Author image Nicolas Steenlant
and 6 contributors


Catmandu::Store::DBI - A Catmandu::Store backed by DBI


Version 0.0424


    # From the command line
    $ catmandu import JSON to DBI --data_source SQLite:mydb.sqlite < data.json

    # Or via a configuration file
    $ cat catmandu.yml
         package: DBI
            data_source: "dbi:mysql:database=mydb"
            username: xyz
            password: xyz
    $ catmandu import JSON to mydb < data.json
    $ catmandu export mydb to YAML > data.yml
    $ catmandu export mydb --id 012E929E-FF44-11E6-B956-AE2804ED5190 to JSON > record.json
    $ catmandu count mydb
    $ catmandy delete mydb

    # From perl
    use Catmandu::Store::DBI;

    my $store = Catmandu::Store::DBI->new(
        data_source => 'DBI:mysql:database=mydb', # prefix "DBI:" optional
        username => 'xyz', # optional
        password => 'xyz', # optional

    my $obj1 = $store->bag->add({ name => 'Patrick' });

    printf "obj1 stored as %s\n" , $obj1->{_id};

    # Force an id in the store
    my $obj2 = $store->bag->add({ _id => 'test123' , name => 'Nicolas' });

    my $obj3 = $store->bag->get('test123');



    # All bags are iterators
    $store->bag->each(sub { ... });
    $store->bag->take(10)->each(sub { ... });


A Catmandu::Store::DBI is a Perl package that can store data into DBI backed databases. The database as a whole is a 'store' Catmandu::Store. Databases tables are 'bags' (Catmandu::Bag).

Databases need to be preconfigured for accepting Catmandu data. When no specialized Catmandu tables exist in a database then Catmandu will create them automatically. See "DATABASE CONFIGURATION" below.

DO NOT USE Catmandu::Store::DBI on an existing database! Tables and data can be deleted and changed.


Currently only MySQL, Postgres and SQLite are supported. Text columns are also assumed to be utf-8.



Required. The connection parameters to the database. See DBI for more information.


      dbi:mysql:foobar   <= a local mysql database 'foobar'
      dbi:Pg:dbname=foobar;;port=5432 <= a remote PostGres database
      dbi:SQLite:mydb.sqlite <= a local SQLLite file based database mydb.sqlite;sid=data01 <= a remote Oracle database

Drivers for each database need to be available on your computer. Install then with:

    cpanm DBD::mysql
    cpanm DBD::Pg
    cpanm DBD::SQLite

Optional. A user name to connect to the database


Optional. A password for connecting to the database


Optional. Timeout for a inactive database handle. When timeout is reached, Catmandu checks if the connection is still alive (by use of ping) or it recreates the connection. See TIMEOUTS below for more information.


Optional. When a timeout is reached, Catmandu reconnects to the database. By default set to '0'


Optional. Default the default sorting of results when returning an iterator. Choose 'ID' to order on the configured identifier field, 'NONE' to skip all ordering, or "$field" where $field is the name of a table column. By default set to 'ID'.


When no tables exists for storing data in the database, then Catmandu will create them. By default tables are created for each Catmandu::Bag which contain an '_id' and 'data' column.

This behavior can be changed with mapping option:

    my $store = Catmandu::Store::DBI->new(
        data_source => 'DBI:mysql:database=test',
        bags => {
            # books table
            books => {
                mapping => {
                    # these keys will be directly mapped to columns
                    # all other keys will be serialized in the data column
                    title => {type => 'string', required => 1, column => 'book_title'},
                    isbn => {type => 'string', unique => 1},
                    authors => {type => 'string', array => 1}

For keys that have a corresponding table column configured, the method 'select' of class Catmandu::Store::DBI::Bag provides a more efficiënt way to query records.

See Catmandu::Store::DBI::Bag for more information.

Column types


Only MySQL, PostgreSQL


Only MySQL, PostgreSQL


Only PostgreSQL

Column options


Name of the table column if it differs from the key in your data.


Boolean option, default is 0. Note that this is only supported for PostgreSQL.


Boolean option, default is 0.


Boolean option, default is 0. Ignored if unique is true.


Boolean option, default is 0.


It is a good practice to set the timeout high enough. When using transactions, one should avoid this situation:

        $bag->add({ _id => "1" });
        sleep $timeout;
        $bag->add({ _id => "2" });

The following warning appears:

    commit ineffective with AutoCommit enabled at lib//Catmandu/Store/ line 73.
    DBD::SQLite::db commit failed: attempt to commit on inactive database handle

This has the following reasons:

    1.  first record added
    2.  timeout is reached, the connection is recreated
    3.  the option AutoCommit is set. So the database handle commits the current transaction. The first record is committed.
    4.  this new connection handle is used now. We're still in the method "transaction", but there is no longer a real transaction at database level.
    5.  second record is added (committed)
    6.  commit is issued. But this unnecessary, so the database handle throws a warning.


Catmandu::Bag, DBI