Geo::Region - Geographical regions and groupings using UN M.49 and CLDR data


This document describes Geo::Region v0.07, built with Unicode CLDR v27.


    use Geo::Region;
    use Geo::Region::Constant qw( :all );

    $amer = Geo::Region->new( AMERICAS );
    $emea = Geo::Region->new([ EUROPE, WESTERN_ASIA, AFRICA ]);
    $apac = Geo::Region->new([ ASIA, OCEANIA ], exclude => WESTERN_ASIA );

    if ( $amer->contains($country) ) {
        # country is in the Americas (US, MX, BR, etc.)
    elsif ( $emea->contains($country) ) {
        # country is in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (FR, SA, ZW, etc.)
    elsif ( $apac->contains($country) ) {
        # country is in Asia-Pacific (JP, TH, AU, etc.)


This class is used to create geographical regions and groupings of subregions and countries. Default regional groupings are provided using the Unicode CLDR v27 Territory Containment data, which is an extension of the United Nations UN M.49 (Rev.3) standard.


Regions and subregions are represented with UN M.49 region codes, such as 419 for Latin America and 035 for Southeast Asia. Either the official format using a three-digit 0-padded string like '035' or an integer like 35 may be used with this class. Note when using the 0-padded format that it must be quoted as a string so as not to be treated as on octal literal. The CLDR also adds two additional two-letter region codes which are supported: EU for the European Union and QO for Outlying Oceania. These region codes are all available as constants in Geo::Region::Constant.


Countries and territories are represented with ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes, such as JP for Japan and AQ for Antarctica, and are case insensitive. Unlike with region codes, the three-digit forms of country codes are not currently supported, nor are three-letter codes. The deprecated code UK for the United Kingdom is supported as an alias of the official code GB.


The new class method is used to construct a Geo::Region object along with the include argument and optional exclude argument.


Accepts either a single region code or an array reference of region or country codes to be included in the resulting custom region. When passed to the new constructor as the first or only argument, the value may be given without the include key.

    # countries in the European Union (EU)
    Geo::Region->new( include => EUROPEAN_UNION )
    Geo::Region->new( EUROPEAN_UNION )

    # countries in Asia (142) plus Russia (RU)
    Geo::Region->new( include => [ ASIA, RUSSIA ])
    Geo::Region->new([ ASIA, RUSSIA ])

Accepts values in the same format as include. This can be used to exclude countries or subregions from a region.

    # countries in Europe (150) which are not in the European Union (EU)
    Geo::Region->new( include => EUROPE, exclude => EUROPEAN_UNION )
    Geo::Region->new( EUROPE, exclude => EUROPEAN_UNION )



Given a country or region code, determines if the region represented by the Geo::Region instance contains it.

    if ( $region->contains($country) ) {

Given a region code, determines if all the countries and regions represented by the Geo::Region instance are within it.

    if ( $subregion->is_within($region) ) {

Returns a list of country codes of the countries within the region represented by the Geo::Region instance.

    for ( $region->countries ) {



Nick Patch <>

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