INABA Hitoshi

NAME

Big5Plus - Source code filter to escape Big5Plus script

Install and Usage

There are two steps there:

  • You'll have to download Big5Plus.pm and Ebig5plus.pm and put it in your perl lib directory.

  • You'll need to write "use Big5Plus;" at head of the script.

SYNOPSIS

  use Big5Plus;
  use Big5Plus ver.sion;             --- require minimum version
  use Big5Plus ver.sion.0;           --- expects version (match or die)
  use Big5Plus qw(ord reverse getc); --- demand enhanced feature of ord, reverse, and getc
  use Big5Plus ver.sion qw(ord reverse getc);
  use Big5Plus ver.sion.0 qw(ord reverse getc);

  # "no Big5Plus;" not supported

  or

  $ perl Big5Plus.pm Big5Plus_script.pl > Escaped_script.pl.e

  then

  $ perl Escaped_script.pl.e

  Big5Plus_script.pl  --- script written in Big5Plus
  Escaped_script.pl.e --- escaped script

  subroutines:
    Big5Plus::ord(...);
    Big5Plus::reverse(...);
    Big5Plus::getc(...);
    Big5Plus::length(...);
    Big5Plus::substr(...);
    Big5Plus::index(...);
    Big5Plus::eval(...);

  functions:
    <*>
    glob(...);
    CORE::chop(...);
    CORE::ord(...);
    CORE::reverse(...);
    CORE::getc(...);
    CORE::index(...);
    CORE::rindex(...);

  dummy functions:
    utf8::upgrade(...);
    utf8::downgrade(...);
    utf8::encode(...);
    utf8::decode(...);
    utf8::is_utf8(...);
    utf8::valid(...);
    bytes::chr(...);
    bytes::index(...);
    bytes::length(...);
    bytes::ord(...);
    bytes::rindex(...);
    bytes::substr(...);

ABSTRACT

Big5Plus software is "middleware" between perl interpreter and your Perl script written in Big5Plus.

Perl is optimized for problems which are about 90% working with text and about 10% everything else. Even if this "text" doesn't contain Big5Plus, Perl3 or later can treat Big5Plus as binary data.

By "use Big5Plus;", it automatically interpret your script as Big5Plus. The various functions of perl including a regular expression can treat Big5Plus now. The function length treats length per byte. This software does not use UTF8 flag.

Yet Another Future Of

JPerl is very useful software. -- Oops, note, this "JPerl" means "Japanized Perl" or "Japanese Perl". Therefore, it is unrelated to JPerl of the following.

 JPerl is an implementation of Perl written in Java.
 http://www.javainc.com/projects/jperl/
 
 jPerl - Perl on the JVM
 http://www.dzone.com/links/175948.html
 
 Jamie's PERL scripts for bioinformatics
 http://code.google.com/p/jperl/
 
 jperl (Jonathan Perl)
 https://github.com/jperl

Now, the last version of JPerl is 5.005_04 and is not maintained now.

Japanization modifier WATANABE Hirofumi said,

  "Because WATANABE am tired I give over maintaing JPerl."

at Slide #15: "The future of JPerl" of

ftp://ftp.oreilly.co.jp/pcjp98/watanabe/jperlconf.ppt

in The Perl Confernce Japan 1998.

When I heard it, I thought that someone excluding me would maintain JPerl. And I slept every night hanging a sock. Night and day, I kept having hope. After 10 years, I noticed that white beard exists in the sock :-)

This software is a source code filter to escape Perl script encoded by Big5Plus given from STDIN or command line parameter. The character code is never converted by escaping the script. Neither the value of the character nor the length of the character string change even if it escapes.

I learned the following things from the successful software.

  • Upper Compatibility like Perl4 to Perl5

  • Maximum Portability like jcode.pl

  • Remains One Language Handling Raw Big5Plus, Doesn't Use UTF8 flag like JPerl

  • Remains One Interpreter like Encode module

  • Code Set Independent like Ruby

  • Monolithic Script like cpanminus

  • There's more than one way to do it like Perl itself

I am excited about this software and Perl's future --- I hope you are too.

JRE: JPerl Runtime Environment

  +---------------------------------------+
  |        JPerl Application Script       | Your Script
  +---------------------------------------+
  |  Source Code Filter, Runtime Routine  | ex. Big5Plus.pm, Ebig5plus.pm
  +---------------------------------------+
  |          PVM 5.00503 or later         | ex. perl 5.00503
  +---------------------------------------+

A Perl Virtual Machine (PVM) enables a set of computer software programs and data structures to use a virtual machine model for the execution of other computer programs and scripts. The model used by a PVM accepts a form of computer intermediate language commonly referred to as Perl byteorientedcode. This language conceptually represents the instruction set of a byte-oriented, capability architecture.

Basic Idea of Source Code Filter

I discovered this mail again recently.

[Tokyo.pm] jus Benkyoukai

http://mail.pm.org/pipermail/tokyo-pm/1999-September/001854.html

save as: SJIS.pm

  package SJIS;
  use Filter::Util::Call;
  sub multibyte_filter {
      my $status;
      if (($status = filter_read()) > 0 ) {
          s/([\x81-\x9f\xe0-\xef])([\x40-\x7e\x80-\xfc])/
              sprintf("\\x%02x\\x%02x",ord($1),ord($2))
          /eg;
      }
      $status;
  }
  sub import {
      filter_add(\&multibyte_filter);
  }
  1;

I am glad that I could confirm my idea is not so wrong.

Command-line Wildcard Expansion on DOS-like Systems

The default command shells on DOS-like systems (COMMAND.COM or cmd.exe or Win95Cmd.exe) do not expand wildcard arguments supplied to programs. Instead, import of Ebig5plus.pm works well.

   in Ebig5plus.pm
   #
   # @ARGV wildcard globbing
   #
   sub import {

       if ($^O =~ /\A (?: MSWin32 | NetWare | symbian | dos ) \z/oxms) {
           my @argv = ();
           for (@ARGV) {

               # has space
               if (/\A (?:$q_char)*? [ ] /oxms) {
                   if (my @glob = Ebig5plus::glob(qq{"$_"})) {
                       push @argv, @glob;
                   }
                   else {
                       push @argv, $_;
                   }
               }

               # has wildcard metachar
               elsif (/\A (?:$q_char)*? [*?] /oxms) {
                   if (my @glob = Ebig5plus::glob($_)) {
                       push @argv, @glob;
                   }
                   else {
                       push @argv, $_;
                   }
               }

               # no wildcard globbing
               else {
                   push @argv, $_;
               }
           }
           @ARGV = @argv;
       }
   }

Software Composition

   Big5Plus.pm               --- source code filter to escape Big5Plus
   Ebig5plus.pm              --- run-time routines for Big5Plus.pm

Upper Compatibility by Escaping

This software adds the function by 'Escaping' it always, and nothing of the past is broken. Therefore, 'Possible job' never becomes 'Impossible job'. This approach is effective in the field where the retreat is never permitted. It means incompatible upgrade of Perl should be rewound.

Escaping Your Script (You do)

You need write 'use Big5Plus;' in your script.

  ---------------------------------
  Before      You do
  ---------------------------------
  (nothing)   use Big5Plus;
  ---------------------------------

Escaping Multiple-Octet Code (Big5Plus software provides)

Insert chr(0x5c) before @ [ \ ] ^ ` { | and } in multiple-octet of

  • string in single quote ('', q{}, <<'END', and qw{})

  • string in double quote ("", qq{}, <<END, <<"END", ``, qx{}, and <<`END`)

  • regexp in single quote (m'', s''', split(''), split(m''), and qr'')

  • regexp in double quote (//, m//, ??, s///, split(//), split(m//), and qr//)

  • character in tr/// (tr/// and y///)

  ex. Japanese Katakana "SO" like [ `/ ] code is "\x83\x5C" in SJIS
 
                  see     hex dump
  -----------------------------------------
  source script   "`/"    [83 5c]
  -----------------------------------------
 
  Here, use SJIS;
                          hex dump
  -----------------------------------------
  escaped script  "`\/"   [83 [5c] 5c]
  -----------------------------------------
                    ^--- escape by SJIS software
 
  by the by       see     hex dump
  -----------------------------------------
  your eye's      "`/\"   [83 5c] [5c]
  -----------------------------------------
  perl eye's      "`\/"   [83] \[5c]
  -----------------------------------------
 
                          hex dump
  -----------------------------------------
  in the perl     "`/"    [83] [5c]
  -----------------------------------------

Multiple-Octet Anchoring of Regular Expression (Big5Plus software provides)

Big5Plus software applies multiple-octet anchoring at beginning of regular expression.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before                  After
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  m/regexp/               m/${Ebig5plus::anchor}(?:regexp).../
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Escaping Second Octet (Big5Plus software provides)

Big5Plus software escapes second octet of multiple-octet character in regular expression.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before                  After
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  m<...`/...>             m<...`/\...>
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Multiple-Octet Character Regular Expression (Big5Plus software provides)

Big5Plus software clusters multiple-octet character with quantifier, makes cluster from multiple-octet custom character classes. And makes multiple-octet version metasymbol from classic Perl character class shortcuts and POSIX-style character classes.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before                  After
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  m/...MULTIOCT+.../      m/...(?:MULTIOCT)+.../
  m/...[AN-EM].../        m/...(?:A[N-Z]|[B-D][A-Z]|E[A-M]).../
  m/...\D.../             m/...(?:${Ebig5plus::eD}).../
  m/...[[:^digit:]].../   m/...(?:${Ebig5plus::not_digit}).../
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Calling 'Ebig5plus::ignorecase()' (Big5Plus software provides)

Big5Plus software applies calling 'Ebig5plus::ignorecase()' instead of /i modifier.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before                  After
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  m/...$var.../i          m/...@{[Ebig5plus::ignorecase($var)]}.../
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Character-Oriented Regular Expression

Regular expression works as character-oriented that has no /b modifier.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before                  After
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  /regexp/                /ditto$Ebig5plus::matched/
  m/regexp/               m/ditto$Ebig5plus::matched/
  ?regexp?                m?ditto$Ebig5plus::matched?
  m?regexp?               m?ditto$Ebig5plus::matched?
 
  $_ =~                   ($_ =~ m/ditto$Ebig5plus::matched/) ?
  s/regexp/replacement/   CORE::eval{ Ebig5plus::s_matched(); local $^W=0; my $__r=qq/replacement/; $_="${1}$__r$'"; 1 } :
                          undef
 
  $_ !~                   ($_ !~ m/ditto$Ebig5plus::matched/) ?
  s/regexp/replacement/   1 :
                          CORE::eval{ Ebig5plus::s_matched(); local $^W=0; my $__r=qq/replacement/; $_="${1}$__r$'"; undef }
 
  split(/regexp/)         Ebig5plus::split(qr/regexp/)
  split(m/regexp/)        Ebig5plus::split(qr/regexp/)
  split(qr/regexp/)       Ebig5plus::split(qr/regexp/)
  qr/regexp/              qr/ditto$Ebig5plus::matched/
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Byte-Oriented Regular Expression

Regular expression works as byte-oriented that has /b modifier.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before                  After
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  /regexp/b               /(?:regexp)$Ebig5plus::matched/
  m/regexp/b              m/(?:regexp)$Ebig5plus::matched/
  ?regexp?b               m?regexp$Ebig5plus::matched?
  m?regexp?b              m?regexp$Ebig5plus::matched?
 
  $_ =~                   ($_ =~ m/(\G[\x00-\xFF]*?)(?:regexp)$Ebig5plus::matched/) ?
  s/regexp/replacement/b  CORE::eval{ Ebig5plus::s_matched(); local $^W=0; my $__r=qq/replacement/; $_="${1}$__r$'"; 1 } :
                          undef
 
  $_ !~                   ($_ !~ m/(\G[\x00-\xFF]*?)(?:regexp)$Ebig5plus::matched/) ?
  s/regexp/replacement/b  1 :
                          CORE::eval{ Ebig5plus::s_matched(); local $^W=0; my $__r=qq/replacement/; $_="${1}$__r$'"; undef }
 
  split(/regexp/b)        split(qr/regexp/)
  split(m/regexp/b)       split(qr/regexp/)
  split(qr/regexp/b)      split(qr/regexp/)
  qr/regexp/b             qr/(?:regexp)$Ebig5plus::matched/
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Escaping Character Classes (Ebig5plus.pm provides)

The character classes are redefined as follows to backward compatibility.

  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Before        After
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
   .            ${Ebig5plus::dot}
                ${Ebig5plus::dot_s}    (/s modifier)
  \d            [0-9]              (universally)
  \s            \s
  \w            [0-9A-Z_a-z]       (universally)
  \D            ${Ebig5plus::eD}
  \S            ${Ebig5plus::eS}
  \W            ${Ebig5plus::eW}
  \h            [\x09\x20]
  \v            [\x0A\x0B\x0C\x0D]
  \H            ${Ebig5plus::eH}
  \V            ${Ebig5plus::eV}
  \C            [\x00-\xFF]
  \X            X                  (so, just 'X')
  \R            ${Ebig5plus::eR}
  \N            ${Ebig5plus::eN}
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

Also POSIX-style character classes.

  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Before        After
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  [:alnum:]     [\x30-\x39\x41-\x5A\x61-\x7A]
  [:alpha:]     [\x41-\x5A\x61-\x7A]
  [:ascii:]     [\x00-\x7F]
  [:blank:]     [\x09\x20]
  [:cntrl:]     [\x00-\x1F\x7F]
  [:digit:]     [\x30-\x39]
  [:graph:]     [\x21-\x7F]
  [:lower:]     [\x61-\x7A]
                [\x41-\x5A\x61-\x7A]     (/i modifier)
  [:print:]     [\x20-\x7F]
  [:punct:]     [\x21-\x2F\x3A-\x3F\x40\x5B-\x5F\x60\x7B-\x7E]
  [:space:]     [\s\x0B]
  [:upper:]     [\x41-\x5A]
                [\x41-\x5A\x61-\x7A]     (/i modifier)
  [:word:]      [\x30-\x39\x41-\x5A\x5F\x61-\x7A]
  [:xdigit:]    [\x30-\x39\x41-\x46\x61-\x66]
  [:^alnum:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_alnum}
  [:^alpha:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_alpha}
  [:^ascii:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_ascii}
  [:^blank:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_blank}
  [:^cntrl:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_cntrl}
  [:^digit:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_digit}
  [:^graph:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_graph}
  [:^lower:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_lower}
                ${Ebig5plus::not_lower_i}    (/i modifier)
  [:^print:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_print}
  [:^punct:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_punct}
  [:^space:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_space}
  [:^upper:]    ${Ebig5plus::not_upper}
                ${Ebig5plus::not_upper_i}    (/i modifier)
  [:^word:]     ${Ebig5plus::not_word}
  [:^xdigit:]   ${Ebig5plus::not_xdigit}
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

\b and \B are redefined as follows to backward compatibility.

  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  Before      After
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  \b          ${Ebig5plus::eb}
  \B          ${Ebig5plus::eB}
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

Definitions in Ebig5plus.pm.

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  After                    Definition
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ${Ebig5plus::anchor}         qr{\G(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE])*?}
                           for over 32766 octets string on ActivePerl5.6 and Perl5.10 or later
                           qr{\G(?(?=.{0,32766}\z)(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE])*?|(?(?=[$sbcs]+\z).*?|(?:.*?[$sbcs](?:$tbcs_1st[^$sbcs]{2})*?)))}oxms;
  ${Ebig5plus::dot}            qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x0A])}
  ${Ebig5plus::dot_s}          qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eD}             qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE0-9])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eS}             qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\s])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eW}             qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE0-9A-Z_a-z])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eH}             qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x09\x20])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eV}             qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x0A\x0B\x0C\x0D])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eR}             qr{(?:\x0D\x0A|[\x0A\x0D])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eN}             qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x0A])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_alnum}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x30-\x39\x41-\x5A\x61-\x7A])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_alpha}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x41-\x5A\x61-\x7A])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_ascii}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x00-\x7F])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_blank}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x09\x20])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_cntrl}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x00-\x1F\x7F])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_digit}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x30-\x39])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_graph}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x21-\x7F])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_lower}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x61-\x7A])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_lower_i}    qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_print}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x20-\x7F])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_punct}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x21-\x2F\x3A-\x3F\x40\x5B-\x5F\x60\x7B-\x7E])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_space}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\s\x0B])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_upper}      qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x41-\x5A])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_upper_i}    qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_word}       qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x30-\x39\x41-\x5A\x5F\x61-\x7A])}
  ${Ebig5plus::not_xdigit}     qr{(?:[\x81-\xFE][\x00-\xFF]|[^\x81-\xFE\x30-\x39\x41-\x46\x61-\x66])}
  ${Ebig5plus::eb}             qr{(?:\A(?=[0-9A-Z_a-z])|(?<=[\x00-\x2F\x40\x5B-\x5E\x60\x7B-\xFF])(?=[0-9A-Z_a-z])|(?<=[0-9A-Z_a-z])(?=[\x00-\x2F\x40\x5B-\x5E\x60\x7B-\xFF]|\z))}
  ${Ebig5plus::eB}             qr{(?:(?<=[0-9A-Z_a-z])(?=[0-9A-Z_a-z])|(?<=[\x00-\x2F\x40\x5B-\x5E\x60\x7B-\xFF])(?=[\x00-\x2F\x40\x5B-\x5E\x60\x7B-\xFF]))}
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Un-Escaping \ of \N, \p, \P, and \X (Big5Plus software provides)

Big5Plus software removes '\' at head of alphanumeric regexp metasymbols \N, \p, \P and \X. By this method, you can avoid the trap of the abstraction.

See also, Deprecate literal unescaped "{" in regexes. http://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git/commit/2a53d3314d380af5ab5283758219417c6dfa36e9

  ------------------------------------
  Before           After
  ------------------------------------
  \N{CHARNAME}     N\{CHARNAME}
  \p{L}            p\{L}
  \p{^L}           p\{^L}
  \p{\^L}          p\{\^L}
  \pL              pL
  \P{L}            P\{L}
  \P{^L}           P\{^L}
  \P{\^L}          P\{\^L}
  \PL              PL
  \X               X
  ------------------------------------

Escaping Built-in Functions (Big5Plus software provide)

Insert 'Ebig5plus::' at head of function name. Ebig5plus.pm provides your script Ebig5plus::* subroutines.

  -------------------------------------------
  Before      After            Works as
  -------------------------------------------
  length      length           Byte
  substr      substr           Byte
  pos         pos              Byte
  split       Ebig5plus::split     Character
  tr///       Ebig5plus::tr        Character
  tr///b      tr///            Byte
  tr///B      tr///            Byte
  y///        Ebig5plus::tr        Character
  y///b       tr///            Byte
  y///B       tr///            Byte
  chop        Ebig5plus::chop      Character
  index       Ebig5plus::index     Character
  rindex      Ebig5plus::rindex    Character
  lc          Ebig5plus::lc        Character
  lcfirst     Ebig5plus::lcfirst   Character
  uc          Ebig5plus::uc        Character
  ucfirst     Ebig5plus::ucfirst   Character
  fc          Ebig5plus::fc        Character
  chr         Ebig5plus::chr       Character
  glob        Ebig5plus::glob      Character
  lstat       Ebig5plus::lstat     Character
  opendir     Ebig5plus::opendir   Character
  stat        Ebig5plus::stat      Character
  unlink      Ebig5plus::unlink    Character
  chdir       Ebig5plus::chdir     Character
  do          Ebig5plus::do        Character
  require     Ebig5plus::require   Character
  -------------------------------------------

  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before                   After
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  use Perl::Module;        BEGIN { Ebig5plus::require 'Perl/Module.pm'; Perl::Module->import() if Perl::Module->can('import'); }
  use Perl::Module @list;  BEGIN { Ebig5plus::require 'Perl/Module.pm'; Perl::Module->import(@list) if Perl::Module->can('import'); }
  use Perl::Module ();     BEGIN { Ebig5plus::require 'Perl/Module.pm'; }
  no Perl::Module;         BEGIN { Ebig5plus::require 'Perl/Module.pm'; Perl::Module->unimport() if Perl::Module->can('unimport'); }
  no Perl::Module @list;   BEGIN { Ebig5plus::require 'Perl/Module.pm'; Perl::Module->unimport(@list) if Perl::Module->can('unimport'); }
  no Perl::Module ();      BEGIN { Ebig5plus::require 'Perl/Module.pm'; }
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Escaping File Test Operators (Big5Plus software provide)

Insert 'Ebig5plus::' instead of '-' of operator.

  Available in MSWin32, MacOS, and UNIX-like systems
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before   After      Meaning
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  -r       Ebig5plus::r   File or directory is readable by this (effective) user or group
  -w       Ebig5plus::w   File or directory is writable by this (effective) user or group
  -e       Ebig5plus::e   File or directory name exists
  -x       Ebig5plus::x   File or directory is executable by this (effective) user or group
  -z       Ebig5plus::z   File exists and has zero size (always false for directories)
  -f       Ebig5plus::f   Entry is a plain file
  -d       Ebig5plus::d   Entry is a directory
  -t       -t         The filehandle is a TTY (as reported by the isatty() system function;
                      filenames can't be tested by this test)
  -T       Ebig5plus::T   File looks like a "text" file
  -B       Ebig5plus::B   File looks like a "binary" file
  -M       Ebig5plus::M   Modification age (measured in days)
  -A       Ebig5plus::A   Access age (measured in days)
  -C       Ebig5plus::C   Inode-modification age (measured in days)
  -s       Ebig5plus::s   File or directory exists and has nonzero size
                      (the value is the size in bytes)
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
  Available in MacOS and UNIX-like systems
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before   After      Meaning
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  -R       Ebig5plus::R   File or directory is readable by this real user or group
  -W       Ebig5plus::W   File or directory is writable by this real user or group
  -X       Ebig5plus::X   File or directory is executable by this real user or group
  -l       Ebig5plus::l   Entry is a symbolic link
  -S       Ebig5plus::S   Entry is a socket
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
  Not available in MSWin32 and MacOS
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Before   After      Meaning
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  -o       Ebig5plus::o   File or directory is owned by this (effective) user
  -O       Ebig5plus::O   File or directory is owned by this real user
  -p       Ebig5plus::p   Entry is a named pipe (a "fifo")
  -b       Ebig5plus::b   Entry is a block-special file (like a mountable disk)
  -c       Ebig5plus::c   Entry is a character-special file (like an I/O device)
  -u       Ebig5plus::u   File or directory is setuid
  -g       Ebig5plus::g   File or directory is setgid
  -k       Ebig5plus::k   File or directory has the sticky bit set
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------

-w only inspects the read-only file attribute (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY), which determines whether the directory can be deleted, not whether it can be written to. Directories always have read and write access unless denied by discretionary access control lists (DACLs). (MSWin32) -R, -W, -X, -O are indistinguishable from -r, -w, -x, -o. (MSWin32) -g, -k, -l, -u, -A are not particularly meaningful. (MSWin32) -x (or -X) determine if a file ends in one of the executable suffixes. -S is meaningless. (MSWin32)

As of Perl 5.00503, as a form of purely syntactic sugar, you can stack file test operators, in a way that -w -x $file is equivalent to -x $file && -w _ .

  if ( -w -r $file ) {
      print "The file is both readable and writable!\n";
  }

Escaping Function Name (You do)

You need write 'Big5Plus::' at head of function name when you want character- oriented subroutine. See 'Character-Oriented Subroutines'.

  --------------------------------------------------------
  Function   Character-Oriented   Description
  --------------------------------------------------------
  ord        Big5Plus::ord
  reverse    Big5Plus::reverse
  getc       Big5Plus::getc
  length     Big5Plus::length
  substr     Big5Plus::substr
  index      Big5Plus::index          See 'About Indexes'
  rindex     Big5Plus::rindex         See 'About Rindexes'
  --------------------------------------------------------

  About Indexes
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Function       Works as    Returns as   Description
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  index          Character   Byte         JPerl semantics (most useful)
  (same as Ebig5plus::index)
  Big5Plus::index    Character   Character    Character-oriented semantics
  CORE::index    Byte        Byte         Byte-oriented semantics
  (nothing)      Byte        Character    (most useless)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------

  About Rindexes
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Function       Works as    Returns as   Description
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  rindex         Character   Byte         JPerl semantics (most useful)
  (same as Ebig5plus::rindex)
  Big5Plus::rindex   Character   Character    Character-oriented semantics
  CORE::rindex   Byte        Byte         Byte-oriented semantics
  (nothing)      Byte        Character    (most useless)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------

Character-Oriented Subsroutines

  • Ordinal Value of Character

      $ord = Big5Plus::ord($string);
    
      This subroutine returns the numeric value (ASCII or Big5Plus character) of the
      first character of $string, not Unicode. If $string is omitted, it uses $_.
      The return value is always unsigned.
    
      If you import ord "use Big5Plus qw(ord);", ord of your script will be rewritten in
      Big5Plus::ord. Big5Plus::ord is not compatible with ord of JPerl.
  • Reverse List or String

      @reverse = Big5Plus::reverse(@list);
      $reverse = Big5Plus::reverse(@list);
    
      In list context, this subroutine returns a list value consisting of the elements
      of @list in the opposite order.
    
      In scalar context, the subroutine concatenates all the elements of @list and
      then returns the reverse of that resulting string, character by character.
    
      If you import reverse "use Big5Plus qw(reverse);", reverse of your script will be
      rewritten in Big5Plus::reverse. Big5Plus::reverse is not compatible with reverse of
      JPerl.
    
      Even if you do not know this subroutine, there is no problem. This subroutine
      can be created with
    
      $rev = join('', reverse(split(//, $jstring)));
    
      as before.
    
      See:
      P.558 JPerl (Japanese Perl)
      Appendix C Supplement the Japanese version
      ISBN 4-89052-384-7 PERL PUROGURAMINGU
  • Returns Next Character

      $getc = Big5Plus::getc(FILEHANDLE);
      $getc = Big5Plus::getc($filehandle);
      $getc = Big5Plus::getc;
    
      This subroutine returns the next character from the input file attached to
      FILEHANDLE. It returns undef at end-of-file, or if an I/O error was encountered.
      If FILEHANDLE is omitted, the subroutine reads from STDIN.
    
      This subroutine is somewhat slow, but it's occasionally useful for
      single-character input from the keyboard -- provided you manage to get your
      keyboard input unbuffered. This subroutine requests unbuffered input from the
      standard I/O library. Unfortunately, the standard I/O library is not so standard
      as to provide a portable way to tell the underlying operating system to supply
      unbuffered keyboard input to the standard I/O system. To do that, you have to
      be slightly more clever, and in an operating-system-dependent fashion. Under
      Unix you might say this:
    
      if ($BSD_STYLE) {
          system "stty cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
      }
      else {
          system "stty", "-icanon", "eol", "\001";
      }
    
      $key = Big5Plus::getc;
    
      if ($BSD_STYLE) {
          system "stty -cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
      }
      else {
          system "stty", "icanon", "eol", "^@"; # ASCII NUL
      }
      print "\n";
    
      This code puts the next character typed on the terminal in the string $key. If
      your stty program has options like cbreak, you'll need to use the code where
      $BSD_STYLE is true. Otherwise, you'll need to use the code where it is false.
    
      If you import getc "use Big5Plus qw(getc);", getc of your script will be rewritten
      in Big5Plus::getc. Big5Plus::getc is not compatible with getc of JPerl.
  • Length by Big5Plus Character

      $length = Big5Plus::length($string);
      $length = Big5Plus::length();
    
      This subroutine returns the length in characters (programmer-visible characters)
      of the scalar value $string. If $string is omitted, it returns the Big5Plus::length
      of $_.
    
      Do not try to use Big5Plus::length to find the size of an array or hash. Use scalar
      @array for the size of an array, and scalar keys %hash for the number of key/value
      pairs in a hash. (The scalar is typically omitted when redundant.)
    
      To find the length of a string in bytes rather than characters, say simply:
    
      $bytes = length($string);
    
      Even if you do not know this subroutine, there is no problem. This subroutine
      can be created with
    
      $len = split(//, $jstring);
    
      as before.
    
      See:
      P.558 JPerl (Japanese Perl)
      Appendix C Supplement the Japanese version
      ISBN 4-89052-384-7 PERL PUROGURAMINGU
  • Substr by Big5Plus Character

      $substr = Big5Plus::substr($string,$offset,$length,$replacement);
      $substr = Big5Plus::substr($string,$offset,$length);
      $substr = Big5Plus::substr($string,$offset);
    
      This subroutine extracts a substring out of the string given by $string and returns
      it. The substring is extracted starting at $offset characters from the front of
      the string. First character is at offset zero. If $offset is negative, starts that
      far back from the end of the string.
      If $length is omitted, returns everything through the end of the string. If $length
      is negative, leaves that many characters off the end of the string. Otherwise,
      $length indicates the length of the substring to extract, which is sort of what
      you'd expect.
    
      my $s = "The black cat climbed the green tree";
      my $color  = Big5Plus::substr $s, 4, 5;      # black
      my $middle = Big5Plus::substr $s, 4, -11;    # black cat climbed the
      my $end    = Big5Plus::substr $s, 14;        # climbed the green tree
      my $tail   = Big5Plus::substr $s, -4;        # tree
      my $z      = Big5Plus::substr $s, -4, 2;     # tr
    
      If Perl version 5.14 or later, you can use the Big5Plus::substr() subroutine as an
      lvalue. In its case $string must itself be an lvalue. If you assign something
      shorter than $length, the string will shrink, and if you assign something longer
      than $length, the string will grow to accommodate it. To keep the string the
      same length, you may need to pad or chop your value using sprintf.
    
      If $offset and $length specify a substring that is partly outside the string,
      only the part within the string is returned. If the substring is beyond either
      end of the string, Big5Plus::substr() returns the undefined value and produces a
      warning. When used as an lvalue, specifying a substring that is entirely outside
      the string raises an exception. Here's an example showing the behavior for
      boundary cases:
    
      my $name = 'fred';
      Big5Plus::substr($name, 4) = 'dy';         # $name is now 'freddy'
      my $null = Big5Plus::substr $name, 6, 2;   # returns "" (no warning)
      my $oops = Big5Plus::substr $name, 7;      # returns undef, with warning
      Big5Plus::substr($name, 7) = 'gap';        # raises an exception
    
      An alternative to using Big5Plus::substr() as an lvalue is to specify the replacement
      string as the 4th argument. This allows you to replace parts of the $string and
      return what was there before in one operation, just as you can with splice().
    
      my $s = "The black cat climbed the green tree";
      my $z = Big5Plus::substr $s, 14, 7, "jumped from";    # climbed
      # $s is now "The black cat jumped from the green tree"
    
      Note that the lvalue returned by the three-argument version of Big5Plus::substr() acts
      as a 'magic bullet'; each time it is assigned to, it remembers which part of the
      original string is being modified; for example:
    
      $x = '1234';
      for (Big5Plus::substr($x,1,2)) {
          $_ = 'a';   print $x,"\n";    # prints 1a4
          $_ = 'xyz'; print $x,"\n";    # prints 1xyz4
          $x = '56789';
          $_ = 'pq';  print $x,"\n";    # prints 5pq9
      }
    
      With negative offsets, it remembers its position from the end of the string when
      the target string is modified:
    
      $x = '1234';
      for (Big5Plus::substr($x, -3, 2)) {
          $_ = 'a';   print $x,"\n";    # prints 1a4, as above
          $x = 'abcdefg';
          print $_,"\n";                # prints f
      }
    
      Prior to Perl version 5.10, the result of using an lvalue multiple times was
      unspecified. Prior to 5.16, the result with negative offsets was unspecified.
  • Index by Big5Plus Character

      $index = Big5Plus::index($string,$substring,$offset);
      $index = Big5Plus::index($string,$substring);
    
      This subroutine searches for one string within another. It returns the character
      position of the first occurrence of $substring in $string. The $offset, if
      specified, says how many characters from the start to skip before beginning to
      look. Positions are based at 0. If the substring is not found, the subroutine
      returns one less than the base, ordinarily -1. To work your way through a string,
      you might say:
    
      $pos = -1;
      while (($pos = Big5Plus::index($string, $lookfor, $pos)) > -1) {
          print "Found at $pos\n";
          $pos++;
      }
  • Rindex by Big5Plus Character

      $rindex = Big5Plus::rindex($string,$substring,$offset);
      $rindex = Big5Plus::rindex($string,$substring);
    
      This subroutine works just like Big5Plus::index except that it returns the character
      position of the last occurrence of $substring in $string (a reverse Big5Plus::index).
      The subroutine returns -1 if $substring is not found. $offset, if specified, is
      the rightmost character position that may be returned. To work your way through
      a string backward, say:
    
      $pos = Big5Plus::length($string);
      while (($pos = Big5Plus::rindex($string, $lookfor, $pos)) >= 0) {
          print "Found at $pos\n";
          $pos--;
      }
  • Eval Big5Plus Script

      $eval = Big5Plus::eval { block };
      $eval = Big5Plus::eval $expr;
      $eval = Big5Plus::eval;
    
      The Big5Plus::eval keyword serves two distinct but related purposes in JPerl.
      These purposes are represented by two forms of syntax, Big5Plus::eval { block }
      and Big5Plus::eval $expr. The first form traps runtime exceptions (errors)
      that would otherwise prove fatal, similar to the "try block" construct in
      C++ or Java. The second form compiles and executes little bits of code on
      the fly at runtime, and also (conveniently) traps any exceptions just like
      the first form. But the second form runs much slower than the first form,
      since it must parse the string every time. On the other hand, it is also
      more general. Whichever form you use, Big5Plus::eval is the preferred way to do
      all exception handling in JPerl.
    
      For either form of Big5Plus::eval, the value returned from an Big5Plus::eval is
      the value of the last expression evaluated, just as with subroutines.
      Similarly, you may use the return operator to return a value from the
      middle of the eval. The expression providing the return value is evaluated
      in void, scalar, or list context, depending on the context of the
      Big5Plus::eval itself. See wantarray for more on how the evaluation context
      can be determined.
    
      If there is a trappable error (including any produced by the die operator),
      Big5Plus::eval returns undef and puts the error message (or object) in $@. If
      there is no error, $@ is guaranteed to be set to the null string, so you
      can test it reliably afterward for errors. A simple Boolean test suffices:
    
          Big5Plus::eval { ... }; # trap runtime errors
          if ($@) { ... }     # handle error
    
      (Prior to Perl 5.16, a bug caused undef to be returned in list context for
      syntax errors, but not for runtime errors.)
    
      The Big5Plus::eval { block } form is syntax checked and compiled at compile time,
      so it is just as efficient at runtime as any other block. (People familiar
      with the slow Big5Plus::eval $expr form are occasionally confused on this issue.)
      Because the { block } is compiled when the surrounding code is, this form of
      Big5Plus::eval cannot trap syntax errors.
    
      The Big5Plus::eval $expr form can trap syntax errors because it parses the code
      at runtime. (If the parse is unsuccessful, it places the parse error in $@,
      as usual.) If $expr is omitted, evaluates $_ .
    
      Otherwise, it executes the value of $expr as though it were a little JPerl
      script. The code is executed in the context of the current of the current
      JPerl script, which means that it can see any enclosing lexicals from a
      surrounding scope, and that any nonlocal variable settings remain in effect
      after the Big5Plus::eval is complete, as do any subroutine or format definitions.
      The code of the Big5Plus::eval is treated as a block, so any locally scoped
      variables declared within the Big5Plus::eval last only until the Big5Plus::eval is
      done. (See my and local.) As with any code in a block, a final semicolon is
      not required.
    
      Big5Plus::eval will be escaped as follows:
    
      -------------------------------------------------
      Before                  After
      -------------------------------------------------
      Big5Plus::eval { block }    eval { block }
      Big5Plus::eval $expr        eval Big5Plus::escape $expr
      Big5Plus::eval              eval Big5Plus::escape
      -------------------------------------------------
    
      To tell the truth, the subroutine Big5Plus::eval does not exist. If it exists,
      you will troubled, when Big5Plus::eval has a parameter that is single quoted
      string included my variables. Big5Plus::escape is a subroutine that makes Perl
      script from JPerl script.
    
      Here is a simple JPerl shell. It prompts the user to enter a string of
      arbitrary JPerl code, compiles and executes that string, and prints whatever
      error occurred:
    
          #!/usr/bin/perl
          # jperlshell.pl - simple JPerl shell
          use Big5Plus;
          print "\nEnter some JPerl code: ";
          while (<STDIN>) {
              Big5Plus::eval;
              print $@;
              print "\nEnter some more JPerl code: ";
          }
    
      Here is a rename.pl script to do a mass renaming of files using a JPerl
      expression:
    
          #!/usr/bin/perl
          # rename.pl - change filenames
          use Big5Plus;
          $op = shift;
          for (@ARGV) {
              $was = $_;
              Big5Plus::eval $op;
              die if $@;
              # next line calls the built-in function, not
              # the script by the same name
              if ($was ne $_) {
                  print STDERR "rename $was --> $_\n";
                  rename($was,$_);
              }
          }
    
      You'd use that script like this:
    
          C:\WINDOWS> perl rename.pl 's/\.orig$//' *.orig
          C:\WINDOWS> perl rename.pl 'y/A-Z/a-z/ unless /^Make/' *
          C:\WINDOWS> perl rename.pl '$_ .= ".bad"' *.f
    
      Since Big5Plus::eval traps errors that would otherwise prove fatal, it is useful
      for determining whether particular features (such as fork or symlink) are
      implemented.
    
      Because Big5Plus::eval { block } is syntax checked at compile time, any syntax
      error is reported earlier. Therefore, if your code is invariant and both
      Big5Plus::eval $expr and Big5Plus::eval { block } will suit your purposes equally
      well, the { block } form is preferred. For example:
    
          # make divide-by-zero nonfatal
          Big5Plus::eval { $answer = $a / $b; };
          warn $@ if $@;
    
          # same thing, but less efficient if run multiple times
          Big5Plus::eval '$answer = $a / $b';
          warn $@ if $@;
    
          # a compile-time syntax error (not trapped)
          Big5Plus::eval { $answer = }; # WRONG
    
          # a runtime syntax error
          Big5Plus::eval '$answer =';   # sets $@
    
      Here, the code in the { block } has to be valid JPerl code to make it past
      the compile phase. The code in the $expr doesn't get examined until runtime,
      so it doesn't cause an error until runtime.
    
      Using the Big5Plus::eval { block } form as an exception trap in libraries does
      have some issues. Due to the current arguably broken state of __DIE__ hooks,
      you may wish not to trigger any __DIE__ hooks that user code may have
      installed. You can use the local $SIG{__DIE__} construct for this purpose,
      as this example shows:
    
          # a private exception trap for divide-by-zero
          Big5Plus::eval { local $SIG{'__DIE__'}; $answer = $a / $b; };
          warn $@ if $@;
    
      This is especially significant, given that __DIE__ hooks can call die again,
      which has the effect of changing their error messages:
    
          # __DIE__ hooks may modify error messages
          {
              local $SIG{'__DIE__'} =
                  sub { (my $x = $_[0]) =~ s/foo/bar/g; die $x };
              Big5Plus::eval { die "foo lives here" };
              print $@ if $@;                # prints "bar lives here"
          }
    
      Because this promotes action at a distance, this counterintuitive behavior
      may be fixed in a future release.
    
      With an Big5Plus::eval, you should be especially careful to remember what's being
      looked at when:
    
          Big5Plus::eval $x;        # CASE 1
          Big5Plus::eval "$x";      # CASE 2
    
          Big5Plus::eval '$x';      # CASE 3
          Big5Plus::eval { $x };    # CASE 4
    
          Big5Plus::eval "\$$x++";  # CASE 5
          $$x++;                # CASE 6
    
      CASEs 1 and 2 above behave identically: they run the code contained in the
      variable $x. (Although CASE 2 has misleading double quotes making the reader
      wonder what else might be happening (nothing is).) CASEs 3 and 4 likewise
      behave in the same way: they run the code '$x' , which does nothing but return
      the value of $x. (CASE 4 is preferred for purely visual reasons, but it also
      has the advantage of compiling at compile-time instead of at run-time.) CASE 5
      is a place where normally you would like to use double quotes, except that in
      this particular situation, you can just use symbolic references instead, as
      in CASE 6.
    
      Before Perl 5.14, the assignment to $@ occurred before restoration of
      localized variables, which means that for your code to run on older versions,
      a temporary is required if you want to mask some but not all errors:
    
          # alter $@ on nefarious repugnancy only
          {
              my $e;
              {
                  local $@; # protect existing $@
                  Big5Plus::eval { test_repugnancy() };
                  # $@ =~ /nefarious/ and die $@; # Perl 5.14 and higher only
                  $@ =~ /nefarious/ and $e = $@;
              }
              die $e if defined $e
          }
    
      The block of Big5Plus::eval { block } does not count as a loop, so the loop
      control statements next, last, or redo cannot be used to leave or restart the
      block.
  • Filename Globbing

      @glob = glob($expr);
      $glob = glob($expr);
      @glob = glob;
      $glob = glob;
      @glob = <*>;
      $glob = <*>;
    
      Performs filename expansion (globbing) on $expr, returning the next successive
      name on each call. If $expr is omitted, $_ is globbed instead.
    
      This operator is implemented via the Ebig5plus::glob() subroutine. See Ebig5plus::glob
      of Ebig5plus.pm for details.

Byte-Oriented Functions

  • Chop Byte String

      $byte = CORE::chop($string);
      $byte = CORE::chop(@list);
      $byte = CORE::chop;
    
      This function chops off the last byte of a string variable and returns the
      byte chopped. The CORE::chop operator is used primarily to remove the newline
      from the end of an input record, and is more efficient than using a
      substitution (s/\n$//). If that's all you're doing, then it would be safer to
      use chomp, since CORE::chop always shortens the string no matter what's there,
      and chomp is more selective.
    
      You cannot CORE::chop a literal, only a variable.
    
      If you CORE::chop a @list of variables, each string in the list is chopped:
    
      @lines = `cat myfile`;
      CORE::chop @lines;
    
      You can CORE::chop anything that is an lvalue, including an assignment:
    
      CORE::chop($cwd = `pwd`);
      CORE::chop($answer = <STDIN>);
    
      This is different from:
    
      $answer = CORE::chop($temp = <STDIN>); # WRONG
    
      which puts a newline into $answer because CORE::chop returns the byte chopped,
      not the remaining string (which is in $tmp). One way to get the result
      intended here is with substr:
    
      $answer = substr <STDIN>, 0, -1;
    
      But this is more commonly written as:
    
      CORE::chop($answer = <STDIN>);
    
      In the most general case, CORE::chop can be expressed in terms of substr:
    
      $last_byte = CORE::chop($var);
      $last_byte = substr($var, -1, 1, ""); # same thing
    
      Once you understand this equivalence, you can use it to do bigger chops. To
      CORE::chop more than one byte, use substr as an lvalue, assigning a null
      string. The following removes the last five bytes of $caravan:
    
      substr($caravan, -5) = "";
    
      The negative subscript causes substr to count from the end of the string
      instead of the beginning. If you wanted to save the bytes so removed, you
      could use the four-argument form of substr, creating something of a quintuple
      CORE::chop:
    
      $tail = substr($caravan, -5, 5, "");
    
      If no argument is given, the function chops the $_ variable.
  • Ordinal Value of Byte

      $ord = CORE::ord($expr);
    
      This function returns the numeric value of the first byte of $expr, regardless
      of "use Big5Plus qw(ord);" exists or not. If $expr is omitted, it uses $_.
      The return value is always unsigned.
    
      If you want a signed value, use unpack('c',$expr). If you want all the bytes of
      the string converted to a list of numbers, use unpack('C*',$expr) instead.
  • Reverse List or Byte String

      @reverse = CORE::reverse(@list);
      $reverse = CORE::reverse(@list);
    
      In list context, this function returns a list value consisting of the elements
      of @list in the opposite order.
    
      In scalar context, the function concatenates all the elements of @list and then
      returns the reverse of that resulting string, byte by byte, regardless of
      "use Big5Plus qw(reverse);" exists or not.
  • Returns Next Byte

      $getc = CORE::getc(FILEHANDLE);
      $getc = CORE::getc($filehandle);
      $getc = CORE::getc;
    
      This function returns the next byte from the input file attached to FILEHANDLE.
      It returns undef at end-of-file, or if an I/O error was encountered. If
      FILEHANDLE is omitted, the function reads from STDIN.
    
      This function is somewhat slow, but it's occasionally useful for single-byte
      input from the keyboard -- provided you manage to get your keyboard input
      unbuffered. This function requests unbuffered input from the standard I/O library.
      Unfortunately, the standard I/O library is not so standard as to provide a portable
      way to tell the underlying operating system to supply unbuffered keyboard input to
      the standard I/O system. To do that, you have to be slightly more clever, and in
      an operating-system-dependent fashion. Under Unix you might say this:
    
      if ($BSD_STYLE) {
          system "stty cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
      }
      else {
          system "stty", "-icanon", "eol", "\001";
      }
    
      $key = CORE::getc;
    
      if ($BSD_STYLE) {
          system "stty -cbreak </dev/tty >/dev/tty 2>&1";
      }
      else {
          system "stty", "icanon", "eol", "^@"; # ASCII NUL
      }
      print "\n";
    
      This code puts the next single-byte typed on the terminal in the string $key.
      If your stty program has options like cbreak, you'll need to use the code where
      $BSD_STYLE is true. Otherwise, you'll need to use the code where it is false.
  • Index by Byte String

      $index = CORE::index($string,$substring,$offset);
      $index = CORE::index($string,$substring);
    
      This function searches for one byte string within another. It returns the position
      of the first occurrence of $substring in $string. The $offset, if specified, says
      how many bytes from the start to skip before beginning to look. Positions are based
      at 0. If the substring is not found, the function returns one less than the base,
      ordinarily -1. To work your way through a string, you might say:
    
      $pos = -1;
      while (($pos = CORE::index($string, $lookfor, $pos)) > -1) {
          print "Found at $pos\n";
          $pos++;
      }
  • Rindex by Byte String

      $rindex = CORE::rindex($string,$substring,$offset);
      $rindex = CORE::rindex($string,$substring);
    
      This function works just like CORE::index except that it returns the position of
      the last occurrence of $substring in $string (a reverse CORE::index). The function
      returns -1 if not $substring is found. $offset, if specified, is the rightmost
      position that may be returned. To work your way through a string backward, say:
    
      $pos = CORE::length($string);
      while (($pos = CORE::rindex($string, $lookfor, $pos)) >= 0) {
          print "Found at $pos\n";
          $pos--;
      }

Un-Escaping bytes::* Subroutines (Big5Plus software provides)

Big5Plus software removes 'bytes::' at head of subroutine name.

  ---------------------------------------
  Before           After     Works as
  ---------------------------------------
  bytes::chr       chr       Byte
  bytes::index     index     Byte
  bytes::length    length    Byte
  bytes::ord       ord       Byte
  bytes::rindex    rindex    Byte
  bytes::substr    substr    Byte
  ---------------------------------------

Ignore Pragmas and Modules

  -----------------------------------------------------------
  Before                    After
  -----------------------------------------------------------
  use strict;               use strict; no strict qw(refs);
  use 5.12.0;               use 5.12.0; no strict qw(refs);
  require utf8;             # require utf8;
  require bytes;            # require bytes;
  require charnames;        # require charnames;
  require I18N::Japanese;   # require I18N::Japanese;
  require I18N::Collate;    # require I18N::Collate;
  require I18N::JExt;       # require I18N::JExt;
  require File::DosGlob;    # require File::DosGlob;
  require Wild;             # require Wild;
  require Wildcard;         # require Wildcard;
  require Japanese;         # require Japanese;
  use utf8;                 # use utf8;
  use bytes;                # use bytes;
  use charnames;            # use charnames;
  use I18N::Japanese;       # use I18N::Japanese;
  use I18N::Collate;        # use I18N::Collate;
  use I18N::JExt;           # use I18N::JExt;
  use File::DosGlob;        # use File::DosGlob;
  use Wild;                 # use Wild;
  use Wildcard;             # use Wildcard;
  use Japanese;             # use Japanese;
  no utf8;                  # no utf8;
  no bytes;                 # no bytes;
  no charnames;             # no charnames;
  no I18N::Japanese;        # no I18N::Japanese;
  no I18N::Collate;         # no I18N::Collate;
  no I18N::JExt;            # no I18N::JExt;
  no File::DosGlob;         # no File::DosGlob;
  no Wild;                  # no Wild;
  no Wildcard;              # no Wildcard;
  no Japanese;              # no Japanese;
  -----------------------------------------------------------

  Comment out pragma to ignore utf8 environment, and Ebig5plus.pm provides these
  functions.
  • Dummy utf8::upgrade

      $num_octets = utf8::upgrade($string);
    
      Returns the number of octets necessary to represent the string.
  • Dummy utf8::downgrade

      $success = utf8::downgrade($string[, FAIL_OK]);
    
      Returns true always.
  • Dummy utf8::encode

      utf8::encode($string);
    
      Returns nothing.
  • Dummy utf8::decode

      $success = utf8::decode($string);
    
      Returns true always.
  • Dummy utf8::is_utf8

      $flag = utf8::is_utf8(STRING);
    
      Returns false always.
  • Dummy utf8::valid

      $flag = utf8::valid(STRING);
    
      Returns true always.
  • Dummy bytes::chr

      This subroutine is same as chr.
  • Dummy bytes::index

      This subroutine is same as index.
  • Dummy bytes::length

      This subroutine is same as length.
  • Dummy bytes::ord

      This subroutine is same as ord.
  • Dummy bytes::rindex

      This subroutine is same as rindex.
  • Dummy bytes::substr

      This subroutine is same as substr.

Environment Variable

 This software uses the flock function for exclusive control. The execution of the
 program is blocked until it becomes possible to read or write the file.
 You can have it not block in the flock function by defining environment variable
 SJIS_NONBLOCK.
 
 Example:
 
   SET SJIS_NONBLOCK=1
 
 (The value '1' doesn't have the meaning)

BUGS, LIMITATIONS, and COMPATIBILITY

I have tested and verified this software using the best of my ability. However, a software containing much regular expression is bound to contain some bugs. Thus, if you happen to find a bug that's in Big5Plus software and not your own program, you can try to reduce it to a minimal test case and then report it to the following author's address. If you have an idea that could make this a more useful tool, please let everyone share it.

  • format

    Function "format" can't handle multiple-octet code same as original Perl.

  • cloister of regular expression

    The cloister (?s) and (?i) of a regular expression will not be implemented for the time being. Cloister (?s) can be substituted with the .(dot) and \N on /s modifier. Cloister (?i) can be substituted with \F...\E.

  • chdir

    Function chdir() can always be executed with perl5.005.

    There are the following limitations for DOS-like system(any of MSWin32, NetWare, symbian, dos).

    On perl5.006 or perl5.00800, if path is ended by chr(0x5C), it needs jacode.pl library.

    On perl5.008001 or later, perl5.010, perl5.012, perl5.014, perl5.016, perl5.018, perl5.020 if path is ended by chr(0x5C), chdir succeeds when a short path name (8dot3name) can be acquired according to COMMAND.COM or cmd.exe or Win95Cmd.exe. However, leaf-subdirectory of the current directory is a short path name (8dot3name).

      see also,
      Bug #81839
      chdir does not work with chr(0x5C) at end of path
      http://bugs.activestate.com/show_bug.cgi?id=81839
  • Big5Plus::substr as Lvalue

    If Perl version is older than 5.14, Big5Plus::substr differs from CORE::substr, and cannot be used as a lvalue. To change part of a string, you need use the optional fourth argument which is the replacement string.

    Big5Plus::substr($string, 13, 4, "JPerl");

  • Special Variables $` and $& need /( Capture All )/

      Because $` and $& use $1.
    
      -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Before          After                Works as
      -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      $`              Ebig5plus::PREMATCH()    CORE::substr($&,0,CORE::length($&)-CORE::length($1))
      ${`}            Ebig5plus::PREMATCH()    CORE::substr($&,0,CORE::length($&)-CORE::length($1))
      $PREMATCH       Ebig5plus::PREMATCH()    CORE::substr($&,0,CORE::length($&)-CORE::length($1))
      ${^PREMATCH}    Ebig5plus::PREMATCH()    CORE::substr($&,0,CORE::length($&)-CORE::length($1))
      $&              Ebig5plus::MATCH()       $1
      ${&}            Ebig5plus::MATCH()       $1
      $MATCH          Ebig5plus::MATCH()       $1
      ${^MATCH}       Ebig5plus::MATCH()       $1
      $'              $'                   $'
      ${'}            ${'}                 $'
      $POSTMATCH      Ebig5plus::POSTMATCH()   $'
      ${^POSTMATCH}   Ebig5plus::POSTMATCH()   $'
      -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • Limitation of Regular Expression

    This software has limitation from \G in multibyte anchoring. Only the following Perl can treat the character string which exceeds 32766 octets with a regular expression.

    perl 5.6 or later --- ActivePerl on MSWin32

    perl 5.10.1 or later --- other Perl

      see also,
      
      In 5.10.0, the * quantifier in patterns was sometimes treated as {0,32767}
      http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5101delta.html
      
      [perl #116379] \G can't treat over 32767 octet
      http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/2013/01/msg197320.html
      
      perlre - Perl regular expressions
      http://perldoc.perl.org/perlre.html
      
      perlre length limit
      http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4592467/perlre-length-limit
      
      Japanese Document
      Big5Plus/JA.pm
  • Empty Variable in Regular Expression

    Unlike literal null string, an interpolated variable evaluated to the empty string can't use the most recent pattern from a previous successful regular expression.

  • Limitation of ?? and m??

    Multibyte character needs ( ) which is before {n,m}, {n,}, {n}, *, and + in ?? or m??. As a result, you need to rewrite a script about $1,$2,$3,... You cannot use (?: ) ?, {n,m}?, {n,}?, and {n}? in ?? and m??, because delimiter of m?? is '?'.

  • Look-behind Assertion

    The look-behind assertion like (?<=[A-Z]) is not prevented from matching trail octet of the previous multiple-octet code.

  • Modifier /a /d /l and /u of Regular Expression

    The concept of this software is not to use two or more encoding methods as literal string and literal of regexp in one Perl script. Therefore, modifier /a, /d, /l, and /u are not supported. \d means [0-9] universally.

  • Named Character

    A named character, such \N{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}, \N{greek:epsilon}, or \N{epsilon} is not supported.

  • Unicode Properties (aka Character Properties) of Regular Expression

    Unicode properties (aka character properties) of regexp are not available. Also (?[]) in regexp of Perl 5.18 is not available. There is no plans to currently support these.

  • ${^WIN32_SLOPPY_STAT} is ignored

    Even if ${^WIN32_SLOPPY_STAT} is set to a true value, file test functions Ebig5plus::*(), Ebig5plus::lstat(), and Ebig5plus::stat() on Microsoft Windows open the file for the path which has chr(0x5c) at end.

  • Delimiter of String and Regexp

    qq//, q//, qw//, qx//, qr//, m//, s///, tr///, and y/// can't use a wide character as the delimiter.

AUTHOR

INABA Hitoshi <ina@cpan.org>

This project was originated by INABA Hitoshi.

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

This software is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.

This software is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

My Goal

P.401 See chapter 15: Unicode of ISBN 0-596-00027-8 Programming Perl Third Edition.

Before the introduction of Unicode support in perl, The eq operator just compared the byte-strings represented by two scalars. Beginning with perl 5.8, eq compares two byte-strings with simultaneous consideration of the UTF8 flag.

/* You are not expected to understand this */

  Information processing model beginning with perl 5.8
 
    +----------------------+---------------------+
    |     Text strings     |                     |
    +----------+-----------|    Binary strings   |
    |  UTF-8   |  Latin-1  |                     |
    +----------+-----------+---------------------+
    | UTF8     |            Not UTF8             |
    | Flagged  |            Flagged              |
    +--------------------------------------------+
    http://perl-users.jp/articles/advent-calendar/2010/casual/4
 
    (Why is only Latin-1 special?)

This change consequentially made a big gap between a past script and new script. Both scripts cannot re-use the code mutually any longer. Because a new method puts a strain in the programmer, it will still take time to replace all the in existence scripts.

The biggest problem of new method is that the UTF8 flag can't synchronize to real encode of string. Thus you must debug about UTF8 flag, before your script. How to solve it by returning to a this method, let's drag out page 402 of the old dusty Programming Perl, 3rd ed. again.

  Information processing model beginning with perl3 or this software of
  UNIX/C-ism.

    +--------------------------------------------+
    |       Text strings as Binary strings       |
    |       Binary strings as Text strings       |
    +--------------------------------------------+
    |        Not UTF8 Flagged, UNIX/C-ism        |
    +--------------------------------------------+

  Script could be written in native encoding of operating systems.
  - Like contents of a file
  - Like a file name on the file systems
  - Like command lines
  - Like environment variables
  - Like parameters of API

  In UNIX Everything is a File
  - In UNIX everything is a stream of bytes
  - In UNIX the filesystem is used as a universal name space

Ideally, I'd like to achieve these five Goals:

  • Goal #1:

    Old byte-oriented programs should not spontaneously break on the old byte-oriented data they used to work on.

    This goal has been achieved by that this software is additional code for perl like utf8 pragma. Perl should work same as past Perl if added nothing.

  • Goal #2:

    Old byte-oriented programs should magically start working on the new character-oriented data when appropriate.

    Still now, 1 octet is counted with 1 by built-in functions length, substr, index, rindex, and pos that handle length and position of string. In this part, there is no change. The length of 1 character of 2 octet code is 2.

    On the other hand, the regular expression in the script is added the multibyte anchoring processing with this software, instead of you.

    figure of Goal #1 and Goal #2.

                                   GOAL#1  GOAL#2
                            (a)     (b)     (c)     (d)     (e)
          +--------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
          | data         |  Old  |  Old  |  New  |  Old  |  New  |
          +--------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
          | script       |  Old  |      Old      |      New      |
          +--------------+-------+---------------+---------------+
          | interpreter  |  Old  |              New              |
          +--------------+-------+-------------------------------+
          Old --- Old byte-oriented
          New --- New character-oriented

    There is a combination from (a) to (e) in data, script, and interpreter of old and new. Let's add the Encode module and this software did not exist at time of be written this document and JPerl did exist.

                            (a)     (b)     (c)     (d)     (e)
                                          JPerl,japerl    Encode,Big5Plus
          +--------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
          | data         |  Old  |  Old  |  New  |  Old  |  New  |
          +--------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
          | script       |  Old  |      Old      |      New      |
          +--------------+-------+---------------+---------------+
          | interpreter  |  Old  |              New              |
          +--------------+-------+-------------------------------+
          Old --- Old byte-oriented
          New --- New character-oriented

    The reason why JPerl is very excellent is that it is at the position of (c). That is, it is not necessary to do a special description to the script to process new character-oriented string. (May the japerl take over JPerl!)

  • Goal #3:

    Programs should run just as fast in the new character-oriented mode as in the old byte-oriented mode.

    It is impossible. Because the following time is necessary.

    (1) Time of escape script for old byte-oriented perl.

    (2) Time of processing regular expression by escaped script while multibyte anchoring.

    Someday, I want to ask Larry Wall about this goal in the elevator.

  • Goal #4:

    Perl should remain one language, rather than forking into a byte-oriented Perl and a character-oriented Perl.

    JPerl remains one Perl language by forking to two interpreters. However, the Perl core team did not desire fork of the interpreter. As a result, Perl language forked contrary to goal #4.

    A character-oriented perl is not necessary to make it specially, because a byte-oriented perl can already treat the binary data. This software is only an application program of byte-oriented Perl, a filter program.

    And you will get support from the Perl community, when you solve the problem by the Perl script.

    Big5Plus software remains one language and one interpreter.

  • Goal #5:

    JPerl users will be able to maintain JPerl by Perl.

    May the JPerl be with you, always.

Back when Programming Perl, 3rd ed. was written, UTF8 flag was not born and Perl is designed to make the easy jobs easy. This software provide programming environment like at that time.

Perl's motto

   Some computer scientists (the reductionists, in particular) would
  like to deny it, but people have funny-shaped minds. Mental geography
  is not linear, and cannot be mapped onto a flat surface without
  severe distortion. But for the last score years or so, computer
  reductionists have been first bowing down at the Temple of Orthogonality,
  then rising up to preach their ideas of ascetic rectitude to any who
  would listen.
 
   Their fervent but misguided desire was simply to squash your mind to
  fit their mindset, to smush your patterns of thought into some sort of
  Hyperdimensional Flatland. It's a joyless existence, being smushed.
  --- Learning Perl on Win32 Systems

  If you think this is a big headache, you're right. No one likes
  this situation, but Perl does the best it can with the input and
  encodings it has to deal with. If only we could reset history and
  not make so many mistakes next time.
  --- Learning Perl 6th Edition

   The most important thing for most people to know about handling
  Unicode data in Perl, however, is that if you don't ever use any Uni-
  code data -- if none of your files are marked as UTF-8 and you don't
  use UTF-8 locales -- then you can happily pretend that you're back in
  Perl 5.005_03 land; the Unicode features will in no way interfere with
  your code unless you're explicitly using them. Sometimes the twin
  goals of embracing Unicode but not disturbing old-style byte-oriented
  scripts has led to compromise and confusion, but it's the Perl way to
  silently do the right thing, which is what Perl ends up doing.
  --- Advanced Perl Programming, 2nd Edition

SEE ALSO

 PERL PUROGURAMINGU
 Larry Wall, Randal L.Schwartz, Yoshiyuki Kondo
 December 1997
 ISBN 4-89052-384-7
 http://www.context.co.jp/~cond/books/old-books.html

 Programming Perl, Second Edition
 By Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen, Randal L. Schwartz
 October 1996
 Pages: 670
 ISBN 10: 1-56592-149-6 | ISBN 13: 9781565921498
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9781565921498.do

 Programming Perl, Third Edition
 By Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen, Jon Orwant
 Third Edition  July 2000
 Pages: 1104
 ISBN 10: 0-596-00027-8 | ISBN 13: 9780596000271
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596000271.do

 The Perl Language Reference Manual (for Perl version 5.12.1)
 by Larry Wall and others
 Paperback (6"x9"), 724 pages
 Retail Price: $39.95 (pound 29.95 in UK)
 ISBN-13: 978-1-906966-02-7
 http://www.network-theory.co.uk/perl/language/

 Perl Pocket Reference, 5th Edition
 By Johan Vromans
 Publisher: O'Reilly Media
 Released: July 2011
 Pages: 102
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920018476.do

 Programming Perl, 4th Edition
 By: Tom Christiansen, brian d foy, Larry Wall, Jon Orwant
 Publisher: O'Reilly Media
 Formats: Print, Ebook, Safari Books Online
 Released: March 2012
 Pages: 1130
 Print ISBN: 978-0-596-00492-7 | ISBN 10: 0-596-00492-3
 Ebook ISBN: 978-1-4493-9890-3 | ISBN 10: 1-4493-9890-1
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596004927.do

 Perl Cookbook
 By Tom Christiansen, Nathan Torkington
 August 1998
 Pages: 800
 ISBN 10: 1-56592-243-3 | ISBN 13: 978-1-56592-243-3
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9781565922433.do

 Perl Cookbook, Second Edition
 By Tom Christiansen, Nathan Torkington
 Second Edition  August 2003
 Pages: 964
 ISBN 10: 0-596-00313-7 | ISBN 13: 9780596003135
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596003135.do

 Perl in a Nutshell, Second Edition
 By Stephen Spainhour, Ellen Siever, Nathan Patwardhan
 Second Edition  June 2002
 Pages: 760
 Series: In a Nutshell
 ISBN 10: 0-596-00241-6 | ISBN 13: 9780596002411
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596002411.do

 Learning Perl on Win32 Systems
 By Randal L. Schwartz, Erik Olson, Tom Christiansen
 August 1997
 Pages: 306
 ISBN 10: 1-56592-324-3 | ISBN 13: 9781565923249
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9781565923249.do

 Learning Perl, Fifth Edition
 By Randal L. Schwartz, Tom Phoenix, brian d foy
 June 2008
 Pages: 352
 Print ISBN:978-0-596-52010-6 | ISBN 10: 0-596-52010-7
 Ebook ISBN:978-0-596-10316-3 | ISBN 10: 0-596-10316-6
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596520113.do

 Learning Perl, 6th Edition
 By Randal L. Schwartz, brian d foy, Tom Phoenix
 June 2011
 Pages: 390
 ISBN-10: 1449303587 | ISBN-13: 978-1449303587
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920018452.do

 Advanced Perl Programming, 2nd Edition
 By Simon Cozens
 June 2005
 Pages: 300
 ISBN-10: 0-596-00456-7 | ISBN-13: 978-0-596-00456-9
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596004569.do

 Perl RESOURCE KIT UNIX EDITION
 Futato, Irving, Jepson, Patwardhan, Siever
 ISBN 10: 1-56592-370-7
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9781565923706.do

 MODAN Perl NYUMON
 By Daisuke Maki
 2009/2/10
 Pages: 344
 ISBN 10: 4798119172 | ISBN 13: 978-4798119175
 http://www.seshop.com/product/detail/10250/

 Understanding Japanese Information Processing
 By Ken Lunde
 January 1900
 Pages: 470
 ISBN 10: 1-56592-043-0 | ISBN 13: 9781565920439
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9781565920439.do

 CJKV Information Processing
 Chinese, Japanese, Korean & Vietnamese Computing
 By Ken Lunde
 First Edition  January 1999
 Pages: 1128
 ISBN 10: 1-56592-224-7 | ISBN 13: 9781565922242
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9781565922242.do

 Mastering Regular Expressions, Second Edition
 By Jeffrey E. F. Friedl
 Second Edition  July 2002
 Pages: 484
 ISBN 10: 0-596-00289-0 | ISBN 13: 9780596002893
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596002893.do

 Mastering Regular Expressions, Third Edition
 By Jeffrey E. F. Friedl
 Third Edition  August 2006
 Pages: 542
 ISBN 10: 0-596-52812-4 | ISBN 13:9780596528126
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596528126.do

 Regular Expressions Cookbook
 By Jan Goyvaerts, Steven Levithan
 May 2009
 Pages: 512
 ISBN 10:0-596-52068-9 | ISBN 13: 978-0-596-52068-7
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596520694.do

 JIS KANJI JITEN
 By Kouji Shibano
 Pages: 1456
 ISBN 4-542-20129-5
 http://www.webstore.jsa.or.jp/lib/lib.asp?fn=/manual/mnl01_12.htm

 UNIX MAGAZINE
 1993 Aug
 Pages: 172
 T1008901080816 ZASSHI 08901-8
 http://ascii.asciimw.jp/books/books/detail/978-4-7561-5008-0.shtml

 LINUX NIHONGO KANKYO
 By YAMAGATA Hiroo, Stephen J. Turnbull, Craig Oda, Robert J. Bickel
 June, 2000
 Pages: 376
 ISBN 4-87311-016-5
 http://www.oreilly.co.jp/books/4873110165/

 MacPerl Power and Ease
 By Vicki Brown, Chris Nandor
 April 1998
 Pages: 350
 ISBN 10: 1881957322 | ISBN 13: 978-1881957324
 http://www.amazon.com/Macperl-Power-Ease-Vicki-Brown/dp/1881957322

 Windows NT Shell Scripting
 By Timothy Hill
 April 27, 1998
 Pages: 400
 ISBN 10: 1578700477 | ISBN 13: 9781578700479
 http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Windows-NT-Shell-Scripting/Timothy-Hill/e/9781578700479/

 Windows(R) Command-Line Administrators Pocket Consultant, 2nd Edition
 By William R. Stanek
 February 2009
 Pages: 594
 ISBN 10: 0-7356-2262-0 | ISBN 13: 978-0-7356-2262-3
 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780735622623.do

 Kaoru Maeda, Perl's history Perl 1,2,3,4
 http://www.slideshare.net/KaoruMaeda/perl-perl-1234

 nurse, What is "string"
 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/nurse/20141107#1415355181

 NISHIO Hirokazu, What's meant "string as a sequence of characters"?
 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/nishiohirokazu/20141107/1415286729

 nurse, History of Japanese EUC 22:00
 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/nurse/20090308/1236517235

 Mike Whitaker, Perl And Unicode
 http://www.slideshare.net/Penfold/perl-and-unicode

 Ricardo Signes, Perl 5.14 for Pragmatists
 http://www.slideshare.net/rjbs/perl-514-8809465

 Ricardo Signes, What's New in Perl? v5.10 - v5.16
 http://www.slideshare.net/rjbs/whats-new-in-perl-v510-v516

 CPAN Directory INABA Hitoshi
 http://search.cpan.org/~ina/

 BackPAN
 http://backpan.perl.org/authors/id/I/IN/INA/

 Recent Perl packages by "INABA Hitoshi"
 http://code.activestate.com/ppm/author:INABA-Hitoshi/

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This software was made referring to software and the document that the following hackers or persons had made. I am thankful to all persons.

 Rick Yamashita, Shift_JIS
 ttp://furukawablog.spaces.live.com/Blog/cns!1pmWgsL289nm7Shn7cS0jHzA!2225.entry (dead link)
 ttp://shino.tumblr.com/post/116166805/1981-us-jis
 (add 'h' at head)
 http://www.wdic.org/w/WDIC/%E3%82%B7%E3%83%95%E3%83%88JIS

 Larry Wall, Perl
 http://www.perl.org/

 Kazumasa Utashiro, jcode.pl
 ftp://ftp.iij.ad.jp/pub/IIJ/dist/utashiro/perl/
 http://log.utashiro.com/pub/2006/07/jkondo_a580.html

 Jeffrey E. F. Friedl, Mastering Regular Expressions
 http://regex.info/

 SADAHIRO Tomoyuki, The right way of using Shift_JIS
 http://homepage1.nifty.com/nomenclator/perl/shiftjis.htm
 http://search.cpan.org/~sadahiro/

 Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto, YAPC::Asia2006 Ruby on Perl(s)
 http://www.rubyist.net/~matz/slides/yapc2006/

 jscripter, For jperl users
 http://homepage1.nifty.com/kazuf/jperl.html

 Bruce., Unicode in Perl
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSabc/18/546.html

 Hiroaki Izumi, Perl5.8/Perl5.10 is not useful on the Windows.
 http://dl.dropbox.com/u/23756062/perlwin.html
 https://sites.google.com/site/hiroa63iz/perlwin

 TSUKAMOTO Makio, Perl memo/file path of Windows
 http://digit.que.ne.jp/work/wiki.cgi?Perl%E3%83%A1%E3%83%A2%2FWindows%E3%81%A7%E3%81%AE%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB%E3%83%91%E3%82%B9

 chaichanPaPa, Matching Shift_JIS file name
 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/chaichanPaPa/20080802/1217660826

 SUZUKI Norio, Jperl
 http://homepage2.nifty.com/kipp/perl/jperl/

 WATANABE Hirofumi, Jperl
 http://www.cpan.org/src/5.0/jperl/
 http://search.cpan.org/~watanabe/
 ftp://ftp.oreilly.co.jp/pcjp98/watanabe/jperlconf.ppt

 Chuck Houpt, Michiko Nozu, MacJPerl
 http://habilis.net/macjperl/index.j.html

 Kenichi Ishigaki, Pod-PerldocJp, Welcome to modern Perl world
 http://search.cpan.org/dist/Pod-PerldocJp/
 http://gihyo.jp/dev/serial/01/modern-perl/0031
 http://gihyo.jp/dev/serial/01/modern-perl/0032
 http://gihyo.jp/dev/serial/01/modern-perl/0033

 Fuji, Goro (gfx), Perl Hackers Hub No.16
 http://gihyo.jp/dev/serial/01/perl-hackers-hub/001602

 Dan Kogai, Encode module
 http://search.cpan.org/dist/Encode/
 http://www.archive.org/details/YAPCAsia2006TokyoPerl58andUnicodeMythsFactsandChanges (video)
 http://yapc.g.hatena.ne.jp/jkondo/ (audio)

 Takahashi Masatuyo, JPerl Wiki
 http://ja.jperl.wikia.com/wiki/JPerl_Wiki

 Juerd, Perl Unicode Advice
 http://juerd.nl/site.plp/perluniadvice

 daily dayflower, 2008-06-25 perluniadvice
 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/dayflower/20080625/1214374293

 Jesse Vincent, Compatibility is a virtue
 http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/2010/05/msg159825.html

 Tokyo-pm archive
 http://mail.pm.org/pipermail/tokyo-pm/
 http://mail.pm.org/pipermail/tokyo-pm/1999-September/001844.html
 http://mail.pm.org/pipermail/tokyo-pm/1999-September/001854.html

 Error: Runtime exception on jperl 5.005_03
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/374.html
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/375.html
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/376.html
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/377.html
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/378.html
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/379.html
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/380.html
 http://www.rakunet.org/tsnet/TSperl/12/382.html

 ruby-list
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/ruby/ruby-list/index.shtml
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/2440
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/2446
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/2569
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/9427
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/9431
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/10500
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/10501
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/10502
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/12385
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/12392
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/12393
 http://blade.nagaokaut.ac.jp/cgi-bin/scat.rb/ruby/ruby-list/19156

 Object-oriented with Perl
 http://www.freeml.com/perl-oo/486
 http://www.freeml.com/perl-oo/487
 http://www.freeml.com/perl-oo/490
 http://www.freeml.com/perl-oo/491
 http://www.freeml.com/perl-oo/492
 http://www.freeml.com/perl-oo/494
 http://www.freeml.com/perl-oo/514