Devel::CallChecker - custom op checking attached to subroutines
# to generate header prior to XS compilation
perl -MDevel::CallChecker=callchecker0_h \
-e 'print callchecker0_h' > callchecker0.h
# in Perl part of module
/* in XS */
cv_get_call_checker(cv, &ckfun, &ckobj);
static OP *my_ckfun(pTHX_ OP *o, GV *namegv, SV *ckobj);
cv_set_call_checker(cv, my_ckfun, ckobj);
This module makes some new features of the Perl 5.14.0 C API available to XS modules running on older versions of Perl. The features are centred around the function cv_set_call_checker, which allows XS code to attach a magical annotation to a Perl subroutine, resulting in resolvable calls to that subroutine being mutated at compile time by arbitrary C code. This module makes cv_set_call_checker and several supporting functions available. (It is possible to achieve the effect of cv_set_call_checker from XS code on much earlier Perl versions, but it is painful to achieve without the centralised facility.)
This module provides the implementation of the functions at runtime (on Perls where they are not provided by the core). It also, at compile time, supplies the C header file and link library which provide access to the functions. In normal use, "callchecker0_h" and "callchecker_linkable" should be called at build time (not authoring time) for the module that wishes to use the C functions.
The purpose of this module is specifically to provide the Perl 5.14.0 version of the cv_set_call_checker API to earlier Perl versions where the core doesn't have cv_set_call_checker at all. This module does not attempt to backport later refinements of the cv_set_call_checker API. Thus an XS module that uses this module can be sure of having at least the Perl 5.14.0 version of cv_set_call_checker available, regardless of which Perl version it is running on, but cannot be sure of having any more refined version of the API available. Such a module will have access to the core's version of the API as normal on Perl versions where the core supplies it, and is free to use the ordinary mechanisms of Perl version portability to manage the differences between versions of the API.
Content of a C header file, intended to be named "callchecker0.h". It is to be included in XS code, and perl.h must be included first. When the XS module is loaded at runtime, the Devel::CallChecker module must be loaded first. This will result in the Perl API functions rv2cv_op_cv, ck_entersub_args_list, ck_entersub_args_proto, ck_entersub_args_proto_or_list, cv_get_call_checker, and cv_set_call_checker, as defined below and in the Perl 5.14.0 API, being available to the XS code.
List of names of files that must be used as additional objects when linking an XS module that uses the C functions supplied by this module. This list will be empty on many platforms.
Examines an op, which is expected to identify a subroutine at runtime, and attempts to determine at compile time which subroutine it identifies. This is normally used during Perl compilation to determine whether a prototype can be applied to a function call. cvop is the op being considered, normally an rv2cv op. A pointer to the identified subroutine is returned, if it could be determined statically, and a null pointer is returned if it was not possible to determine statically.
Whether the subroutine is statically identifiable is determined in accordance with the prevailing standards of the Perl version being used. The same criteria are used that the core uses to determine whether to apply a prototype to a subroutine call. From version 5.11.2 onwards, the subroutine can be determined if the RV that the rv2cv is to operate on is provided by a suitable gv or const op. Prior to 5.11.2, only a gv op will do. A gv op is suitable if the GV's CV slot is populated. A const op is suitable if the constant value is an RV pointing to a CV. Details of this process may change in future versions of Perl.
If the rv2cv op has the OPpENTERSUB_AMPER flag set then no attempt is made to identify the subroutine statically: this flag is used to suppress compile-time magic on a subroutine call, forcing it to use default runtime behaviour.
If flags has the bit RV2CVOPCV_MARK_EARLY set, then the handling of a GV reference is modified. If a GV was examined and its CV slot was found to be empty, then the gv op has the OPpEARLY_CV flag set. If the op is not optimised away, and the CV slot is later populated with a subroutine having a prototype, that flag eventually triggers the warning "called too early to check prototype".
If flags has the bit RV2CVOPCV_RETURN_NAME_GV set, then instead of returning a pointer to the subroutine it returns a pointer to the GV giving the most appropriate name for the subroutine in this context. Normally this is just the CvGV of the subroutine, but for an anonymous (CvANON) subroutine that is referenced through a GV it will be the referencing GV. The resulting GV* is cast to CV* to be returned. A null pointer is returned as usual if there is no statically-determinable subroutine.
CV *rv2cv_op_cv(OP *cvop, U32 flags)
Retrieves the function that will be used to fix up a call to cv. Specifically, the function is applied to an entersub op tree for a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time as cv.
The C-level function pointer is returned in *ckfun_p, and an SV argument for it is returned in *ckobj_p. The function is intended to be called in this manner:
entersubop = (*ckfun_p)(aTHX_ entersubop, namegv, (*ckobj_p));
In this call, entersubop is a pointer to the entersub op, which may be replaced by the check function, and namegv is a GV supplying the name that should be used by the check function to refer to the callee of the entersub op if it needs to emit any diagnostics. It is permitted to apply the check function in non-standard situations, such as to a call to a different subroutine or to a method call.
By default, the function is Perl_ck_entersub_args_proto_or_list, and the SV parameter is cv itself. This implements standard prototype processing. It can be changed, for a particular subroutine, by "cv_set_call_checker".
void cv_get_call_checker(CV *cv, Perl_call_checker *ckfun_p,
Sets the function that will be used to fix up a call to cv. Specifically, the function is applied to an entersub op tree for a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time as cv.
The C-level function pointer is supplied in ckfun, and an SV argument for it is supplied in ckobj. The function is intended to be called in this manner:
entersubop = ckfun(aTHX_ entersubop, namegv, ckobj);
The current setting for a particular CV can be retrieved by "cv_get_call_checker".
void cv_set_call_checker(CV *cv, Perl_call_checker ckfun,
Performs the default fixup of the arguments part of an entersub op tree. This consists of applying list context to each of the argument ops. This is the standard treatment used on a call marked with &, or a method call, or a call through a subroutine reference, or any other call where the callee can't be identified at compile time, or a call where the callee has no prototype.
OP *ck_entersub_args_list(OP *entersubop)
Performs the fixup of the arguments part of an entersub op tree based on a subroutine prototype. This makes various modifications to the argument ops, from applying context up to inserting refgen ops, and checking the number and syntactic types of arguments, as directed by the prototype. This is the standard treatment used on a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time and has a prototype.
protosv supplies the subroutine prototype to be applied to the call. It may be a normal defined scalar, of which the string value will be used. Alternatively, for convenience, it may be a subroutine object (a CV* that has been cast to SV*) which has a prototype. The prototype supplied, in whichever form, does not need to match the actual callee referenced by the op tree.
If the argument ops disagree with the prototype, for example by having an unacceptable number of arguments, a valid op tree is returned anyway. The error is reflected in the parser state, normally resulting in a single exception at the top level of parsing which covers all the compilation errors that occurred. In the error message, the callee is referred to by the name defined by the namegv parameter.
OP *ck_entersub_args_proto(OP *entersubop, GV *namegv,
Performs the fixup of the arguments part of an entersub op tree either based on a subroutine prototype or using default list-context processing. This is the standard treatment used on a subroutine call, not marked with &, where the callee can be identified at compile time.
protosv supplies the subroutine prototype to be applied to the call, or indicates that there is no prototype. It may be a normal scalar, in which case if it is defined then the string value will be used as a prototype, and if it is undefined then there is no prototype. Alternatively, for convenience, it may be a subroutine object (a CV* that has been cast to SV*), of which the prototype will be used if it has one. The prototype (or lack thereof) supplied, in whichever form, does not need to match the actual callee referenced by the op tree.
OP *ck_entersub_args_proto_or_list(OP *entersubop, GV *namegv,
B::CallChecker, Devel::CallParser, "cv_set_call_checker" in perlapi
Andrew Main (Zefram) <email@example.com>
Copyright (C) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2017, 2023 Andrew Main (Zefram) <firstname.lastname@example.org>
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
To install Devel::CallChecker, copy and paste the appropriate command in to your terminal.
perl -MCPAN -e shell
For more information on module installation, please visit the detailed CPAN module installation guide.