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Geo::Coder::Many - Module to tie together multiple Geo::Coder::* modules


Geo::Coder::Many provides a single interface to different remote (ie HTTP based) geocoding modules

Amongst other things, Geo::Coder::Many adds geocoder precision information, alternative scheduling methods (weighted random, and ordered list), timeouts for geocoders which are failing, and optional callbacks for result filtering and picking.


General steps for using Geo::Coder::Many:

1. Create Geo::Coder::* objects for the geocoders you want to use, using their various individual setup procedures.
2. Create the Geo::Coder::Many object with new
3. Call add_geocoder for each of the geocoders you want to use
4. Set any filter or picker callbacks you require (optional)
5. Use the geocode method to do all of your geocoding


Suppose the geocoders we want to use are called 'Locatorize' and 'WhereIzIt'.

   use Geo::Coder::Locatorize;
   use Geo::Coder::WhereIzIt;
   use Geo::Coder::Many;
   use Geo::Coder::Many::Util qw( country_filter );
   # Create the Geo::Coder::Many object, telling it to use a 'weighted random'
   # scheduling method
   my $options = {
       cache   => $cache_object,
       scheduler_type => 'WRR',
   my $geocoder_many = Geo::Coder::Many->new( $options );
   # Create and add a geocoder
   my $Locatorize = Geo::Coder::Locatorize->new( appid => 'mY_loCat0r1Ze_iD' );
   my $Locatorize_options = {
       geocoder    => $Locatorize,
       daily_limit => 2500,
   $geocoder_many->add_geocoder( $Locatorize_options );
   # Create and add a second geocoder
   my $WhereIzIt = Geo::Coder::WhereIzIt->new( apikey => 'mY_WhERiz1t_kEy' );
   my $WhereIzIt_options = {
       geocoder    => $WhereIzIt,
       daily_limit => 4000,
   $geocoder_many->add_geocoder( $WhereIzIt_options );
   # Use a filter callback from Geo::Coder::Many::Util
   $geocoder_many->set_filter_callback(country_filter('United Kingdom'));
   # Use a built-in picker callback
   my $result = $geocoder_many->geocode( 
          location => '82 Clerkenwell Road, London' 
   if (defined $result) {
       print "Country: ",       $result->{country},       "\n";
       print "Longitude: ",     $result->{longitude},     "\n";
       print "Latitude: ",      $result->{latitude},      "\n";
       print "Location: ",      $result->{location},      "\n";
       print "Response code: ", $result->{response_code}, "\n";
       print "Address: ",       $result->{address},       "\n";
       print "Precision: ",     $result->{precision},     "\n";
       print "Geocoder: ",      $result->{geocoder},      "\n";
   else {
       print "Failed to geocode!\n";



Constructs a new Geo::Coder::Many object and returns it. Options should be provided as the entries of a hash reference, as follows:

  KEY                   VALUE
  -----------           --------------------
  cache                 Cache object reference  (optional)
  normalize_code_ref    A normalization code ref (optional)
  scheduler_type        Name of the scheduler type to use (default: WRR)
  use_timeouts          Whether to time out failing geocoders (default: false)

If no cache option is specified, no caching will be done for the geocoding results.

normalize_code_ref is a code reference which is used to normalize location strings to ensure that all cache keys are normalized for correct lookup.

scheduler_type specifies how load balancing should be done.

Scheduling schemes currently available are:

WRR (Weighted round-robin)
    Round-robin scheduling, weighted by the daily_limit values for the geocoders
    (The same behaviour as Geo::Coder::Multiple)
    A strict preferential ordering by daily_limit - the geocoder with the
    highest limit will always be used. If that fails, the next highest will be
    used, and so on.
    Geocoders will be picked at random, each with probability proportional to
    its specified daily_limit.

Other scheduling schemes can be implemented by sub-classing Geo::Coder::Many::Scheduler or Geo::Coder::Many::UniquenessScheduler.

If use_timeouts is true, geocoders that are unsuccessful will not be queried again for a set amount of time. The timeout period will increase exponentially for every successive consecutive failure.


This method adds a geocoder to the list of possibilities.

Before any geocoding can be performed, at least one geocoder must be added to the list of available geocoders.

If the same geocoder is added twice, only the instance added first will be used. All other additions will be ignored.

  KEY                   VALUE
  -----------           --------------------
  geocoder              geocoder object reference (required)
  daily_limit           geocoder source limit per 24 hour period (required)

geocoder should be a reference to a Geo::Coder::Something object, where 'Something' is a supported geocoder type. For a geocoder to be supported, it needs to have a corresponding Geo::Coder::Many::Something adapter module.

Note that daily_limit is just treated as guideline for the chosen scheduler, and will not necessarily be strictly obeyed.


Sets the callback used for filtering results. By default, all results are passed through. If a callback is set, only results for which the callback returns true are passed through. The callback takes one argument: a Response object to be judged for fitness. It should return true or false, depending on whether that Response is deemed suitable for consideration by the picker.


Sets the callback used for result picking. This determines which single result will actually be returned by the geocode method. By default, the first valid result (that has passed the filter callback, if one was set) is returned.

As an alternative to passing a subroutine reference, you can pass a scalar with a name that refers to one of the built-in callbacks. An empty string or 'first' sets the behaviour back to the default: accept the first result that is offered. 'max_precision' fetches all results and chooses the one with the greatest precision value.

The picker callback has two arguments: a reference to an array of the valid results that have been collected so far, and a value that is true if there are more results available and false otherwise. The callback should return a single result from the list, if one is acceptable. If none are acceptable, the callback may return undef, indicating that more results to pick from are desired. If these are available, the picker will be called again once they have been added to the results array.

Note that since geocoders are not (currently) queried in parallel, a picker that requires lots of results to make a decision may take longer to return a value.


  my $options = {
      location        => $location,
      results_cache   => $cache,

  my $found_location = $geocoder_many->geocode( $options );

Arguments should be provided in a hash reference with the following entries:

  KEY                   VALUE
  -----------           --------------------
  location              location string to pass to geocoder

  results_cache         reference to a cache object; will override the default

  no_cache              if set, the result will not be retrieved or set in
                        cache (off by default)

  wait_for_retries      if set, the method will wait until it's sure all
                        geocoders have been tried (off by default)

This method is the basis for the class, it will retrieve result from cache first, and return if cache hit.

If the cache is missed, the geocode method is called, with the location as the argument, on the next available geocoder object in the sequence.

If called in an array context all the matching results will be returned, otherwise the first result will be returned.

A matching address will have the following keys in the hash reference.

  KEY                   VALUE
  -----------           --------------------
  response_code         integer response code (see below)

  address               matched address

  latitude              latitude of matched address

  longitude             longitude of matched address

  country               country of matched address (not available for all

  geocoder              source used to lookup address

  location              the original query string

  precision             scalar ranging from 0.0 to 1.0, denoting the
                        granularity of the result (undef if not known) 

The geocoder key will contain a string denoting which geocoder returned the results (eg, 'locatorize').

The response_code key will contain the response code. The possible values are:

  200   Success 
  210   Success (from cache)
  401   Unable to find location
  402   All geocoder limits reached (not yet implemented)

geocode will return undef if none of the geocoders that were tried produced a result that satisfied the filter and picker callbacks.


Returns a reference to a list of the geocoders that have been added to the Many instance


All cache objects used must support 'get', 'set' and 'remove' methods. Additionally they must correctly deal with references by serializing them in some way. We recommend using CHI for this purpose.

The input (location) string is expected to be in utf-8. Incorrectly encoded strings will make for unreliable geocoding results. All strings returned will be in utf-8. returned latitude and longitude co-ordinates will be in WGS84 format.

In the case of an error, this module will print a warning and then may call die().

Geo::Coder Interface

The Geo::Coder::* modules added to the geocoding source list must have a geocode method which takes a single location string as an argument.

Currently supported Geo::Coder::* modules are:




Ed Freyfogle delivered a talk about Remote Geocoding and the motivation for Geo::Coder::Many at the 2010 London Perl Workshop. Slides are available


Originally Dan Horgan (

This module is maintained by the team members of Lokku Ltd. (

Geo::Coder::Many was originally based on Geo::Coder::Multiple, which unfortunately seems to no longer be maintained, by Alistair Francis


Patches are encouraged! Please fork on github (ideally with tests) or send feedback to


A number of the feature ideas are taken directly from Tim Bunce's blog:

Needless to say, neither he nor anybody else should be held responsible for any deficiencies in the implementation!


If reducing your dependancy on geo information providers is your thing - and really, who doesn't enjoy breaking dependancy? - then you will probably like Mapstraction -


Copyright 2014 Lokku Ltd <>

Please check out all our open source work over at and our developer blog:


Parts taken from Geo::Coder::Multiple are copyright 2009 Alistair Francis <>

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.10 or, at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.