Author image Jesse N. Glick

NAME

Devel::WeakRef - weak references (not reference-counted)

SYNOPSIS

 my $foo={a => 1, b => 2};      # Some sort of reference scalar.
 my $foo_=new Devel::WeakRef $foo;
 my $bar=$foo_->deref;          # Hard ref through dereference
 $foo_->deref->{c}=3;           # Dereference
 $foo=$bar=77;                  # OK, hash collected
 $foo_->deref;                  # Yields undef now
 $foo_->empty;                  # True now.

Currently this also works:

 $$foo_->{a};

But this dies with a stern message:

 $$foo_=$new_thingy;            # Nope! Weak ref must never change referents.

This hash table has weak references as values:

 tie my %table, Devel::WeakRef::Table;
 $table{key1}=$some_object;
 $table{key2}=$some_other_object;
 $table{key1}=$yet_another_object; # OK to replace keys like this

DESCRIPTION

A weak reference maintains a "pointer" to an object (specified by a reference to it, just like bless) that does not contribute to the object's reference count; thus, the object's storage will be freed (and its destructor invoked) when only weak references remain to it. (It is fine to have multiple weak references to a single object.) The deref method derefences the weak reference. Dereferencing a weak reference whose target has already been destroyed results in undef.

empty tests if the reference is invalid; $ref->empty is equivalent to !defined $ref->deref. For now, you can just use Perl's normal scalar dereference to the same effect; but be sure to use this for reading only. This interface may change.

The package Devel::WeakRef::Table may be used to tie hashes so as to make their values all weak references. This is useful for caches in particular, where it would be more annoying to have to explicitly dereference the value each time.

The most likely applications of this module are:

Cyclic Structures

Various structures, like arbitrarily-traversable trees, or doubly-linked lists, or some queues, naturally have cyclic pointer structures in them. If you are not very careful, removing external references without breaking up the internal links will give you a memory leak. With weak references, you need only be sure that there is no cyclic structure of hard (normal) references; back-links and other convenient links can easily be made weak.

Caches

For some applications it is desirable to maintain a cache of lookups (search results) keyed off (say) search string. The values might be some objects. To have these entries removed when an object is destroyed, you want to leave each object's reference count untouched (so it will be collected as it would have otherwise), and make sure its destructor removes the appropriate keys from the caching table.

AUTHORS

Jesse Glick, jglick@sig.bsh.com.

BUGS

If you mess with the internal structure of a weak ref you will probably dump core.

The module attempts to catch attempts to directly set the target of a weak reference in a scalar dereference operation as an lvalue, and dies abruptly. It tries to do so as nicely as possible, but it is not feasible to 100% protect the environment in this case. In other words, if you plan on having this error occur, do not plan on eval-BLOCKing it and expecting everything to be dandy later.

Tied weak tables have not been tested as well as the bare references. There may be unforeseen memory leaks (presumably, not in the referred-to objects themselves, but in supporting data areas--this would affect raw memory usage, not collection of the reference targets).

Putting a weak ref on a reference object places extension-magic (~, see perlguts(1P)) on that object. This could conflict with other user extensions using custom magic. To avoid this, Devel::WeakRef specifically looks for its own magic and only its own magic; however, another extension might not do so for itself and become extremely confused, if it was specifically looking for its own magic (probably not so common).

REVISION

Devel-WeakRef/lib/Devel/WeakRef.pm last modified Thu, 25 Sep 1997 20:32:00 -0400, release 0.003. Copyright (c) 1997 Strategic Interactive Group. All rights reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.