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Database::Migrator - A system for implementing database migrations


version 0.14


This distribution consists of a single role, Database::Migrator::Core. This role can be consumed by classes which implement the required methods for the role. These classes will then implement a complete database schema creation and migration system.


The migration system starts with a file containing the DDL (database description language) for the full database schema. If the database doesn't yet exist, the database will be created and this DDL will be run against it.

This DDL file should not contain any sort of CREATE DATABASE statement. This will be done separately before the DDL is run.

This DDL file may contain DDL to create users and grant them access to the database.

Once the database exists, the migrations are run against the database.

Each migration goes into its own directory. The directory name is the name of the migration. Migrations are applied in sorted order. If the migrations start with numbers, they are sorted by these numbers, otherwise they are sorted alphabetically.

The migration directory can contain files with SQL, Perl, or executable programs.

If a file ends in ".sql", the migration runner code will feed it to the appropriate command line utility for your database.

Otherwise, if the file is executable, then it is assumed to be a program that will apply a migration when run. The migration runner runs it. It is not provided a database handle.

If neither of the above conditions are met, the file is assumed to contain Perl code. This code is expected to return a single anonymous subroutine when evaled. This subroutine will then be called with the Database::Migrator object as its only argument.

Each file in a single migration's directory is run in sorted order. You can use numeric prefixes on these files if necessary.

Once a migration has been applied, that fact is stored in the database, and the migration will not be applied again. This is done by recording the migration's name in a table. The name of the table is determined by your code. I recommend something like AppliedMigration or applied_migrations, depending on your table naming scheme.

Migration Example

Let's assume a set of files like this:

   |-- 01-add-foo-data/
   |     \
   |      \-- 01-create-foo-table.sql
   |      |
   |      |-- 02-insert-foo-data.pl
   |-- 02-add-bar-table/
         \-- add-bar-table.sql

The 01-add-foo-data/01-create-foo-table.sql file might look like this:

    size         INT   NOT NULL,
    description  TEXT  NOT NULL

The 01-add-foo-data/02-insert-foo-data.pl file might contain this:

  sub {
      use Text::CSV_XS;

      my $migrator = shift;

      my $csv = Text::CSV_XS->new( ... );
      my $fh = IO::File->new( ... );

      my $sql = q[INSERT INTO Foo (size, description) VALUES (?, ?)];
      my $sth = $migrator->dbh()->prepare()

      while ( my $foo = $csv->getline_hr($fh) ) {
          $sth->execute( $foo->{size}, $foo->{description} );


The 02-add-bar-table/add-bar-table.sql file would contain DDL to create the Bar table.


This distribution is not intended to be used all by itself. Instead, you will need to start with a DBMS-specific implementation like Database::Migrator::mysql.

To actually run migrations, you either need to create an command line script or subclass an implementation (or both).

The Database::Migrator::Core role consumes the MooseX::Getopt::Dashes role, making it easy to create a command line script for migrations:

  #!/usr/bin/env perl

  use strict;
  use warnings;

  use Database::Migrator::mysql;


However, all by itself, this will require quite a few command line options to be passed. You can simplify this by subclassing the implementation class and providing defaults for things like the migration directory and migration table.

See the Database::Migrator::Core documentation for more details on what attributes you can provide defaults for.


The fact that a migration has been applied is recorded in a table in the database.

If you are creating a new schema from scratch, you can include this table. It should contain a single text column as its primary key. This column must be named "migration".

The DDL to create this table might look like this:

  CREATE TABLE AppliedMigration (
      migration  TEXT  PRIMARY KEY

Bootstrapping This Table

If you are migrating an existing schema to use this migration system, you will need to add this table to the schema. This can be done using the migration system itself. If the schema already exists but the table does not exist, it assumes that no migrations have been applied.

In this case, you must ensure that the first migration adds this table.

   |-- 00-add-applied-migration-table
   |    \
   |     \-- create-applied-migration-table.sql
   |-- 01-add-foo-data/
   |     \
   |      \-- 01-create-foo-table.sql
   |      |
   |      |-- 02-insert-foo-data.pl
   |-- 02-add-bar-table/
         \-- add-bar-table.sql

The 00-add-applied-migration-table/create-applied-migration-table.sql file would contain the DDL to create the table.


Under normal operation, no migration should ever be applied twice. However, I still strongly recommend that you make all your migrations idempotent. This is much safer. For example, if the process applying migrations is killed, it's possible that it will be killed after a migration is applied but before that fact has been recorded.


Please submit bugs to the CPAN RT system at http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=Database-Migrator or via email at bug-database-migrator@rt.cpan.org.

Bugs may be submitted through https://github.com/maxmind/Database-Migrator/issues.


Dave Rolsky <autarch@urth.org>


  • Florian Ragwitz <rafl@debian.org>

  • Gregory Oschwald <goschwald@maxmind.com>

  • Kevin Phair <phair.kevin@gmail.com>

  • Olaf Alders <olaf@wundersolutions.com>

  • William Storey <wstorey@maxmind.com>


This software is Copyright (c) 2012 - 2018 by MaxMind, Inc.

This is free software, licensed under:

  The Artistic License 2.0 (GPL Compatible)