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1 non-PAUSE user(s).

Andrew Main (Zefram)

NAME

Hash::SharedMem - efficient shared mutable hash

SYNOPSIS

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(shash_referential_handle);

        if(shash_referential_handle) { ...

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(is_shash check_shash);

        if(is_shash($arg)) { ...
        check_shash($arg);

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(shash_open);

        $shash = shash_open($filename, "rwc");

        use Hash::SharedMem
                qw(shash_is_readable shash_is_writable shash_mode);

        if(shash_is_readable($shash)) { ...
        if(shash_is_writable($shash)) { ...
        $mode = shash_mode($shash);

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(
                shash_exists shash_length shash_get
                shash_set shash_gset shash_cset
        );

        if(shash_exists($shash, $key)) { ...
        $length = shash_length($shash, $key);
        $value = shash_get($shash, $key);
        shash_set($shash, $key, $newvalue);
        $oldvalue = shash_gset($shash, $key, $newvalue);
        if(shash_cset($shash, $key, $chkvalue, $newvalue)) { ...

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(
                shash_occupied shash_count shash_size
                shash_key_min shash_key_max
                shash_key_ge shash_key_gt shash_key_le shash_key_lt
                shash_keys_array shash_keys_hash
                shash_group_get_hash
        );

        if(shash_occupied($shash)) { ...
        $count = shash_count($shash);
        $size = shash_size($shash);
        $key = shash_key_min($shash);
        $key = shash_key_max($shash);
        $key = shash_key_ge($shash, $key);
        $key = shash_key_gt($shash, $key);
        $key = shash_key_le($shash, $key);
        $key = shash_key_lt($shash, $key);
        $keys = shash_keys_array($shash);
        $keys = shash_keys_hash($shash);
        $group = shash_group_get_hash($shash);

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(shash_snapshot shash_is_snapshot);

        $snap_shash = shash_snapshot($shash);
        if(shash_is_snapshot($shash)) { ...

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(shash_idle shash_tidy);

        shash_idle($shash);
        shash_tidy($shash);

        use Hash::SharedMem qw(
                shash_tally_get shash_tally_zero shash_tally_gzero
        );

        $tally = shash_tally_get($shash);
        shash_tally_zero($shash);
        $tally = shash_tally_gzero($shash);

DESCRIPTION

This module provides a facility for efficiently sharing mutable data between processes on one host. Data is organised as a key/value store, resembling a Perl hash. The keys and values are restricted to octet (Latin-1) strings. Structured objects may be stored by serialising them using a mechanism such as Sereal.

The data is represented in files that are mapped into each process's memory space, which for interprocess communication amounts to the processes sharing memory. Processes are never blocked waiting for each other. The use of files means that there is some persistence, with the data continuing to exist when there are no processes with it mapped.

The data structure is optimised for the case where all the data fits into RAM. This happens either via buffering of a disk-based filesystem, or as the normal operation of a memory-backed filesystem, in either case as long as there isn't much swapping activity. If RAM isn't large enough, such that the data has to reside mainly on disk and parts of it have to be frequently reread from disk, speed will seriously suffer. The data structure exhibits poor locality of reference, and is not designed to play nicely with filesystem block sizes.

Consistency and synchronisation

A shared hash is held in regular files, grouped in a directory. At all times, the OS-visible state of the files provides a consistent view of the hash's content, from which read and write operations can proceed. It is no problem for a process using the shared hash to crash; other processes, running concurrently or later, will be unimpeded in using the shared hash.

It is mainly intended that the shared hash should be held on a memory-backed filesystem, and will therefore only last as long as the machine stays up. However, it can use any filesystem that supports mmap(2), including conventional disk filesystems such as ext2. In this case, as long as the OS shuts down cleanly (synching all file writes to the underlying disk), a consistent state of the shared hash will persist between boots, and usage of the shared hash can continue after the OS boots again. Note that only the OS is required to shut down cleanly; it still doesn't matter if user processes crash.

Because the OS is likely to reorder file writes when writing them to disk, the instantaneous state of the shared hash's files on disk is generally not guaranteed to be consistent. So if the OS crashes, upon reboot the files are liable to be in an inconsistent state (corrupted).

Maintaining consistency across an OS crash is a feature likely to be added to this module in the future. Durability of writes, for which that is a prerequisite, is another likely future addition.

File permissions

To read normally from a shared hash requires read and search (execute) permission on the shared hash directory and read permission on all the regular files in the directory. To write normally requires read, write, and search permissions on the directory and read and write permissions on all the regular files. For security purposes, some information about shared hash content can be gleaned by anyone who has read or search permission on the directory, and content can be modified by anyone who has search permission on the directory and write permission on either the directory or any of the regular files.

The file permission bits on a shared hash are determined by the circumstances in which it was created, specifically by the umask in effect at the point of creation. As shared hash creation is unavoidably non-atomic, competing creation attempts can cause trouble, and the resulting permissions are only guaranteed if all competing attempts at creation use the same umask. After the shared hash is fully created, subsequently opening it with the create flag set doesn't affect permissions.

The directory gets permissions rwxrwxrwx modified by the creation umask, and the regular files in it get permissions rw-rw-rw- modified by the creation umask. All the regular files that contain any part of the shared hash content will get the same permission bits. This includes files created long after initial creation of the shared hash, which are created as part of shared hash write operations; the umask in effect at the point of those operations is insignificant.

File ownership and group assignment are not so controlled. An attempt is made to give all files the same group assignment and ownership, determined by the creation of the shared hash, but the ability to do so is limited by OS semantics. Typically, users other than the superuser cannot affect ownership, and can only assign files to groups of which they are members. Also, as with permission bits, competing creation attempts can make ownerships and group assignments inconsistent, even if they are generally controllable.

Where they can't be freely set, each regular file gets whatever ownership and group assignment arise naturally from the circumstances in which it was created. If multiple users write to a single shared hash, it is to be expected that the constituent files will end up having different owners. It is up to the user to ensure that the varying ownerships combined with the consistent permission bits yield compatible permissions for all intended users of the shared hash. Group-based permissions should work provided that all writers are members of the relevant group.

Filesystem referential integrity

If the system calls openat(2) et al are supported by the kernel and the C library, then an open shared hash handle contains an OS-supported first-class reference to the shared hash to which it refers. (Specifically, it has a file descriptor referring to the shared hash directory.) In this situation, the reference remains valid regardless of filename changes. The shared hash can be renamed or moved arbitrarily, within the filesystem, or the process can change its current directory or root directory, and the handle remains valid.

If these modern system calls are not available, then an open shared hash handle cannot contain a first-class reference to the shared hash directory. Instead it must repeatedly refer to the directory by name. The name supplied to "shash_open" is resolved to an absolute pathname, so the handle will continue to work if the process changes its current directory. But any renaming of the shared hash, or the process changing its root directory, will cause the handle to fail at the next operation that requires the use of filenames. (This is unlikely to be the very next operation after the pathname becomes invalid.) An attempt is made to ensure that the stored pathname is still correct each time it is used, but there is unavoidably a race condition, whereby some very unluckily timed renaming could cause an operation to be applied to the wrong directory.

The means by which shared hash handles reference their directories is indicated by the constant "shash_referential_handle".

When a shared hash is being opened, if it already exists then the name passed to "shash_open" is resolved just once to determine to what shared hash it refers. If the modern system calls are supported, this yields perfectly clean name resolution semantics. However, if a shared hash does not already exist, its creation cannot currently be so perfectly clean. The name passed to "shash_open" must be resolved at least twice, once to create the shared hash directory and once to acquire a reference to it (of whichever type). There is unavoidably a race condition here.

File operations

Because a shared hash is encapsulated in a directory, rather than being a single non-directory file, the ability to perform file operations on it is limited. Although it can be renamed or moved, under POSIX semantics such a rename can't atomically replace any file other than an empty directory. In particular, it can't atomically replace another shared hash. It also can't be hard-linked to have multiple names. (However, a major use case for link(2), non-overwriting renaming, can be achieved through rename(2) due to the latter's limitations for directories.) Finally, it can't be unlinked. (Linking and unlinking directories are possible for root on some systems, but cause undesirable filesystem irregularities.)

A shared hash can be disposed of by applying rm -r to its directory. This is not equivalent to unlink(2) (rm) on a regular file, because it not only removes the object's name but also disrupts its internal structure. If a process has an open handle referring to the shared hash at the time of rm -r, the use of the shared hash through that handle is likely to fail, although probably not immediately. If a process is writing to the shared hash at the time of rm -r, there is a race condition that could prevent the removal from completing. rm -r should therefore only be applied after all processes have finished using the shared hash.

A shared hash can be copied by means of cp -r (not mere cp), tar, or similar means. It is safe to do this while processes have open handles referring to the shared hash, and while processes are reading from it. However, as with most forms of database file, if a process is writing to the shared hash then the file copier is liable to pick up an inconsistent (corrupted) view of the shared hash. Copying should therefore only be attempted at a time when no write operations are being performed. It is acceptable for processes to have the shared hash open in write mode, provided that they do not actually perform any write operation while the copy is being made.

A file-level copying operation applied to a shared hash is likely to result in a copy that occupies much more filesystem space than the original. This occurs because most of the time a large part of the main data file is a filesystem hole, not occupying any actual storage. Some copying mechanisms (such as GNU cp) can recognise this and avoid allocating unnecessary storage for the copy, but others (such as GNU tar) will blindly fill space with a lot of zeroes. If the copy is subsequently used in shared hash write operations, ultimately it will recover from this inefficient block allocation.

Forking

If a process is duplicated by fork(2) while it holds a shared hash handle, the handle is duplicated with the rest of the process, so both resulting processes have handles referring to the same underlying shared hash. Provided that the duplication did not happen during a shared hash operation, both processes' handles will subsequently work normally, and can be used independently.

Things are more difficult if a fork(2) happens while a shared hash operation is in progress. This should not normally be possible to achieve from Perl code: arbitrary Perl code should not run during the critical part of an operation. If a shared hash operator is given a tied variable as a parameter, the magic method call for access to that parameter occurs before the critical part, so a fork in that method is safe. If a signal is received during a shared hash operation, any signal handler installed in %SIG will be deferred until the operation is complete, so a fork in such a signal handler is also safe. A problematic fork(2) should only be achievable by XS code.

If a fork(2) does happen during the critical part of a shared hash operation, the two resulting handles are liable to interfere if the operation is resumed in both processes. In this case, it is safe for at most one process (which may be either of them) to resume the operation. The other process must neither resume the operation in progress nor make any further use of the handle. It is safe for the non-resuming process to chain a new program with execve(2), to terminate with _exit(2), or generally to make use of the C library before doing either of those. Attempting to run Perl code would be unwise.

On platforms lacking a native fork(2), the Perl function fork actually creates a Perl thread. In that case the behaviour should be similar to that seen with a real fork(2), as described in the next section.

Threads

This module can be used in multiple Perl threads simultaneously. The module may be loaded by multiple threads separately, or from Perl 5.8.9 onwards may be loaded by a thread that spawns new threads. (Prior to Perl 5.8.9, limitations of the threading system mean that module data can't be correctly cloned upon thread spawning. Any but the most trivial cases of thread spawning with this module loaded will crash the interpreter. The rest of this section only applies to Perls that fully support cloning.)

If a thread is spawned while the parent thread has an open shared hash handle, the handle is duplicated, so that both resulting threads have handles referring to the same underlying shared hash. Provided that the duplication did not happen during a shared hash operation, both threads' handles will subsequently work normally, and can be used independently.

Tainting

If taint mode is enabled, taintedness is relevant to some operations on shared hashes. Shared hash handles mostly behave like regular file handles for tainting purposes. Where the following description says that a result is "not tainted", that means it does not get the taint flag set merely by virtue of the operation performed; it may still be marked as tainted if other tainted data is part of the same expression, due to Perl's conservative taint tracking.

The classification functions are happy to operate on tainted arguments. Their results are not tainted.

When opening a shared hash, if the shared hash filename or the mode string is tainted then it is not permitted to open for writing or with the possibility of creating. It is permitted to open non-creatingly for reading regardless of taint status. Of course, any kind of opening is permitted in an untainted expression.

A shared hash handle per se is never tainted.

The results of the mode checking functions are not tainted.

The content of a shared hash is always treated as tainted. It is permitted to write tainted data to a shared hash. The data operations all accept tainted arguments. When reading from a shared hash, the keys existing in the hash and the values referenced by them are always tainted, but an absent item is treated as clean. So where a data operation returns a key or value from the shared hash, the result will be tainted if it is a string, but undef representing an absent item will not be tainted. The count of keys existing in the hash, size of the hash, and the length of an existing value are also tainted, being derived from tainted content. However, the truth values returned by some operations are not tainted, even if they are derived entirely from tainted data.

CONSTANTS

shash_referential_handle

Truth value indicating whether each shared hash handle contains a first-class reference to the shared hash to which it refers. See "Filesystem referential integrity" above for discussion of the significance of this.

FUNCTIONS

The SHASH parameter that most of these functions take must be a handle referring to a shared hash object.

Classification

is_shash(ARG)

Returns a truth value indicating whether ARG is a handle referring to a shared hash object.

check_shash(ARG)

Checks whether ARG is a handle referring to a shared hash object. Returns normally if it is, or dies if it is not.

Opening

shash_open(FILENAME, MODE)

Opens and returns a handle referring to a shared hash object, or dies if the shared hash can't be opened as specified. FILENAME must refer to the directory that encapsulates the shared hash.

If the filename string contains non-ASCII characters, then the filename actually used consists of the octets of the internal encoding of the string, which does not necessarily match the ostensible characters of the string. This gives inconsistent behaviour for the same character sequence represented in the two different ways that Perl uses internally. This is consistent with the treatment of filenames in Perl's built-in operators such as open; see "When Unicode Does Not Happen" in perlunicode. This may change in future versions of Perl (beyond 5.20).

MODE is a string controlling how the shared hash will be used. It can contain these characters:

r

The shared hash is to be readable. If this is not specified then read operations through the handle will be denied. Beware that at the system-call level the files are necessarily opened readably. Thus read permission on the files is required even if one will only be writing.

w

The shared hash is to be writable. If this is not specified then write operations through the handle will be denied. This flag also determines in what mode the files are opened at the system-call level, so write permission on the files operates as expected.

c

The shared hash will be created if it does not already exist. The permission bits on the shared hash will be controlled by the creating process's umask. If this flag is not specified then the shared hash must already exist.

e

The shared hash must not already exist. If this is not specified and the shared hash already exists then it will be opened normally. This flag is meant to be used with c; it means that a successful open implies that this process, rather than any other, is the one that created the shared hash.

When a shared hash is created, some of its constituent files will be opened in read/write mode even if read-only mode was requested. Shared hash creation is not an atomic process, so if a creation attempt is interrupted it may leave a half-created shared hash behind. This does not prevent a subsequent creation attempt on the same shared hash from succeeding: creation will continue from whatever stage it had reached. Likewise, multiple simultaneous creation attempts may each do part of the job. This can result in ownerships and permissions being inconsistent; see "File permissions" above.

Regardless of the combination of efforts leading to the creation of a shared hash, completion of the process is atomic. Non-creating open attempts will either report that there is no shared hash or open the created shared hash. Exactly one creation attempt will be judged to have created the shared hash, and this is detectable through the e flag.

Mode checking

shash_is_readable(SHASH)

Returns a truth value indicating whether the shared hash can be read from through this handle.

shash_is_writable(SHASH)

Returns a truth value indicating whether the shared hash can be written to through this handle.

shash_mode(SHASH)

Returns a string in which characters indicate the mode of this handle. It matches the form of the MODE parameter to "shash_open", but mode flags that are only relevant during the opening process (c and e) are not included. The returned string can therefore contain these characters:

r

The shared hash can be read from through this handle.

w

The shared hash can be written to through this handle.

Single-key data operations

For all of these functions, the key of interest (KEY parameter) can be any octet (Latin-1) string, and values (VALUE parameters and some return values) can be any octet string or undef. The undef value represents the absence of a key from the hash; there is no present-but-undefined state. Strings containing non-octets (Unicode characters above U+FF) and items other than strings cannot be used as keys or values. If a dualvar (scalar with independent string and numeric values) is supplied, only its string value will be used.

shash_exists(SHASH, KEY)

Returns a truth value indicating whether the specified key currently references a defined value in the shared hash.

shash_getd(SHASH, KEY)

Deprecated alias for "shash_exists".

shash_length(SHASH, KEY)

Returns the length (in octets) of the value currently referenced by the specified key in the shared hash, or undef if the key is absent.

shash_get(SHASH, KEY)

Returns the value currently referenced by the specified key in the shared hash.

shash_set(SHASH, KEY, NEWVALUE)

Modifies the shared hash so that the specified key henceforth references the specified value.

shash_gset(SHASH, KEY, NEWVALUE)

Modifies the shared hash so that the specified key henceforth references the value NEWVALUE, and returns the value that the key previously referenced. This swap is performed atomically.

shash_cset(SHASH, KEY, CHKVALUE, NEWVALUE)

Examines the value currently referenced by the specified key in the shared hash. If it is identical to CHKVALUE, the function modifies the shared hash so that the specified key henceforth references the value NEWVALUE, and returns true. If the current value is not identical to CHKVALUE, the function leaves it unmodified and returns false. This conditional modification is performed atomically.

This function can be used as a core on which to build arbitrarily complex kinds of atomic operation (on a single key). For example, an atomic increment can be implemented as

        do {
                $ov = shash_get($shash, $key);
                $nv = $ov + 1;
        } until shash_cset($shash, $key, $ov, $nv);

Whole-hash data operations

shash_occupied(SHASH)

Returns a truth value indicating whether there are currently any items in the shared hash.

shash_count(SHASH)

Returns the number of items that are currently in the shared hash.

shash_size(SHASH)

Returns the approximate size (in octets) of the entire content of the shared hash. The size of a hash is not a well-defined quantity, so the return value of this function should be interpreted with care. It aims specifically to indicate how much space is required in a shared hash data file to represent this content. It is affected by details of the file format (which may differ between shared hashes on one system) and by accidents of how the content is laid out in a particular shared hash. Calling this function twice on identical content will not necessarily produce identical results. The details of the size estimation may also change in the future.

Although this function computes size specifically with respect to the file format used by this module, this function does not directly indicate the amount of space occupied by a shared hash. There is some non-content overhead, and, more importantly, the process by which content is modified requires space to store multiple versions of the content. It is normal for the amount of space actually occupied to fluctuate over the cycle of data file rewriting. If "shash_tidy" is being used appropriately, the space occupied can be expected to vary up to a little over five times the size of the nominal content, and if "shash_tidy" is not used then the normal maximum will be more than ten times the content size. Occasional spikes above these levels can be expected in any case, and fixed overheads make these multipliers inapplicable if the content is very small.

shash_key_min(SHASH)

Returns the lexicographically least of the keys that are currently in the shared hash, or undef if there are none.

shash_key_max(SHASH)

Returns the lexicographically greatest of the keys that are currently in the shared hash, or undef if there are none.

shash_key_ge(SHASH, KEY)

Returns the least of the keys currently in the shared hash that are lexicographically no less than the specified key, or undef if there are none.

shash_key_gt(SHASH, KEY)

Returns the least of the keys currently in the shared hash that are lexicographically greater than the specified key, or undef if there are none.

shash_key_le(SHASH, KEY)

Returns the greatest of the keys currently in the shared hash that are lexicographically no greater than the specified key, or undef if there are none.

shash_key_lt(SHASH, KEY)

Returns the greatest of the keys currently in the shared hash that are lexicographically less than the specified key, or undef if there are none.

shash_keys_array(SHASH)

Returns a reference to a plain array containing all the keys currently in the shared hash in lexicographical order. The array and the key scalars in it are unwritable.

shash_keys_hash(SHASH)

Returns a reference to a plain hash in which the keys are all the keys currently in the shared hash and all the values are undef. The value scalars are unwritable. Writability of the hash is not guaranteed: currently in practice it is writable, but this may change in the future.

shash_group_get_hash(SHASH)

Returns a reference to a plain hash representing the entire current content of the shared hash. The value scalars are unwritable. Writability of the hash is not guaranteed: currently in practice it is writable, but this may change in the future.

Snapshots

shash_snapshot(SHASH)

Returns a shared hash handle that encapsulates the current content of the shared hash. The entire state of the shared hash is captured atomically, and the returned handle can be used to perform arbitrarily many read operations on that state: it will never reflect later modifications to the shared hash. The snapshot handle cannot be used for writing.

shash_is_snapshot(SHASH)

Returns a truth value indicating whether this handle refers to a snapshot (as opposed to a live shared hash).

Maintenance

shash_idle(SHASH)

Puts the shared hash handle into a state where it occupies less resources, at the expense of making the next operation through the handle more expensive. This doesn't change the visible behaviour of the handle, and doesn't affect the state of the shared hash itself at all. The invisible operations performed by this function may vary between versions of this module.

This function should be called when the handle is going to be unused for a lengthy period. For example, if a long-running daemon uses a shared hash in brief bursts once an hour, it should idle its handle at the end of each burst of activity.

Currently the effect of this operation is to discard the handle's memory mapping of the shared hash data file. The next operation has to reestablish the mapping. The benefit of discarding the mapping is that periodically the data file has to be replaced with a new one, but the old data file continues to exist as long as some process has it mapped. A process that is actively using the shared hash will quickly notice that the data file has been replaced and will unmap the old one. A process with a handle that it's not using, however, could keep the old data file in existence, occupying storage, long after it has no further use. A handle that has been put into the idle state won't perpetuate the existence of an obsolete data file.

shash_tidy(SHASH)

Rearranges the storage of the shared hash if it seems useful to do so, to avoid tidying work having to be performed by other processes. This doesn't change the visible content of the shared hash, but the handle must be open for writing, and this counts as a write operation for purposes concerned with the state of the underlying files. The invisible operations performed by this function may vary between versions of this module.

This function should be called in circumstances where it is acceptable to incur some delay for this maintenance work to complete. For example, it could be called periodically by a cron job. Essentially, calling this function signals that this is a convenient time at which (and process in which) to perform maintenance.

If this maintenance work is not carried out by means of this function, then ultimately it will be performed anyway, but less predictably and possibly less conveniently. Eventually it will become necessary to perform maintenance in order to continue using the shared hash, at which point the next process that attempts to write to it will carry out the work and incur the cost. The shared hash will still work properly in that case, but the unlucky writer will experience a disproportionately large delay in the completion of its write operation. This could well be a problem if the shared hash is large.

Event counters

shash_tally_get(SHASH)

Returns a reference to a hash of counts of events that have occurred with this shared hash handle. These counts may be of interest for profiling and debugging purposes, but should not be relied upon for semantic purposes. The event types may vary between versions of this module. Few of the event types make sense in terms of the API supplied by this module: most of them are internal implementation details.

Events are counted separately for each handle. The events counted are associated specifically with the handle, rather than with the shared hash as a whole. Generally, an idle handle will accumulate no events, even if the shared hash to which it refers is active. The event counters start at zero when a handle is opened, and can be reset to zero by "shash_tally_zero" or "shash_tally_gzero".

In the returned hash, each key identifies a type of event, and the corresponding value is (unless wrapped) the number of times events of that type have occurred on the handle since the counters were last zeroed. Currently the event counters are held in fixed-size variables and can wrap, so if event counts might get as high as 2^64 then they can't be relied upon to be accurate. Wrapping will not occur at less than 2^64; in other respects, wrapping behaviour may change in the future.

The event types that are currently counted are:

string_read

Parse an octet string representation in a shared hash data file.

string_write

Write an octet string representation into a shared hash data file.

bnode_read

Parse a B-tree node representation in a shared hash data file.

bnode_write

Write a B-tree node representation into a shared hash data file.

key_compare

Compare two strings as shared hash keys.

root_change_attempt

Attempt to replace the root pointer in a shared hash data file. This may be done to change the content of the shared hash, or as part of the process of switching to a new data file.

root_change_success

Succeed in replacing the root pointer in a shared hash data file. An attempt will fail if another process changed the root pointer during the operation that required this process to change the root pointer.

file_change_attempt

Attempt to replace the data file in a shared hash. This is necessary from time to time as data files fill up.

file_change_success

Succeed in replacing the data file in a shared hash. An attempt will fail if another process replaced the data file while this process was initialising its new one.

data_read_op

Perform a high-level data operation that purely reads from the shared hash: "shash_exists", "shash_length", "shash_get", "shash_occupied", "shash_count", "shash_size", "shash_key_min", "shash_key_max", "shash_key_ge", "shash_key_gt", "shash_key_le", "shash_key_lt", "shash_keys_array", "shash_keys_hash", or "shash_group_get_hash".

data_write_op

Perform a high-level data operation that writes, or at least may write, to the shared hash: "shash_set", "shash_gset", or "shash_cset".

The value scalars in the returned hash are unwritable. Writability of the hash is not guaranteed: currently in practice it is writable, but this may change in the future.

shash_tally_zero(SHASH)

Zero the event counters that can be read by "shash_tally_get".

shash_tally_gzero(SHASH)

Zero the event counters that can be read by "shash_tally_get", and return the values the event counters previously had, in the same form as "shash_tally_get". This swap is performed atomically.

BUGS

As explained for "shash_open", creation of a shared hash is not atomic. This is an unavoidable consequence of the need for the shared hash to consist of multiple files in a directory. Multi-party creation can result in the files having different permission bits; to avoid this, all creators should use the same umask. Multiple users writing to a shared hash can result in the files having different ownerships, so the permission bits must be chosen to work appropriately with the chimeric ownership.

When calls to the functions supplied by this module are compiled down to custom ops (which is attempted for performance reasons), the ability to deparse the resulting code with B::Deparse is limited. Prior to Perl 5.13.7, deparsing will generate very incorrect code. From Perl 5.13.7 onwards, deparsing should normally work, but will break if another module defines a separate type of custom op that happens to have the same short name (though these ops do not clash in other respects).

SEE ALSO

Hash::SharedMem::Handle, Sereal

AUTHOR

Andrew Main (Zefram) <zefram@fysh.org>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2014, 2015 PhotoBox Ltd

Copyright (C) 2014, 2015 Andrew Main (Zefram) <zefram@fysh.org>

LICENSE

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.