != pair (VAL1, VAL2)
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 OccurDomain(VAL, VARIABLES)

Create instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents count of VAL in VARIABLES.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 OccurConstraints(VAR, VAL, VARIABLES)

Constraint VAR to represent count of VAL in VARIABLES.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
Returns 1 (success) or 0 (fail).
 Index(VARIABLES, VAL)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents position of VAL in VARIABLES.
VAL = VARIABLES[CREATED]
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Element(VAR, VALUES)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents a value at VAR in VALUES. This relation is:
Created_instance = VALUES[VAR]
VALUES is an arrayref contains integer values.
 VarElement(VAR, VARIABLES)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents a value at VAR in VARIABLES. This relation is:
Created_instance = VARIABLES[VAR]
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 VarElementRange(VAR, VARIABLES)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents a value at VAR in VARIABLES. This relation is:
Created_instance = VARIABLES[VAR]
In contrast to VarElement, constraint propagation for variables in VARIABLES will occur only when upper or lower bound is changed.
VARIABLES is an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Cumulative(START_VARS, DURATION_VARS, RESOUCE_VARS, LIMIT_VAR)

Constraint variables as "Cumulative".
START_VARS, DURATION_VARS and RESOUCE_VARS are an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int and LIMIT_VAR is an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Disjunctive(START_VARS, DURATION_VARS)

Constraint variables as "Disjunctive".
START_VARS and DURATION_VARS are an arrayref contains instances of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int.
 Regular(VARIABLES, TRANSITION_TABLE, Q0, F_VALUES)

Constraint VARIABLES to be input sequence accepted by DFA defined by TRANSITION_TABLE, Q0 and F_VALUES.
TRANSITION_TABLE is an arrayref of arrayref, and each value TRANSITION_TABLE>[q]>[s] defines next state (index of TRANSITION_TABLE) at input s (index of TRANSITION_TABLE>[q]).
Q0 is initial state of DFA.
F_VALUES is an arrayref of acceptable states of DFA.
 ReifEq(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents state of VAR1 == VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 == VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifNeq(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents state of VAR1 != VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 != VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifLt(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents state of VAR1 < VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 < VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifLe(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents state of VAR1 <= VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 <= VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifGt(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents state of VAR1 > VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 > VAR2 otherwise to 0.
 ReifGe(VAR1, VAR2)

Create an instance of Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int represents state of VAR1 >= VAR2. Created variable will be instantiated to 1 when VAR1 >= VAR2 otherwise to 0.
SEE ALSO
Algorithm::CP::IZ::Int Algorithm::CP::IZ::FindFreeVar
http://www.constraint.org/en/izc_download.html https://github.com/tofjw/AlgorithmCPIZ/wiki
AUTHOR
Toshimitsu FUJIWARA, <tttfjw at gmail.com>
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Copyright (C) 2015 by Toshimitsu FUJIWARA
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the the Artistic License (2.0). You may obtain a copy of the full license at:
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