Nicolas Steenlant
and 4 contributors

NAME

Catmandu::Store::ElasticSearch - A searchable store backed by Elasticsearch

SYNOPSIS

    # From the command line

    # Import data into ElasticSearch
    $ catmandu import JSON to ElasticSearch --index-name 'catmandu' < data.json

    # Export data from ElasticSearch
    $ catmandu export ElasticSearch --index-name 'catmandu' to JSON > data.json

    # Export only one record
    $ catmandu export ElasticSearch --index-name 'catmandu' --id 1234

    # Export using an ElasticSearch query
    $ catmandu export ElasticSearch --index-name 'catmandu' --query "name:Recruitment OR name:college"

    # Export using a CQL query (needs a CQL mapping)
    $ catmandu export ElasticSearch --index-name 'catmandu' --q "name any college"

    # From Perl

    use Catmandu;

    my $store = Catmandu->store('ElasticSearch', index_name => 'catmandu');

    my $obj1 = $store->bag->add({ name => 'Patrick' });

    printf "obj1 stored as %s\n" , $obj1->{_id};

    # Force an id in the store
    my $obj2 = $store->bag->add({ _id => 'test123' , name => 'Nicolas' });

    # Commit all changes
    $store->bag->commit;

    $store->bag->delete('test123');

    $store->bag->delete_all;

    # All bags are iterators
    $store->bag->each(sub { ... });
    $store->bag->take(10)->each(sub { ... });

    # Query the store using a simple ElasticSearch query
    my $hits = $store->bag->search(query => '(content:this OR name:this) AND (content:that OR name:that)');

    # Native queries are also supported by providing a hash of terms
    # See the ElasticSearch manual for more examples
    my $hits = $store->bag->search(
        query => {
            # All name.exact fields that start with 'test'
            prefix => {
                'name.exact' => 'test'
            }
        } ,
        limit => 1000);

    # Catmandu::Store::ElasticSearch supports CQL...
    my $hits = $store->bag->search(cql_query => 'name any "Patrick"');

METHODS

new(index_name => $name, [...])

new(index_name => $name , index_mapping => \%map, [...])

new(index_name => $name , ... , bags => { data => { cql_mapping => \%map } })

Create a new Catmandu::Store::ElasticSearch store connected to index $name. Optional extra ElasticSearch connection parameters will be passed on to the backend database.

Optionally provide an index_mapping which contains a ElasticSearch schema for each field in the index (See below).

Optionally provide for each bag a cql_mapping to map fields to CQL indexes.

drop

Deletes the Elasticsearch index backing this store. Calling functions after this may fail until this class is reinstantiated, creating a new index.

INDEX MAP

The index_mapping contains a Elasticsearch schema mappings for each bag defined in the index. E.g.

    {
        data => {
            properties => {
                _id => {
                    type           => 'string',
                    include_in_all => 'true',
                    index          => not_analyzed
                } ,
                title => {
                    type           => 'string'
                }
            }
        }
    }

In the example above the default 'data' bag of the ElasticSearch contains an '_id' field of type 'string' which is stored automatically also in the '_all' search field. The '_id' is not analyzed. The bag also contains a 'title' field of type string.

See https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/2.2/mapping.html for more information on mappings.

These mappings can be passed inside a Perl program, or be written into a Catmandu 'catmandu.yml' configuration file. E.g.

   # catmandu.yml
   store:
       search:
          package: ElasticSearch
          options:
            index_name: catmandu
            index_mappings
              data:
                properties:
                    _id:
                        type: string
                        include_in_all: true
                        index: not_analyzed
                    title:
                        type: string

Via the command line these configuration parameters can be read in by using the name of the store, search in this case:

   $ catmandu import JSON to search < data.json
   $ catmandu export search to JSON > data.json

CQL MAP

Catmandu::Store::ElasticSearch supports CQL searches when a cql_mapping is provided for each bag. This hash contains a translation of CQL fields into Elasticsearch searchable fields.

 # Example mapping
  {
    indexes => {
      title => {
        op => {
          'any'   => 1 ,
          'all'   => 1 ,
          '='     => 1 ,
          '<>'    => 1 ,
          'exact' => {field => [qw(mytitle.exact myalttitle.exact)]}
        } ,
        field => 'mytitle',
        sort  => 1,
        cb    => ['Biblio::Search', 'normalize_title']
      }
    }
 }

The CQL mapping above will support for the 'title' field the CQL operators: any, all, =, <> and exact.

The 'title' field will be mapping into the Elasticsearch field 'mytitle', except for the 'exact' operator. In case of 'exact' we will search both the 'mytitle.exact' and 'myalttitle.exact' fields.

The CQL mapping allows for sorting on the 'title' field. If, for instance, we would like to use a special ElasticSearch field for sorting we could have written "sort => { field => 'mytitle.sort' }".

The callback field cb contains a reference to subroutines to rewrite or augment a search query. In this case, the Biblio::Search package contains a normalize_title subroutine which returns a string or an ARRAY of strings with augmented title(s). E.g.

    package Biblio::Search;

    sub normalize_title {
       my ($self,$title) = @_;
       my $new_title =~ s{[^A-Z0-9]+}{}g;
       $new_title;
    }

    1;

Also this configuration can be added to a catmandu.yml configuration file like:

    # catmandu.yml
    store:
        search:
           package: ElasticSearch
           options:
             index_name: catmandu
             index_mappings
               data:
                 properties:
                     _id:
                         type: string
                         include_in_all: true
                         index: not_analyzed
                     title:
                         type: string
             bags:
               data:
                  cql_mapping:
                    indexes:
                        title:
                            op:
                                'any': true
                                'all': true
                                '=':   true
                                '<>':  true
                                'exact':
                                    field: [ 'mytitle.exact' , 'myalttitle.exact' ]
                            field: mytitle
                            sort: true
                            cb: [ 'Biblio::Search' , 'normalize_title' ]
                    }

Via the command line these configuration parameters can be read in by using the name of the store, search in this case:

   $ catmandu export search -q 'title any blablabla' to JSON > data.json

COMPATIBILITY

This store expects version 1.0 or higher of the Elasticsearch server.

Note that Elasticsearch >= 2.0 doesn't allow keys that start with an underscore such as _id. You can use the key_prefix option at store level or id_prefix at bag level to handle this.

    # in your catmandu.yml
    store:
      yourstore:
        package: ElasticSearch
        options:
          # use my_id instead of _id
          key_prefix: my_

If you want to use the delete_by_query method with Elasticsearch >= 2.0 you need have to install the delete by query plugin.

MIGRATING A STORE FROM ELASTICSEARCH 1.0 TO 2.0 OR HIGHER

1. backup your data as JSON

    catmandu export yourstore --bag yourbag to --file /path/to/yourbag.json -v

2. drop the store

    catmandu drop yourstore

3. upgrade the Elasticsearch server

4. update your catmandu.yml with a key_prefix or id_prefix (see COMPATIBILITY)

5. import your data using the new keys specified in your catmandu.yml

    catmandu import --file /path/to/yourbag.json --fix 'move_field(_id, my_id)' \
    to yourstore --bag yourbag -v

ERROR HANDLING

Error handling can be activated by specifying an error handling callback for index when creating a store. E.g. to create an error handler for the bag 'data' index use:

    my $store = Catmandu::Store::ElasticSearch->new(
                    index_name => 'catmandu'
                    bags => { data => { on_error => \&error_handler } }
                 });

    sub error_handler {
        my ($action, $response, $i) = @_;
    }

SEE ALSO

Catmandu::Store

AUTHOR

Nicolas Steenlant, <nicolas.steenlant at ugent.be>

CONTRIBUTORS

Dave Sherohman, dave.sherohman at ub.lu.se
Robin Sheat, robin at kallisti.net.nz
Patrick Hochstenbach, patrick.hochstenbach at ugent.be

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.

See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.