Devel::PerlySense - Perl IDE backend with Emacs frontend


PerlySense is a Perl IDE backend that integrates with editor frontends, currently Emacs.

(While no one has written a Vim frontend, PerlySense can emit Vim style data structures.)

Conveniently navigate and browse the code and documentation of your project and Perl installation. Navigate between tests and source, and between related files.

Search through the project for method declarations, invocants or free text using Ack.

Run tests and scripts with easy navigation to errors/warnings/failing tests. Tests can be run under Devel::Cover to collect (and display) test coverage information.

Automate common editing tasks related to source code, tests, regular expressions, etc.

Highlight syntax errors, warnings, Perl::Critic complaints, and Devel::Cover test coverage in the source while editing.

PerlySense has a plugin system for understanding custom syntax, e.g. Moose.


From Emacs

Overview -- C-o C-o -- Show information about the Class at point or the current Class. There are also shortcuts to show a single section:

  • C-o o i -- Inheritance

  • C-o o a -- API

  • C-o o b -- Bookmarks

  • C-o o u -- Uses

  • C-o o h -- NeighbourHood

Docs -- C-o C-d -- Show docs (POD/signature/etc) for the symbol (module/method/sub) at point. A doc hint is displayed in the echo area (for methods and subs), or a new POD buffer is created (for modules).

Document Inheritance -- C-o d i -- Show the Inheritance hierarchy for the current Class in the echo area.

C-o d u -- Document 'use Module' statements in the echo area.

Go To -- C-o C-g -- Open file at proper location for module, method/sub declaration for the symbol (module/method/sub) at point. If no sub declaration is available (like for generated getters/setters), any appropriate POD is used instead.

Go To Use -- C-o g u -- Go to the 'use Module' section of the current buffer.

Go To 'new' -- C-o g n -- Go to the 'new' method of the current class.

Go To Base Class -- C-o g b -- Open the file of the base class of the current class. This will take you up one level in the inheritance hierarchy.

Go To Module -- C-o g m -- Open the source file of the module at point.

Go To Version Control -- C-o g v -- Go to the Project view of the current Version Control system.

Go To Tests - Other Files -- C-o g t o -- Go to any related test or source files given a Devel::CoverX::Covered covered db.

Go To Project's Other Files -- C-o g p o -- Go to corresponding files given a .corresponding_file config file (see File::Corresponding).

Find with Ack -- C-o f a -- Search for the selected text, or word at point, or whatever, using Ack.

Find sub declarations -- C-o f s -- Search for sub declarations of the method name, or word at point.

Find method calls -- C-o f c -- Search for method calls of the method name, or word at point.

Go To Find Buffer -- C-o g f to go to the *grep* buffer.

Run file -- C-o C-r -- Run the current file using the Compilation mode and the settings appropriate for the source type (Test, Module, etc.). Highlight errors and jump to source with C-c C-c.

Run file under Devel::CoverX::Covered -- C-o r c -- Run the current file, collecting Devel::CoverX::Covered information.

Edit - Copy Package Name -- C-o e c p -- Copy the current package name.

Edit - Copy Package Name From File -- C-o e c P -- Copy the current package name from file name.

Edit - Copy Sub Name -- C-o e c s -- Copy the current sub name.

Edit - Copy Method Name -- C-o e c m -- Copy the current method name (i.e. package->sub).

Edit - Copy File Name -- C-o e c f -- Copy the current file name.

Edit - Add Use Statement -- C-o e a u -- Add a 'use Module' statement to the 'use Module' section at the top. Default Module name is module at point.

Edit - Move Use Statement -- C-o e m u -- Move the 'use Module' statement at point to the 'use Module' section at the top.

Extract Variable - C-o e e v -- Do the refactoring Extract Variable of the active region.

Find Callers - C-o e f c -- Find callers of a method in the project and insert the call tree as a comment in the source.

Visualize Callers - C-o e v c -- Visualize the callers comment created by "Find Callers" using GrapViz.

Visualize Callers - C-o e v c -- Visualize callers in a call tree (found by Find Callers) by drawing the call tree using GraphViz.

Edit Test Count -- C-o e t c -- Increase the test count (e.g. "tests => 43")

Assist With Test Count -- C-o a t -- Synchronize invalid test count in .t file with the *compilation* buffer.

Flymake may be used to highlight syntax errors, warnings, and Perl::Critic violations in the source while editing (continously or at every save).

From Vim

There is no integraton with Vim available. Well, not properly anyway. If you pass the option


to perly_sense, the output will be serialized to Vim Dictionary data structures.

From other editors

Any editor that is programmable and that can call a shell script could take advantage of at least some parts of PerlySense to implement something similar to the Emacs functionality. And most editors are programmable by the authors, if not by the users.

From the command line

  • Create Project

      perly_sense create_project [--dir=DIR]

    Create a PerlySense project in DIR (default is current dir).

    If there is already a project.yml file, back it up with a datestamp first.

    (Note that you don't need to create a project before start using PerlySense. Read more below).

  • Process Project Source Files

      perly_sense process_project [--dir=.]

    Cache all modules in the project that --dir belongs to.

  • Process Source Files in @INC

      perly_sense process_inc

    Cache all the modules in @INC.

    This is a useful thing to do after installation (and after each upgrade), but it will take a while so put it in the background and let it churn away at those modules.

    • Unix

        perly_sense process_inc &        # (well, you knew that already)
    • Windows

        start /MIN perly_sense process_inc
  • Get Info

      perly_sense info

    Display useful information about what the current project directory, user home directory, etc. is.


Module Installation

Install the Devel::PerlySense module and accompanying elisp by using a configured CPAN shell, like this:

  cpan Devel::PerlySense

When everything is installed, verify by running

  perly_sense info

The elisp is installed next to the Perl source (so it works to install as an unpriviliged user, and you don't have to have Emacs installed, and the elisp and Perl source are always in sync).

Supporting modules

These aren't needed to begin with, but may be very useful.

  • Devel::CoverX::Covered

    If you have a lot of tests to navigate and run a nightly build with Devel::Cover to generate test coverage. You can also run individual files under Devel::CoverX::Covered with C-o r c.

  • File::Corresponding

    If you have an MVC style class structure with the same entity represented in different directories (e.g. Controller::Aeroplane, Model::Aeroplane, etc.).

Emacs installation

Make sure the Devel::PerlySense CPAN module is installed, it contains the required elisp files which will be loaded automatically with the following in your .emacs config file:

    ;; *** PerlySense Config ***

    ;; ** PerlySense **
    ;; The PerlySense prefix key (unset only if needed, like for \C-o)
    (global-unset-key "\C-o")
    (setq ps/key-prefix "\C-o")

    ;; ** Flymake **
    ;; Load flymake if t
    ;; Flymake must be installed.
    ;; It is included in Emacs 22
    ;;     (or, put flymake.el in your load-path)
    (setq ps/load-flymake t)
    ;; Note: more flymake config below, after loading PerlySense

    ;; *** PerlySense load (don't touch) ***
    (setq ps/external-dir (shell-command-to-string "perly_sense external_dir"))
    (if (string-match "Devel.PerlySense.external" ps/external-dir)
           "PerlySense elisp files  at (%s) according to perly_sense, loading..."
          (setq load-path (cons
                            (format "%s/%s" ps/external-dir "emacs")
                            ) load-path))
          (load "perly-sense")
      (message "Could not identify PerlySense install dir.
    Is Devel::PerlySense installed properly?
    Does 'perly_sense external_dir' give you a proper directory? (%s)" ps/external-dir)

    ;; ** Flymake Config **
    ;; If you only want syntax check whenever you save, not continously
    (setq flymake-no-changes-timeout 9999)
    (setq flymake-start-syntax-check-on-newline nil)

    ;; ** Code Coverage Visualization **
    ;; If you have a Devel::CoverX::Covered database handy and want to
    ;; display the sub coverage in the source, set this to t
    (setq ps/enable-test-coverage-visualization nil)

    ;; ** Color Config **
    ;; Emacs named colors:
    ;; The following colors work fine with a white X11
    ;; background. They may not look that great on a console with the
    ;; default color scheme.
    (set-face-background 'flymake-errline "antique white")
    (set-face-background 'flymake-warnline "lavender")
    (set-face-background 'dropdown-list-face "lightgrey")
    (set-face-background 'dropdown-list-selection-face "grey")

    ;; ** Misc Config **

    ;; Run calls to perly_sense as a prepared shell command. Experimental
    ;; optimization, please try it out.
    (setq ps/use-prepare-shell-command t)

    ;; *** PerlySense End ***

Emacs Configuration

The most important config you can change is the prefix key.

The default, \C-o, seemed to have a rater low useful-to-keystroke ratio and so was a strong candidate for stealing for this much more important purpose :) Now, the proper way of doing this is of course to some kind of C-c prefix. You decide.

If you want to use flymake to do background syntax and Perl::Critic checks, set ps/load-flymake to t (this is a very nifty thing, so yes you want to do this) and configure the colors to your liking.

Note: This also needs to be enabled on a per-project basis (see below).

Once you have restarted Emacs, you might want to browse around the customizations by doing

  M-x customize-group perly-sense


This is quite a handfull of new features, and you're not likely to be able to use them efficiently from day one. Remember, Emacs is all about acquiring finger memory, one feature at a time.

These are the ones I use every day so they may be a good start:

  • Go to Module

  • Go to base class

  • Document Class Hierarchy

  • Go to Version Control

  • Find with Ack

  • Find sub declarations

  • Run tests, Re-run tests

  • Assist with Test count

Reading Docs

Smart docs

[ Screenshot ]

C-o C-d is the "Smart docs" command. It brings up POD documentation for what's at point.

Put the cursor on the method word of a $self->method call and press C-o C-d and wait until a documentation hint for the method call is displayed briefly in the echo area. PerlySense will look in base classes if the method can't be found in the current class.

Put the cursor on the method word of an $object->method call and press C-o C-d to see the docs hint. PerlySense will look through all your used modules (and their base classes) for the method call and try to identify the best match.

Note! The first time each module is parsed this will take a second or two, and the very first time you run the command with lots of "use" modules it's bound to take a lot longer than that.

Put the cursor on a module name and press C-o C-d to bring up a new buffer with the POD for that module (this is similar to the cperl-mode feature, only a) not as good, but b) it works on Windows).

Press C-o C-d with nothing under the cursor brings up a POD buffer for the current file.

Document Inheritance

C-o d i will briefly display the Inheritance hierarchy for the current Class in the echo area. Example:

    [ DBIx::Class::Componentised        ]
    [ DBIx::Class                       ] --> [ Class::Data::Accessor ]

Document Used Modules

C-o d u will briefly display the list of modules used from the current buffer in the echo area. Example:

    [ Carp               ] [ File::Spec ] [ Win32::OLE::Const          ]
    [ Class::MethodMaker ] [ File::Temp ] [ Win32::Word::Writer::Table ]
    [ Data::Dumper       ] [ Win32::OLE ]

Browsing Code

Smart go to

C-o C-g is the "Smart go to" command. It's similar to Smart Docs, but instead of bringing the docs to you, it brings you to the definition of what's at point.

The definition can be either the sub declaration, or if the declaration can't be found (like for auto-generated getters/setters, autoloaded subs etc), the POD documentation for the sub.

Before you go anywhere the mark is set. Go back to earlier marks globally with C-x C-SPC, or locally with C-u C-SPC.

Go to Module

C-o g m -- Go to Module at point. Useful if "Smart go to" can't identify exactly what's at point.

Default is the selected text, or the Module at point.

Go to Base Class

C-o g b takes you up one level in the inheritance hierarchy. If the current class has many base classes, you'll have to choose which one to go to.

If the current method is implemented in that base class, go to the sub definition.

After going to the Base Class, the Inheritance tree of that class is displayed in the echo area so you can see where you ended up.

Go to the 'new' method

C-o g n takes you to the definition of the 'new' method of the current class (in this class, or a parent class). But if you're unlucky, it might take you to your OO helper module's default new.

Go To 'use Module' section

C-o g u takes you to the line below the last 'use Module' statement in the the current buffer.

Go to Version Control

C-o g v -- Go to the Project view for the current Version Control system. This typically displays the change status of the files in the project. A dired of the Project dir is used in lieu of a VCS.

First, try to go to any existing VC project buffer.

If there is no VC buffer open, find out what VCS is used, and display the Project view.

Supported VC systems:

  • Subversion -- Quick intro to *svn-status*

    _ (underscore) - display only the changed files (toggle)

    n, p, m, u -- next, previous, mark, unmark

    E -- diff the changes in the current file

    c -- commit file(s)

    r -- revert file(s)

    X v -- resolve conflict (or X X, I'm not sure what the difference is)

    etc, etc, etc, do a C-h m to see all the goodies.

    See also:

  • Git -- Magit

    This requires you to have Magit installed. Install using ELPA (M-x packages-list-packages). Docs at

    When you switch to an existing Magit status buffer the status is refreshed automatically to display the current status.

    If there are many *magit: NAME* buffers open, the first existing one will be used (whichever that might be).

Go to Project's Other Files

C-o g p o -- Navigate to other source files in the project that correspond to the current file.

This is useful if you have similarly named files in different parts of the source tree that belong to each other, as is common in projects with an MVC structure (e.g. those based on Catalyst).

This requires that you have a .corresponding_file config file in the .PerlySenseProject or project root directory (or your home directory).

See File::Corresponding for details.

Finding Code

Find with Ack

[ Screenshot ]

C-o f a -- Ack through the source and display the hits in a *grep* buffer. ack is like grep, but more suitable for development.

The search takes place from the Project directory. Before running ack you'll get to edit the command line with a sensible default chosen from:

  • the active region

  • the word at point (with the -w whole word option)

When editing the ack command you can use the following keys to set options

 | "C-o w" | toggle | -w            | Whole word                               |
 | "C-o q" | toggle | -Q            | Quote metacharacters, pattern is literal |
 | "C-o i" | toggle | -i            | Ignore case                              |
 | "C-o p" | use    | --perl        |                                          |
 | "C-o a" | use    | --all         | Ack version <  2.0                       |
 | "C-o k" | use    | --known-types |                                          |
 | "C-o s" | use    | --sql         |                                          |

To search for all files, toggle the current file type off (typically --perl, so type C-o p to toggle it off).

For details, refer to the ack documentation (the program was installed as a dependency of PerlySense).

Remember that earlier searches are available in the command history, just like with grep.

Tip: You can jump from a source file to the next hit with C-c C-c (type C-h m in the *grep* buffer to see the mode documentation).

Tip: if you need to find something else while browsing the *grep* buffer, you can easily rename the current *grep* buffer to something else using M-x rename-buffer.

Find sub declarations

[ Screenshot ]

C-o f s -- Ack the Project for sub declarations of the method, or word at point.

I.e. look for lines with sub NAME.

The point can be either on the method ($self->st|ore), or on the object ($us|er_agent->get()).

Find method calls

[ Screenshot ]

C-o f c -- Ack the Project for method calls to the method, or word at point.

I.e. look for lines with ->NAME.

Go to Find-buffer

Invoke C-o g f to go to the *grep* buffer.

Class Overview

Pressing C-o C-o will bring up the Class Overview of the Class name at point (not yet implemented), or otherwise the current Class (the active Package).

Example class CatalystX::FeedMe::Controller::Feed

  * Inheritance *
       [ Class::Accessor                     ]
    +> [ Class::Accessor::Fast               ] <-----+
    |  [ Catalyst::AttrContainer             ] ------+---------------------------+
    |    |                                           |                           v
    +- [ Catalyst::Base                      ] --> [ Catalyst::Component ] --> [ Class::Data::Inheritable ]
       [ Catalyst::Controller                ]

  * Uses *
  [ Data::Dumper      ] [ XML::Atom::Syndication::Content ] [ XML::Atom::Syndication::Feed ]
  [ Template::Filters ] [ XML::Atom::Syndication::Entry   ] [ XML::Atom::Syndication::Link ]

  * NeighbourHood *
  [ CatalystX::FeedMe::DBIC ] [<CatalystX::FeedMe::Controller::Feed    >] -none-
                              [ CatalystX::FeedMe::Controller::FeedItem ]
                              [ CatalystX::FeedMe::Controller::Homepage ]
                              [ CatalystX::FeedMe::Controller::Root     ]

  * Bookmarks *
  - Todo remove duplication

  * API *

Overview sections

In addition to the full Overview, each section may be displayed individually:

  • C-o o i -- Inheritance

  • C-o o a -- API

  • C-o o b -- Bookmarks

  • C-o o u -- Uses

  • C-o o h -- NeighbourHood

The Inheritance section shows all Base classes of the Class. Inheriting from something like Catalyst is hopefully the hairiest you'll see. Classes inherit from their parents upwards in the diagram unless there is an arrow pointing elsewhere.

The Uses section shows all used modules in the Class.

The NeighbourHood section shows three columns (1: parent dir, 2: current dir, 3: subdir for the current class) with Classes located nearby (this can be bizarrely huge (and take a long time) if you browse your site_lib or similar).

(This was disabled for having a bad time/useful ratio. Use C-o o h to bring up only the NeighbourHood).

The Bookmarks section shows matches for bookmark definitions you have defined in the Project config (see below).

the API section shows things that look like methods and properties of the class (sub declarations, $self method calls, $self->{hash_ref_keys}):

  \>method_in_base_class  (note the arrow coming from above)

Private methods (named with a leading _) are displayed as regular methods. Same goes for private methods in base classes, except when the base class is outside of your Project (like for CPAN modules).

Why is this?

If it's your code base you're interested in everything, but if you inherit from a CPAN module, you don't care (you even shouldn't care) about the implementation of that module.

Note that you can still see the private methods of those modules by doing a Class Overview on them, or any of the modules outside your current Project (thereby changing the current Project to the directory where those modules are installed).

Key bindings

When in the Class Overview buffer:

g -- Go to the file of the thing at point (Module/Method/Bookmark)

d -- Documentation for the thing at point (Module/Method)

c -- Class Overview for the thing at point. RET does the same.

I -- Move point to the Inheritance heading in the buffer.

U -- Move point to the Uses heading in the buffer.

H -- Move point to the NeighbourHood heading (mnemonic: 'Hood).

B -- Move point to the Bookmarks heading.

A -- Move point to the API heading.

N -- Move point to the '->new' method in the buffer (if any).

q -- Quit the Class Overview buffer.


[ Screenshot ]

Run File

C-o C-r -- Run the file of the current buffer using the Compilation mode.

Files are run according to the source type, which is determined by the file name (see the config file). The default for .t files is to run "prove -v", for .pm files "perl -c", etc. This can be configured per Project (see below).

Files can also be run using an Alternate Command using C-u C-o C-r if you have specified one in the config file. This might be useful if you want to re-generate or restart something before running the file, but only sometimes. Or, maybe you want to run some tests without the -v flag or something.

The file is run from the Project root directory or from the file directory depending on the file type, and the @INC is set appropriately. You can also specify additional @INC directories in the Project config.

Note that you can configure whatever type of run profile you like, not just Perl source files.

As a taste of what's possible, imagine that you have a test framework with .yml acceptance test data files and a corresponding script. You can set up the config so you can type C-o C-r while editing the .yaml file to run that test. And if you need to regenerate some fixtures or something before running the yml test, you can configure the Alternate Command to do that (run with C-u C-o C-r). Refer to the Devel::PerlySense::Cookbook for details.

If any warnings, errors or test failures are encountered, they are highlighted in the *compilation* buffer. Press RET on a highlighted line to go to the source. Jump between errors with Tab.

Use C-c C-c to move from one error to the next while editing.

If you wish to start many runs at the same time, rename the compilation buffer with M-x rename-buffer.

Re-run File

Invoke C-o C-r from within the *compilation* buffer to re-run (M-x recompile) the file. Useful when you have skipped around the source fixing errors and the .t file isn't visible.

C-o r r -- If not even the *compilation* buffer is visible, issue Re-Run File from anywhere to bring it up and re-run.

Note: this will re-run whatever is displayed in the *compilation* buffer.

Run File under Devel::CoverX::Covered

C-o r c -- This is the same as Run File, but collect test coverage information using Devel::CoverX::Covered.

Note: Currently this only works with Unix like shells.

Go to Run-buffer

Invoke C-o g r to go to the *compilation* buffer.

Edit Test Count

C-o e t c -- Increase the test count number in the line resembling

  use Test::More tests => 43;

without moving point. The current and new test count is reported in the echo area.

Increase with the numeric argument (e.g. C-u -2 C-o e t c), or default 1.

Assist With Test Count

C-o a t -- If the test count in a .t file is out of sync with what's correctly reported when running the test in the *compilation* buffer (see Run File), use this command to update the .t file.

This updates the

  use Test::More tests => 43;

line in the current buffer, so be sure to only run this when the *compilation* buffer contains the run result of this buffer.

Run Single Test::Class Method

If you use Test::Class to write your tests, you may sometimes want to run just a single test method.

Hit C-o r m to mark the current sub as the current test method, and C-o r m again to unmark it. This will set the $TEST_METHOD environment variable during program runs, so when you run this test class, only the marked method will be run.

The current test method is indicated with a "Test::Class -->" next to it.

Go to Tests - Other Files

[ Screenshot ]

C-o g t o -- In a test file, navigate to the source files that are covered by that test file.

In a source file, navigate to test files covering the file. If the point is on a line with a sub declaration, the list of test files is limited to those that cover that particular sub.

This requires that Devel::CoverX::Covered is installed and a Devel::Cover cover_db in the project root directory.

You can build the coverage database either as a (very slow) separate test run, or by running individual files with C-o r c.

See Devel::CoverX::Covered for details.

Go to Error line

If you run tests in a regular shell (inside Emacs or in a terminal window), this may be handy.

C-o g e -- If point is located on an error line from a syntax error, or a stack trace from the debugger or similar, go to that file+line.

If no file name can be found, prompt for a piece of text that contains the file+line spec. The kill ring or clipboard text is used as default if available (so it's easy to just copy the error line from the terminal, run this command and hit return to accept the default text).

Debugging Code

Run File in Debugger

C-o r d -- Run the file of the current buffer using the Emacs integrated Perl debugger. This the same as the excellent M-x perldb, except a few annoyances are fixed, like the include directories, the working directory, the default command line etc.

Note that if you have spaces in your file names, this might not work (it's a perldb thing).

The debugger is started according to the file source type, which is determined by the file name (see the config file).

You can also use C-u C-o r d to Debug with an Alternate Command, just like with Run File.

This can all be configured similar to how files are run (see above).

Most files are run from the Project root directory by default.

Commands and key bindings

Commonly used commands:

    | Source      | DB   | Command                 |
    | C-x C-a C-n | n    | Next line (step over)   |
    | C-x C-a C-s | s    | Step into               |
    |             | RET  | Repeat last n or s      |
    | C-x C-a C-r | r    | Return from sub         |
    | C-x C-a C-u |      | Run to (Until) point    |
    |             | x $v | Dump variable $v        |
    |             | T    | Stack trace             |
    |             | y    | Dump lexicals (mY vars) |
    |             | R    | Restart                 |
    |             | m $o | List methods of $o      |

Dumping objects

  x $VAR

to print/dump objects.

See for how to deal with large objects (put the .perldb file in $HOME or the project root dir).


Create a programmatic breakpoint like this

  $DB::single = 1;

More Documentation

Once the debugger is started, refer to the Gud menu for a few useful commands and key bindings (gud = Grand Unified Debugger). See also:

Since the Perl debugger command line is available, make sure you read up on that too: (especially the <<, {{, etc. are more useful than they might seem at first).

Displaying Code

Flymake Introduction

[ Screenshot ]

"Flymake performs on-the-fly syntax checks of the files being edited using the external syntax check tool (usually the compiler). Highlights erroneous lines and displays associated error messages."

Flymake is included in Emacs 22 (or available from, put flymake.el somewhere in your load-path. [[[explain how to fix brokenness?]]] ).

PerlySense uses flymake to check syntax, Perl Critic, etc.

Having Perl::Critic enabled will also speed up other operations by caching information.

Three inconveniences with vanilla Flymake are fixed:

  • no proper @INC

  • only .pl files

  • "perl -c" warns about redefined subs for recursively used modules (which is perfectly fine Perl)

Syntax errors and warnings both use the error face.

Perl::Critic violations use the warning face.

Enabling Flymake

First off, flymake itself needs to be enabled. Refer to the Emacs Installation description above.

This will enable Flymake for all cperl-mode buffers, causing Emacs to call perly_sense for each check.

PerlySense won't do anything at this point though. You still need to configure what should happen during a flymake.

Create a PerlySense Project directory (see below) and look in the project.yml file for instructions on how to configure Flymake activities.

Set "syntax" and/or "critic" to 1 to enable them.

The primary reason "syntax" is turned off by default is that it's a potential security hole; running perl -c on a file will not only check the syntax; BEGIN and CHECK blocks are also executed. Doing that on random code may be considered... baaad.

This way you can have Flymake enabled globally and still not run perl -c on everything that happens to be in a buffer.

Using Flymake

In the Project config file there are some hints on how to customize Flymake, when it should run, etc. You can also customize it with M-x customize-group flymake.

(Personally I find the nagging while I type very distracting, but I welcome the immediate feedback whenever I save the file. YMMV.)

Look in the mode line for hints on whether there are any errors or warnings.

C-o s n -- Go to the next Source error/warning.

Display the error in the minibuffer. If the warning is from a Perl::Critic module, copy the module name into the kill-ring, so you easily can yank it into the .perlcritic config file to disable it. (not implemented)

C-o s p -- Go to the previous Source error/warning.

C-o s s -- Display the error/warning text of the current line in a popup. Or display the error in the minibuffer if the display isn't graphical, or if the ps/flymake-prefer-errors-in-minibuffer variable is customized to a true value.

Code Coverage Visualization Introduction

[ Screenshot ]

If you have a test suite, you might like this. You should have tests.

If you run Devel::Cover, you'll be happy. You should know your code coverage.

PerlySense can display the code coverage in the source buffer.

Currently supported is subroutine coverage, i.e. whether a sub is covered by tests or not.

Covered subs are displayed with a discreet green underline, uncovered subs get a red underline.

Coverage Visualization Setup

PerlySense uses Devel::CoverX::Covered to manage the coverage data. Refer to that documentation for how to run your test suite with Devel::Cover and generate a "covered" database.

The "covered" database should reside in your project root dir and contain files with file names relative to the project root dir (that's ordinarily the case).

Note: Running the test suite with Devel::Cover can be very, very slow. A nightly build is usually a good idea.

You can also collect / undate coverage information for indivual test files with C-o r c. This is the easiest way to just try it out.

You might want to add the following to be ignored by your VCS (e.g. .gitignore):


Using Coverage Visualization

You can toggle Visualization with C-o C-v at any time when editing.

You can also enable Visualization by default in the install script (see above), or via M-x customize-variable ps/enable-test-coverage-visualization.

Whenever Visualization is enabled, PerlySense will try to fetch coverage information just after a file is opened and highlight the word "sub" for each subroutine in the buffer.

  • A green underline means that the sub was entered at least once. This does not mean all lines in the sub was covered.

  • A red underline means the sub wasn't covered at all. Time to write more tests!

  • No underline means that the sub isn't in the coverage database. Maybe the sub was added after the test run, maybe Devel::Cover didn't manage to capture any coverage information for the sub.

    If you really think the sub should be covered, generate a HTML report with Devel::Cover and investigate further.

The point of the visualization is to provide an ambient feeling of what's covered or not. Too much detail and color all over the place and the source turns into a christmas tree! But if you browse past a complex method and see that it isn't tested, that should ring a bell.

To increase this effect you may want to only highlight subs with bad coverage (customize the variable ps/only-highlight-bad-sub-coverage)

Note that you can hit C-o g t o -- "Go To Tests - Other Files" to see what test files are covering this file. If you run the command with the cursor on a "sub" line, you'll get only the tests that cover that particular subroutine.

Editing Code

Editing code includes both smaller editing tasks and refactorings to restucture the code.

Edit - Copy Package Name

C-o e c p -- Copy the current package statement name to the clipboard (kill-ring) and display it in the echo area. If there is no package statement, try to get the package name from the file name.

Edit - Copy Package Name From File Name

C-o e c P -- Assuming the file is a Perl module in a lib directory, copy the corrsponding package name to the clipboard (kill-ring) and display it in the echo area.

Useful when you've just created an empty new Perl module .pm file.

Edit - Copy Sub Name

C-o e c s -- Copy the current sub name to the clipboard (kill-ring) and display it in the echo area.

Edit - Copy Method Name

C-o e c m -- Copy the current method name to the clipboard (kill-ring) and display it in the echo area. Method name in this case means "package->sub".

Edit - Copy File Name

C-o e c f -- Copy the current file name to the clipboard (kill-ring) and display it in the echo area.

Edit - Add 'use Module' Statement

C-o e a u -- Set mark and add a 'use My::Module;' statement to the end of the 'use Module' section at the top of the file.

The default module is the selected text, or the module at point (point may be on a method call of the module).

This is typically useful when you realize you're using a module already, but without a use-statement. But you don't want to leave where you are just to fiddle with adding it.

So hit C-o e a u to add it, see that it got added at a good place and hit C-u C-SPC to return to where you were, and continue doing what you where doing.

Edit - Move 'use Module' Statement

C-o e m u -- If point is on a line with a single 'use Module' statement, set mark and move that statement to the end of the 'use Module' section at the top of the file.

This is typically useful for when you encounter a stray 'use Module' in the middle of the file.

So type the 'use Module' statement, hit C-o e m u to move it, see that it got moved to a good place and hit C-u C-SPC to return to where you were, and continue doing what you where doing.

Edit/Refactor - Extract Variable

C-o e e v -- Do the refactoring Extract Variable of the active region.

For example, in this piece of code:

    my $syntax = $self->perlysense->config->{external}->{editor}->{emacs}->{flymake}->{syntax};
    my $critic = $self->perlysense->config->{external}->{editor}->{emacs}->{flymake}->{critic};

Select a piece of code (on either of the lines) that is duplicated a lot and hit C-o e e v. In this case this seems to be the common part:


You will be asked for a variable name to put this in. The default is the last word in the selected code ($flymake).

All occurrences of the selection will now be replaced with $flymake, and the new variable $flymake will be declared just before the earliest usage.

    my $flymake = $self->perlysense->config->{external}->{editor}->{emacs}->{flymake};
    my $syntax = $flymake->{syntax};
    my $critic = $flymake->{critic};

Before the edit, the mark was pushed at the location where you started, so you can hit C-u C-SPC to jump back.

After the edit, the point is left at the new variable declaration so you can ensure that it is in a reasonable location. It's not unusual to need to move it to an outer scope in order for all the usages to be covered by the declaration.

Now you need to ensure this edit makes sense. Both replacements and the declaration are highlighted, so it's easy to see what was changed.

Once you've eye-balled the edits, hit C-o e h to remove the Highlights.

Note that the replacement is syntax unaware, so you'll have to ensure it's syntactically correct yourself (althugh most of the time it works just fine).

In this particular example, had there been no arrows between the hash keys, the final code would have looked like this:

    my $flymake = $self->perlysense->config->{external}{editor}{emacs}{flymake};
    my $syntax = $flymake{syntax};
    my $critic = $flymake{critic};

and that clearly isn't equivalent Perl code, the flymake hashref having been converted to a hash. This is probably the most common failure mode though, and shouldn't happen that often. Now you know.

By default, only the current subroutine is changed. Invoke with the prefix arg to change the entire buffer: C-u C-o e e v.

Cool usages for Extract Variable:

  • Remove duplicated code (duh), beause duplication is just shoddy.

  • Rename variable - Extract Varable, then just delete the declaration.

  • print "So, you want to make a $object->method_call inside a string\n";

    But that doesn't work obviously. So you mark $object->method_call and extract it, and end up with this:

        my $method_call = $object->method_call;
        print "So, you want to make a $method_call inside a string\n";


Edit -- Find Callers

C-o e f c -- Find callers of a method in the current project, and insert the package->sub as a call tree in a comment.

This is for understanding where in the code base method calls originate.

If point is in a comment on something that looks like a method call, look for that method. This can be in source code, or in a comment with callers. Insert the comment with callers above the current line.

Otherwise, look for callers to the current sub. Insert the comment with callers above the sub declaration.

Example: Point is in the sub price:

    package MyApp::Book;

    sub price {

Hit C-o e f c and PerlySense will insert the three places where the price method is called:

    package MyApp::Book;

    #     MyApp::Book->discount_price
    #     MyApp::User->total_book_cost
    #    |MyApp::Author->daily_total_income
    # MyApp::Book->price
    sub price {

Let's assume the method call chain for total_book_cost is interesting, so put the cursor on that line and again hit C-o e f c. The callers for that method is now inserted on the line above.

    package MyApp::Book;

    #     MyApp::Book->discount_price
    #         MyApp::Controller::User->user_details
    #        |MyApp::User->total_cost
    #     MyApp::User->total_book_cost
    #     MyApp::Author->daily_total_income
    # MyApp::Book->price
    sub price {

You can go on like this and add more callers to investigate the code structure.

The cursor is placed conveniently to make it easy to add subsequent callers to the call tree.

If the same caller is already present in the comment, it is marked with a * to indicate that there's no point following them.

Caveat: The method of identifying callers works by method names alone, so there might be false positives, or uninteresting callers added to the list. Delete those lines to avoid clutter.

Edit -- Visualize Callers

C-o e v c -- Visualize callers in a call tree comment (collected using Find Callers above) by drawing it using GraphViz.

Put the cursor in a comment with the call tree and hit C-o e v c. PerlySense will create a temporary .dot file and let GraphViz render it into a nice .png image, which will be opened.

If you're running a graphical Emacs it might even look pretty.

This requires GraphViz' dot binary to be installed:

    sudo apt-get install graphviz  # Debian / Ubuntu
    sudo yum install graphviz      # Redhat / CentOS

on OSX, try brew something.

Assist With -- Regex

[ Screenshot ]

Hit C-o a r to bring up the Regex Tool which will let you compose a Perl regular expression interactively with matching text highlighed.

The Regex Tool appears in a new frame with three buffers: *Regex*, *Text* and *Groups*.

If point is on a regular expression in the source code, that regex will be used to pre-populate the *Regex* buffer. (Not yet implemented)

If there is a comment block just above the regex, it will be used to pre-populate the *Text* buffer. Note that it is very handy to document the regex with some sample input, so this is a good idea in general. (Not yet implemented)

The contents of the *Regex* buffer should look e.g. like this:

  / part \s (\w+) \s no:(\d) /xgm
  • You can use all the usual delimiters, such as / | {} () ", etc.

  • You can put Perl comments below the regex to temporarily store chunks of regex code during prototyping.

  • The modifiers work as expected, including /x and /g .

The results in the *Groups* buffer are updated as you type in either the *Regex* or *Text* buffer.

Use C-c C-c to force an update.

Use C-c C-k to quit all the regex-tool buffers and remove the frame.


PerlySense keeps a per-user directory to store cache files, logs, etc. The .PerlySense user directory is located under the first available of these environment variables:



  perly_sense info

to see which directory is actually being used.


PerlySense has the concept of a Project root directory.

Basically, this is where all the source lives, and where your program can go to find modules that are used. This is from where tests are run and files are found.

You can specify the Project root dir explicitly for your applications. But if you don't, PerlySense will try and figure out what the Project root directory is from the context of the surrounding code.

This means you can browse source code anywhere on your hard drive (e.g. @INC) without any special setup or configuration. Most things will just work, without any hassle.

If you follow the standard directory structure for CPAN modules, the Project directory is typically the one which contains the Makefile.PL, the lib, bin, and t directory, etc.

Identifying a Project root directory

The fastest and most solid way for PerlySense to know which is the Project directory is to create a .PerlySenseProject directory with a config file in it. This is highly recommended for all of your own projects.

The complete project identification strategy is as follows:

  • First, if there is any directory upwards in the dirctory path with a .PerlySenseProject dir in it, that is the Project directory.

  • Second, PerlySense will try figure out from where the current file (if any) was being required/used given the contained package names or used modules.

  • Third, if that doesn't work, PerlySense will look for lib and t directories.

If that doesn't work, PerlySense is lost and you really do need to create an explicit Project directory by running the following command in your intended Project root directory (that would typically be the directory which has a lib directory in it):

  perly_sense create_project

Any existing .PerlySenseProject/project.yml config file will be renamed.

Note that this all means that the current Project depends on which file you are looking at. If it's a file within the directory tree under a .PerlySenseProject directory, that's what the current Project is. But if you from that file do a Class Overview on an installed CPAN module, the current Project is deduced from that .pm file, typically making the current Project be the lib or site_lib of your local CPAN installation.

Project Configuration

The Project has a .PerlySenseProject/project.yml config file. Here you can change the name of the Project, add extra @INC directories, etc.

There is a yaml-mode for Emacs, but I haven't got it to work properly (unless an infinite loop counts as "properly" these days). The shell-script-mode is good enough.

The config file documentation is where it belongs, in the config file, so just take a look at it.

perly_sense Project commands

  perly_sense create_project [--dir=DIR]

Create a PerlySense project in DIR (default is current dir).

  perly_sense process_project

Cache all modules in the project. (not implemented)


Bookmarks are regexes that may match against a single line. Each bookmark definition has a name/moniker under which the matches are grouped in the Class Overview display.

The primary point of Bookmarks is to highlight unusual things in the source. The secondary to make it easy for you go navigate to them.

This can be anything you like, but things that come to mind are:

  • TODO comments

  • FIXME/XXX/HACK comments

  • Things you don't want left in the code, like

    Breakpoints ($DB::single = 1)

    Debugging warn/print statements


Bookmarks are defined in the Project Config file (technical details are documented there).


There is a system behind the chosen key bindings in PerlySense. Knowing the conventions will make it easier to remember everything.

Convention: Action based

The first level after the prefix key (C-o by default) is always an Action, e.g. Run, or Document.

(In the case of C-o C-d for Document you can either think of it as "Document this for me!" or "Give me Documentation!".)

With a verb at the first level rather than a noun, the Action can be context sensitive, "smart", or DWIMy.

Smart Goto goes to whatever is under the cursor, be it a module name, a method call, a file name, or an error message.
Run runs the file differently depending on what kind of file is open (tests are "proved", modules are syntax checked, scripts are run, etc).

Convention: The Action as a Gateway

The first level indicates the Action to perform, and has the Ctrl modifier as a "Smart" / DWIMy modifier. This is both so it's easy to type C-o C-r without releasing the Ctrl key, and to provide a gateway to more specific actions when typing the key without Ctrl.

E.g. C-o C-r means "Run file", C-o r r means "Run - Re-run".

E.g. C-o C-g means "Smart Goto", C-o g b means "Goto - Base Class", C-o g s means "Goto - SUPER Method".

The Main Actions Areas

(some of the main areas have no implementations yet)

  • r -- Run

    Run files in various ways.

  • g -- Go to

    Navigate to various locations in the source.

  • d -- Document

    Bring up documentation.

  • f -- Find

    Find/search and display things in the source.

  • o -- Overview

    Bring up an overview of things.

  • m -- forMat

    Reformat source.

  • e -- Edit & Refactor

    Perform smaller convenience editing task, as well as refactorings -- restructuring edits that don't impact functionality/behaviour.

  • A -- Assist

    Solve very context sensitive problems.

Explore Emacs key bindings

Remember that you can use the usual Emacs feature to display possible key stroke completions by hitting C-h whenever in the key stroke sequence.

E.g. Hitting C-o g C-h will list all available key strokes starting wiht C-o g.

Changing key bindings

Some key bindings may change over time as I figure out what works and what doesn't. Some key bindings may be reorganized to make more sense or to just work better.


Since Perl is so dynamic, a perfect static analysis of the source is impossible. But not unusably so. Well, hopefully. Most of the time.

Because of this PerlySense is not about exact rules, but about heuristics and a 90% solution that isn't perfect, but good-enough.

PerlySense tries to take advantage of the fact that Perl code is more than the plain source file. The source lives in a context of POD and a directory structure and common Perl idioms.

Sometimes when PerlySense can't make a decision, you're expected to chip in and tell it what you meant.

Sometimes it won't work at all.

Such is the way of dynamic languages.

If it works for you, brilliant, use it to be more productive. If not... well, there's always Java >:)

Syntax Parsing Modules

PerlySense provides a plugin architecture for supporting custom syntax provided by OO modules such as Moose, or Class::Accessor.

Currently Moose is supported via the Devel::PerlySense::Plugin::Syntax::Moose module.




sepia - similar effort

PPI - excellent for parsing Perl

CPANXR - also uses PPI for cross referencing the CPAN - Win32 class browser/IDE. Earlier (a lot) work by me. - Article "Perl Needs Better Tools" - Article "Software Archeology" - Regex Tool - Vim native data structure


Johan Lindstrom, <johanl>



If you want to hack on PerlySense, fork the project at GitHub:


Please report any bugs or feature requests to, or through the web interface at I will be notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of progress on your bug as I make changes.


Tab/space isn't supported by PPI yet, but it's supposed to be. So using Tab instead of spaces won't work properly.


PPI is kinda slow for large documents. Lots of objects being created etc.

There are certainly edge cases. Bug reports with failing tests appreciated :)

There is one known infinite loop.


Peter Liljenberg and Phil Jackson for their elisp fu.

Jonathan Rockway for cool ideas:

John Wiegley for the regex-tool

Jaeyoun Chung for dropdown-list


Copyright 2007 Johan Lindstrom, All Rights Reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.




Cache::Cache object, or undef if no cache is active.

Default: undef


Devel::PerlySense::Project object.

Default: A Devel::PerlySense::Project::Unknown object.


Devel::PerlySense::Home object.

Default: A newly created Home object.


Hash ref with the current config.

If there is a known Project, it reflects the Project's config, otherwise it's the default config.

Readonly. Note that the _entire_ data structure is readonly. Each time you change/add/remove a value from it, a kitten is slain. So, dude, just don't go there!


The $VERSION of this module.


Devel::PerlySense::BookmarkConfig object.


Hash ref with (keys: absolute file names; keys: Document objects).



Create new PerlySense object.

setFindProject([file => $file], [dir => $dir])

Identify a project given the $file or $dir, and set the oProject property.

If there is already a project defined, don't change it.

If no project was found, don't change oProject.

Return 1 if there is a valid project, else 0.

Die on errors.


Parse $file into a new PerlySense::Document object.

Return the new object.

If $file was already parsed by this PerlySense object, cache that instance of the Document and return that instead of parsing it again.

Die on errors (like if the file wasn't found).


Clear the rhFileDocumentCache property.

Return 1.

podFromFile(file => $file)

Return the pod in $file as text, or die on errors.

Die if $file doesn't exist.

oLocationSmartGoTo(file => $fileOrigin, row => $row, col => $row)

Look in $file at location $row/$col and determine what is there. Depending on what's there, find the source declaration/whatever, find it and return an Devel::PerlySense::Document::Location object.

Currently supported:

  $self->method, look in current file and base classes. If no sub can
  be found, look for POD.

  shift->method for subs that don't have a $self. Same as

  $object->method, look in current file and used modules. If no sub
  can be found, look for POD.

  Module::Name (bareword)

  Module::Name (as the only contents of a string literal)

If there's nothing at $row/col, or if the source can't be found, return undef.

Die if $file doesn't exist, or on other errors.

oLocationSmartDoc(file => $fileOrigin, row => $row, col => $row)

Look in $file at location $row/$col and determine what is there. Depending on what's there, find the documentation for it and return a Document::Location object with the following rhProperty keys set:

  text - the docs text
  found - "method" | "module"
  docType - "hint" | "document"
  name - the name of the thing found

Currently supported:

  Same as for oLocationSmartGoTo

If there's nothing at $row/col, use the current document.

Die if $file doesn't exist, or on other errors.

oLocationMethodDocFromDocument($oDocument, $method)

Look in $oDocument and find the documentation for it and return a Document::Location object with the following rhProperty keys set:

  text - the docs text
  found - "method" | "module"
  docType - "hint" | "document"
  name - the name of the thing found

If possible, also set "pod" and "podHeading".

Return undef if no doc could be found.

Currently, only POD is regarded as documentation. Todo: fail to listing an example/abstracted invocation of the method.

Die on errors.

oLocationMethodDefinitionFromDocument(oDocument => $oDocument, nameClass => $nameClass, nameMethod => $method)

Look in $oDocument and find the declaration for $nameMmethod and return a Document::Location object.

Return undef if no declaration could be found.

Die on errors.

rhRegexExample(file => $fileOrigin, row => $row, col => $row)

Look in $file at location $row/$col and find the regex located there, and possibly the example comment preceeding it.

Return hash ref with (keys: regex, example; values: source string). The source string is an empty string if nothing found.

If there is an example string in a comment, return the example without the comment #

Die if $file doesn't exist, or on other errors.

raFileTestOther(file => $fileSource, [sub => $sub])

Return array ref with file names of files related to $file and possibly $sub, i.e. the "other" files related to $file.

If $file is a source file, return test files, and vice verca.

$sub is only ever active when $fileSource is a source file.

Die if Devel::CoverX::Covered isn't installed.

raFileProjectOther(file => $fileSource)

Return array ref with file names of files related to $file, i.e. the files corresponding to $file according to the .corresponding_files config file..

Die if there is no config file.

rhRunFile(file => $fileSource, [ keyConfigCommand => "command" ])

Figure out what type of source file $fileSource is, and how it should be run.

The settings in the Project's config->{run_file} is used to determine the details.

Return hash ref with (keys: "dir_run_from", "command_run", "type_source_file"), or die on errors (like if no Project could be found).

dir_run_from is an absolute file name which should be the cwd when command_run is executed.

type_source_file is something like "Test", "Module".

rhDebugFile(file => $fileSource, [ keyConfigCommand => "command" ])

Figure out what type of source file $fileSource is, and how it should be debugged.

The settings in the Project's config->{debug_file} is used to determine the details.

Return hash ref with (keys: "dir_debug_from", "command_debug", "type_source_file"), or die on errors (like if no Project could be found).

dir_debug_from is an absolute file name which should be the cwd when command_debug is executed.

type_source_file is something like "Test", "Module".

flymakeFile(file => $fileSource)

Do a flymake run with $fileSource according to the flymake config and output the result to STDOUT and STDERR.

rhSubCovered(file => $fileSource)

Do a "covered subs" call with $fileSource in the current project.

Return hash ref with (keys: sub name; keys: quality).

createProject(dir => $dir)

Create a new PerlySense Project in $dir.

Return 1 on success, or die on errors.

classNameAt(file => $fileOrigin, row => $row, col => $row)

Look in $file at location $row/$col and determine what class name that is.

Return the class name or "" if it's package main.

Die if $file doesn't exist, or on other errors.

classAt(file => $fileOrigin, row => $row, col => $row)

Look in $file at location $row/$col and determine what PerlySelse::Class that is.

Return the Class object or undef if it's package main.

Die if $file doesn't exist, or on other errors.

classByName(name => $name, dirOrigin => $dirOrigin)

Find the file that contains the Class $name, starting at $dirOrigin.

Return the Class object or undef if it couldn't be found.

Die on errors.

fileFindModule(nameModule => $nameModule, dirOrigin => $dirOrigin)

Find the file containing the $nameModule given the $dirOrigin.

Return the absolute file name, or undef if none could be found. Die on errors.

oDocumentFindModule(nameModule => $nameModule, dirOrigin => $dirOrigin)

Find the file containing the $nameModule given the $dirOrigin.

Return a parsed PerlySense::Document, or undef if none could be found. Die on errors.

isFileInProject(file => $fileSource, fileProjectOf => $fileProjectOf)

Determine whether $fileSource is located within the current Project.

If there is no current Project, figure it out using $fileProjectOf (that file should be located in the current project).

Return true if $fileSource is in the project, else false. Die on errors.

raCallSiteForMethod(method => $nameMethod, dirOrigin => $dirOrigin)

Find callers of $nameMethod in $dirOrigin.

Return array ref of call sites.

rhFileCallerVisualized(source => $source)

Extract call tree from $source and render it into a .dot and .png file.

Return hash ref with (keys: "dot", "image"; values: file names).

Die if there is no "dot" binary to run.


fileFindLookingAround($fileModuleBase, $dirOrigin, $nameModule?)

Find the file containing the $fileModuleBase given the $dirOrigin. If $nameModule is specified, the file must either be in the inc_dir, or contain a package declaration for $nameModule.

Return the file name relative to $dirOrigin, or undef if none could be found. Die on errors.

dirFindLookingAround($fileModuleBase, $dirOrigin, [$raDirSub = [".", "lib", "bin"]])

Find the dir containing the $fileModuleBase (relative file path) given the $dirOrigin. For all directories, also look in subdirectories in $raDirSub.

Return the absolute dir name, or undef if none could be found. Die on errors.


Find the file containing the $nameModule in config:project/extra_inc, and @INC.

Return the absolute file name, or undef if none could be found. Die on errors.


Return the $nameModule converted to a file name (i.e. with dirs and .pm extension).

fileFoundInDir($dir, $fileModuleBase)

Check if $fileModuleBase is located in $dir.

Return the absolute file name, or "" if not found at $dir.


Return $pod rendered as text, or die on errors.


Render the $oLocation->rhProperty->{pod} and put it in rhProperty->{text}.

Return the same (modified) $oLocation object, or undef if no rhProperty->{pod} property ended up as text (after this operation, there is content in rhProperty->{text}).

Return undef if $oLocation is undef.

Die on errors.

aDocumentFindModuleWithInterface(raNameModule => $raNameModule, raMethodRequired => $raMethodRequired, raMethodNice => $raMethodNice, dirOrigin => $dirOrigin)

Return a list with Devel::PerlySense::Document objects that support all of the methods in $raMethodRequired and possibly the methods in $raMethodNice. Look in modules in $raNameModule.

The list is sorted with the best match first.

If the document APIs have one or more base classes, look in the @ISA (depth-first, just like Perl (see perldoc perltoot)).

Warn on some failures to find the location. Die on errors.

aApiOfClass(file => $fileOrigin, row => $row, col => $row)

Look in $file at location $row/$col and determine what package is there.

Return a two item array with (Package name, Devel::PerlySense::Document::Api object with the likely API of that class), or () if none was found.

Die if $file doesn't exist, or on other errors.

aDocumentGrepInDir(dir => $dir, rsGrepFile => $rsGrepFile, rsGrepDocument => $rsGrepDocument)

Return a list with Devel::PerlySense::Document objects found under the $dir, and that return true for the grep sub $rsGrepFile and $rsGrepDocument.

If any found file couldn't be parsed, skip it silently from the list.


cacheSet(file => $file, key => $key, value => $valuex)

If the oCache isn't undef, store the $value in the cache under the total key of ($file, $file's timestamp, $key, and the PerlySense VERSION).

$value should be a scalar or reference which can be freezed.

$file must be an existing file.

Return 1 if the $value was stored, else 0. Die on errors.

cacheGet(file => $file, key => $key)

If the oCache isn't undef, get the value in the cache under the total key of ($file, $file's timestamp, $key) and return it.

$file must be an existing file.

Return the value, or undef if the value could not be fetched. Die on errors.

cacheKeyTotal($file, $key)

If oCache is undef, return undef.

Otherwise, return the total key of ($file, $file's timestamp, $key, and the PerlySense VERSION).

$file must be an existing file.

Die on errors.