Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree - A simple interface to Gtk2's complex MVC tree widget


  use Glib qw(TRUE FALSE);
  use Gtk2 '-init';
  use Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree;

  my $stree = Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree->new (
                'Text Field'    => 'text',
                'Int Field'     => 'int',
                'Double Field'  => 'double',
                'Bool Field'    => 'bool',
                'Scalar Field'  => 'scalar',
  @{$stree->{data}} = (
                value => [ 'one', 1, 1.1],
                children =>
                                value => [ 'one-b', -1, 1.11,],


Simple::Tree is a simple interface to the powerful but complex Gtk2::TreeView and Gtk2::TreeStore combination, implementing using tied arrays to make thing simple and easy.


Gtk2 has a powerful, but complex MVC (Model, View, Controller) system used to implement list and tree widgets. Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree automates the complex setup work and allows you to treat the tree model as a more natural list of hash refs.

After creating a new Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree object with the desired columns you may set the tree data with a simple Perl array assignment. Rows may be added or deleted with all of the normal array operations. You can treat the data member of the Simple::Tree object as an array reference, and manipulate the tree data with perl's normal operators. Each element is a hash reference containing (optionally) value and children members. value holds the value of the node while children is a array reference of futher nodes. (recursive)

A mechanism has also been put into place allowing columns to be Perl scalars. The scalar is converted to text through Perl's normal mechanisms and then displayed in the tree. This same mechanism can be expanded by defining arbitrary new column types before calling the new function.


 +--- Gtk2::Object
      +--- Gtk2::Widget
           +--- Gtk2::TreeView
                +--- Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree


$stree = Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree->new ($cname, $ctype, ...)
    • $cname (string)

    • $ctype (string)

Creates a new Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree object with the specified columns. The parameter cname is the name of the column, what will be displayed in the tree headers if they are turned on. The parameter ctype is the type of the column, one of:

 text    normal text strings
 markup  pango markup strings
 int     integer values
 double  double-precision floating point values
 bool    boolean values, displayed as toggle-able checkboxes
 scalar  a perl scalar, displayed as a text string by default
 pixbuf  a Gtk2::Gdk::Pixbuf

or the name of a custom type you add with add_column_type. These should be provided in pairs according to the desired columns for your tree.

$stree = Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree->new_from_treeview ($treeview, $cname, $ctype, ...)
    • $treeview (Gtk2::TreeView)

    • $cname (string)

    • $ctype (string)

Like Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree->new(), but turns an existing Gtk2::TreeView into a Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree. This is intended mostly for use with stuff like Glade, where the widget is created for you. This will create and attach a new model and remove any existing columns from treeview. Returns treeview, re-blessed as a Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree.

$stree->set_data_array ($arrayref)
    • $arrayref (array reference)

Set the data in the tree to the array reference $arrayref. This is completely equivalent to @{$tree->{data}} = @{$arrayref} and is only here for convenience and for those programmers who don't like to type-cast and have static, set once data.

$stree->set_column_editable ($index, $editable)
    • $index (integer)

    • $editable (boolean)

boolean = $stree->get_column_editable ($index)
    • $index (integer)

This is a very simple interface to Gtk2::TreeView's editable text column cells. All columns which use the attr "text" (basically, any text or number column, see add_column_type) automatically have callbacks installed to update data when cells are edited. With set_column_editable, you can enable the in-place editing.

get_column_editable tells you if column index is currently editable.

Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree->add_column_type ($type_name, ...)
    $type_name (string)

Add a new column type to the list of possible types. Initially six column types are defined, text, int, double, bool, scalar, and pixbuf. The bool column type uses a toggle cell renderer, the pixbuf uses a pixbuf cell renderer, and the rest use text cell renderers. In the process of adding a new column type you may use any cell renderer you wish.

The first parameter is the column type name, the list of six are examples. There are no restrictions on the names and you may even overwrite the existing ones should you choose to do so. The remaining parameters are the type definition consisting of key value pairs. There are three required: type, renderer, and attr. The type key determines what actual datatype will be stored in the underlying model representation; this is a package name, e.g. Glib::String, Glib::Int, Glib::Boolean, but in general if you want an arbitrary Perl data structure you will want to use 'Glib::Scalar'. The renderer key should hold the class name of the cell renderer to create for this column type; this may be any of Gtk2::CellRendererText, Gtk2::CellRendererToggle, Gtk2::CellRendererPixbuf, or some other, possibly custom, cell renderer class. The attr key is magical; it may be either a string, in which case it specifies the attribute which will be set from the specified column (e.g. 'text' for a text renderer, 'active' for a toggle renderer, etc), or it may be a reference to a subroutine which will be called each time the renderer needs to draw the data.

This function, described as a GtkTreeCellDataFunc in the API reference, will receive 5 parameters: $treecol, $cell, $model, $iter, $col_num (when SimpleList hooks up the function, it sets the column number to be passed as the user data). The data value for the particular cell in question is available via $model->get ($iter, $col_num); you can then do whatever it is you have to do to render the cell the way you want. Here are some examples:

  # just displays the value in a scalar as 
  # Perl would convert it to a string
  Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree->add_column_type( 'a_scalar', 
          type     => 'Glib::Scalar',
          renderer => 'Gtk2::CellRendererText',
          attr     => sub {
               my ($treecol, $cell, $model, $iter, $col_num) = @_;
               my $info = $model->get ($iter, $col_num);
               $cell->set (text => $info);

  # sums up the values in an array ref and displays 
  # that in a text renderer
  Gtk2::Ex::Simple::Tree->add_column_type( 'sum_of_array', 
          type     => 'Glib::Scalar',
          renderer => 'Gtk2::CellRendererText',
          attr     => sub {
               my ($treecol, $cell, $model, $iter, $col_num) = @_;
               my $sum = 0;
               my $info = $model->get ($iter, $col_num);
               foreach (@$info)
                   $sum += $_;
               $cell->set (text => $sum);


Examples only, possibilities are too numerous to list here (see examples.)

  # first level assignment
  $stree->{data}[3]{value}[1] = 6;

  # second level assignment
  $stree->{data}[3]{children}[1]{value}[1] = 12;

  # first level store
  @{$stree->{data}[1]{value}} = ( 'store', -1, -1.1, 1, 'store', );

  # second level store
  @{$stree->{data}[1]{children}[0]{value}} = ( 'store', -2, -2.1, 0, 'store', );

  # first level push
  push @{$tdata}, { value => ['push', 1, 1.1, 1, 'push',], };

  # second level push
  push @{$stree->{data}[4]{children}}, { value => ['push-b', 2, 2.2, 0, 'push-b',], };


Perl(1), Glib(3pm), Gtk2(3pm), Gtk2::TreeView(3pm), Gtk2::TreeModel(3pm), Gtk2::TreeStore(3pm).


 muppet <scott at asofyet dot org>
 Ross McFarland <rwmcfa1 at neces dot com>


Copyright 2004 by the Gtk2-Perl team.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Library General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA.