- USE CASES
- NOTES, LIMITATIONS, BUGS, TODO
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- SEE ALSO
CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps - a CPAN.pm plugin for installing system dependencies
In the CPAN.pm shell:
o conf plugin_list push CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps o conf commit
CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps is a plugin for CPAN.pm (version >= 2.07) to install non-CPAN dependencies automatically. Currently, the list of required system dependencies is maintained in a static data structure in CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps::Mapping. Supported operations systems and distributions are FreeBSD and Debian-like Linux distributions. There are also some module rules for Fedora-like Linux distributions, Windows through chocolatey, and Mac OS X through homebrew.
The plugin may be configured like this:
o conf plugin_list CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps=arg1,arg2,...
Possible arguments are:
Force a particular installer for system packages. If not set, then the plugin find a default for the current operating system or linux distributions:
- Debian-like distributions:
- Fedora-like distributions:
- Mac OS X:
Additionally, sudo(1) is prepended before the installer programm if the current user is not a privileged one, and the installer requires elevated privileges.
- Debian-like distributions:
Don't ask any questions.
Be interactive, especially ask for confirmation before installing a system package.
Only log installation actions.
Turn debugging on. Alternatively the environment variable
CPAN_PLUGIN_SYSDEPS_DEBUGmay be set to a true value.
Prepend another static mapping from cpan modules or distributions to system packages. This should be specified as a perl module (Foo::Bar) or an absolute file name. The mapping file is supposed to just return the mapping data structure as described below.
!This implementation is subject to change!
A mapping is tree-like data structure expressed as nested arrays. The top-level nodes usually specify a cpan module or distribution to match, and a leaf should specify the dependent system packages.
A sample mapping may look like this:
( [cpanmod => ['BerkeleyDB', 'DB_File'], [os => 'freebsd', [package => 'db48']], [linuxdistro => '~debian', [linuxdistrocodename => 'squeeze', [package => 'libdb4.8-dev']], [linuxdistrocodename => 'wheezy', [package => 'libdb5.1-dev']], [package => 'libdb5.3-dev']]], );
The nodes are key-value pairs. The values may be strings, arrays of strings (meaning that any of the strings may match), or compiled regular expressions.
Supported keywords are:
- cpanmod => $value
Match a CPAN module name (e.g.
- cpandist => $value
Match a CPAN distribution name (e.g.
Foo-Bar-1.23). Note that currently only the base_id is matched; this may change!
- os => $value
Match a operating system (perl's
- linuxdistro => $value
Match a linux distribution name, as returned by
lsb_release -is. The distribution name is lowercased.
There are special values
~debianto match Debian-like distributions (Ubuntu and LinuxMint) and
~fedorato match Fedora-like distributions (RedHat and CentOS).
- linuxdistrocodename => $value
Match a linux distribution version using its code name (e.g.
TODO: it should be possible to express comparisons with code names, e.g. '>=squeeze'.
- linuxdistroversion => $value
Match a linux distribution versions. Comparisons like '>=8.0' are possible.
- package => $value
Specify the dependent system packages.
For some distributions (currently: debian-like ones) it is possible to specify alternatives in the form
package1 | package2 | ....
The module implements the following CPAN plugin hooks:
Install system packages automatically while testing CPAN modules. If the smoke system runs under an unprivileged user, then a sudoers rule has to be added. For such a user named
cpansand on a Debian-like system this could look like this (two rules for batch and non-batch mode):
cpansand ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/apt-get -y install * cpansand ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/apt-get install *
It's possible to use this module also without CPAN.pm through the cpan-sysdeps script.
For example, just list the system prereqs for Imager on a FreeBSD system:
$ cpan-sysdeps --cpanmod Imager freetype2 giflib-nox11 png tiff jpeg
On a Debian system the output will look like:
libfreetype6-dev libgif-dev libpng12-dev libjpeg-dev libtiff5-dev
Just show the packages which are yet uninstalled:
$ cpan-sysdeps --cpanmod Imager --uninstalled
Show what CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps would execute if it was run:
$ cpan-sysdeps --cpanmod Imager --dryrun
And actually run and install the missing packages:
$ cpan-sysdeps --cpanmod Imager --run
cpan_smoke_modules is another
CPAN.pm wrapper specially designed for CPAN Testing (to be found at https://github.com/eserte/srezic-misc. If
CPAN.pm is already configured to use the plugin, then
cpan_smoke_modules will also use this configuration. But it's also possible to use
cpan_smoke_modules without changes to
CPAN/MyConfig.pm, and even with an uninstalled
CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps. This is especially interesting when testing changes in the Mapping.pm file. A sample run:
cd .../path/to/CPAN-Plugin-Sysdeps perl Makefile.PL && make all test env PERL5OPT="-Mblib=$(pwd)" cpan_smoke_modules -perl /path/to/perl --sysdeps Imager
Or alternatively without any interactive questions:
env PERL5OPT="-Mblib=$(pwd)" cpan_smoke_modules -perl /path/to/perl --sysdeps-batch Imager
CPAN.pm supports the plugin system since 2.07. If the CPAN.pm is older, then still the
cpan-sysdepsscript can be used.
It is assumed that some system dependencies are still installed: a
make, a suitable C compiler, maybe
patch(e.g. if there are distroprefs using patch files) and of course
perl. On linux systems,
lsb-releaseis usually required (there's limited support for lsb-release-less operation on some Debian-like distributions). On Mac OS X systems
homebrewhas to be installed.
Make sure to configure the plugin with the
batchkeyword (but read also "Conflicting packages"). In CPAN/MyConfig.pm:
'plugin_list' => [q[CPAN::Plugin::Sysdeps=batch]],
Installation of system packages requires root priviliges. Therefore the installer is run using sudo(1) if the executing user is not root. To avoid the need to enter a password either make sure that running the installer program (
apt-getor so) is made password-less in the sudoers file, or run a wrapper like sudo_keeper.
Failing things in the plugin are causing
die()calls. This can happen if packages cannot be installed (e.g. because of a bad network connection, the package not existing for the current os or distribution, package exists only in a "non-free" repository which needs to be added to /etc/apt/sources.list, another installer process having the exclusive lock...).
System prerequisites specified in the mapping may conflict with already installed packages. Please note that with the "batch" configuration already installed conflicting packages are actually removed, at least on Debian systems.
Support for more OS and Linux distributions
Best supported systems are FreeBSD and Debian-like systems (but details may be missing for distributions like Ubuntu or Mint). Support for Fedora-like systems and Mac OS X systems is fair, for Windows quite limited and for other systems missing.
Support for cpanm
To my knowledge there's no hook support in cpanm. Maybe things will change in cpanm 2.0. But it's always possible to use the cpan-sysdeps script.
Should gnukfreebsd be handled like debian?
Maybe gnukfreebsd should be included in the "like_debian" condition?
This module was developed at the Perl QA Hackathon 2016 http://act.qa-hackathon.org/qa2016/ which was made possible by the generosity of many sponsors:
https://www.fastmail.com FastMail, https://www.ziprecruiter.com ZipRecruiter, http://www.activestate.com ActiveState, http://www.opusvl.com OpusVL, https://www.strato.com Strato, http://www.surevoip.co.uk SureVoIP, http://www.cv-library.co.uk CV-Library, https://www.iinteractive.com/ Infinity, https://opensource.careers/perl-careers/ Perl Careers, https://www.mongodb.com MongoDB, https://www.thinkproject.com thinkproject!, https://www.dreamhost.com/ Dreamhost, http://www.perl6.org/ Perl 6, http://www.perl-services.de/ Perl Services, https://www.evozon.com/ Evozon, http://www.booking.com Booking, http://eligo.co.uk Eligo, http://www.oetiker.ch/ Oetiker+Partner, http://capside.com/en/ CAPSiDE, https://www.procura.nl/ Procura, https://constructor.io/ Constructor.io, https://metacpan.org/author/BABF Robbie Bow, https://metacpan.org/author/RSAVAGE Ron Savage, https://metacpan.org/author/ITCHARLIE Charlie Gonzalez, https://twitter.com/jscook2345 Justin Cook.
Max Maischein (CORION) - Windows/chocolatey support
Copyright (C) 2016,2017 by Slaven Rezić
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.8.8 or, at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.