Email::Simple::Header - the header of an Email::Simple message


version 2.218


  my $email = Email::Simple->new($text);

  my $header = $email->header_obj;
  print $header->as_string;


This method implements the headers of an Email::Simple object. It is a very minimal interface, and is mostly for private consumption at the moment.


This library should run on perls released even a long time ago. It should work on any version of perl released in the last five years.

Although it may work on older versions of perl, no guarantee is made that the minimum required version will not be increased. The version may be increased for any reason, and there is no promise that patches will be accepted to lower the minimum required perl.



  my $header = Email::Simple::Header->new($head, \%arg);

$head is a string containing a valid email header, or a reference to such a string. If a reference is passed in, don't expect that it won't be altered.

Valid arguments are:

  crlf - the header's newline; defaults to CRLF


  my $string = $header->as_string(\%arg);

This returns a stringified version of the header.


This method returns a list of the unique header names found in this header, in no particular order.


  my @pairs = $header->header_raw_pairs;
  my $first_name  = $pairs[0];
  my $first_value = $pairs[1];

This method returns a list of all the field/value pairs in the header, in the order that they appear in the header. (Remember: don't try assigning that to a hash. Some fields may appear more than once!)


header_pairs is another name for header_raw_pairs, which was the original name for the method and which you'll see most often. In general, though, it's better to be explicit and use header_raw_pairs. (In Email::MIME, header_str_pairs exists for letting the library do the header decoding for you.)


  my $first_value = $header->header_raw($field);
  my $nth_value   = $header->header_raw($field, $index);
  my @all_values  = $header->header_raw($field);

This method returns the value or values of the given header field. If the named field does not appear in the header, this method returns false.

This method just calls header_raw. It's the older name for header_raw, but it can be a problem because Email::MIME, a subclass of Email::Simple, makes header return the header's decoded value.


  $header->header_raw_set($field => @values);

This method updates the value of the given header. Existing headers have their values set in place. Additional headers are added at the end. If no values are given to set, the header will be removed from to the message entirely.


header_set is another name for header_raw_set, which was the original name for the method and which you'll see most often. In general, though, it's better to be explicit and use header_raw_set. (In Email::MIME, header_str_set exists for letting the library do the header encoding for you.)


  $header->header_raw_prepend($field => $value);

This method adds a new instance of the name field as the first field in the header.


  $header->header_rename($field, $new_name, $nth);

This renames the named field to the new name. If $nth is given, only the nth instance of the field will be renamed. It is fatal to rename an instance that does not exist. The first instance of a header is the 0th.

If $nth is omitted, all instances of the header are renamed.

When picking headers to rename, $field is matched case insensitively. So, given this header:

    happythoughts: yes
    HappyThoughts: so many
    hapPyThouGhts: forever

Then this code...

    $header->rename_header('happythoughts', 'Delights');

...will result in this:

    Delights: yes
    Delights: so many
    Delights: forever

Headers may be rewrapped as a result of renaming.


This method returns the newline string used in the header.


  • Simon Cozens

  • Casey West

  • Ricardo SIGNES <>


This software is copyright (c) 2003 by Simon Cozens.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.