NAME

Hash::Subset - Produce subset of a hash

VERSION

This document describes version 0.007 of Hash::Subset (from Perl distribution Hash-Subset), released on 2022-07-27.

SYNOPSIS

 use Hash::Subset qw(
     hash_subset
     hashref_subset
     hash_subset_without
     hashref_subset_without

     merge_hash_subset
     merge_overwrite_hash_subset
     merge_ignore_hash_subset
     merge_hash_subset_without
     merge_overwrite_hash_subset_without
     merge_ignore_hash_subset_without
 );

 # using keys specified in an array
 my %subset = hash_subset   ({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, ['b','c','d']); # => (b=>2, c=>3)
 my $subset = hashref_subset({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, ['b','c','d']); # => {b=>2, c=>3}

 # using keys specified in another hash
 my %subset = hash_subset   ({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, {b=>20, c=>30, d=>40}); # => (b=>2, c=>3)
 my $subset = hashref_subset({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, {b=>20, c=>30, d=>40}); # => {b=>2, c=>3}

 # filtering keys using a coderef
 my %subset = hash_subset   ({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, sub {$_[0] =~ /[bc]/}); # => (b=>2, c=>3)
 my $subset = hashref_subset({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, sub {$_[0] =~ /[bc]/}); # => {b=>2, c=>3}

 # multiple filters: array, hash, coderef
 my %subset = hash_subset   ({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3, d=>4}, {c=>1}, [qw/b/], sub {$_[0] =~ /[bcd]/}); # => (b=>2, c=>3, d=>4)
 my $subset = hashref_subset({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3, d=>4}, {c=>1}, [qw/b/], sub {$_[0] =~ /[bcd]/}); # => {b=>2, c=>3, d=>4}

 # excluding keys
 my %subset = hash_subset_without   ({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, ['b','c','d']); # => (a=>1)
 my $subset = hashref_subset_without({a=>1, b=>2, c=>3}, ['b','c','d']); # => {a=>1}

A use case is when you use hash arguments:

 sub func1 {
     my %args = @_; # known arguments: foo, bar, baz
     ...
 }

 sub func2 {
     my %args = @_; # known arguments: all func1 arguments as well as qux, quux

     # call func1 with all arguments passed to us
     my $res = func1(hash_subset(\%args, [qw/foo bar baz/]));

     # postprocess result
     ...
 }

If you use Rinci metadata in your code, this will come in handy, for example:

 my %common_args = (
     foo => {...},
     bar => {...},
     baz => {...},
 );

 $SPEC{func1} = {
    v => 1.1,
    args => {
        %common_args,
    },
 };
 sub func1 {
     my %args = @_;
     ...
 }

 $SPEC{func2} = {
    v => 1.1,
    args => {
        %common_args,
        # func2 supports all func1 arguments plus a couple of others
        qux  => { ... },
        quux => { ... },
    },
 };
 sub func2 {
     my %args = @_;

     # call func1 with all arguments passed to us
     my $res = func1(hash_subset(\%args, $SPEC{func1}{args}));

     # postprocess result
     ...
 }

Merging subset to another hash:

 my %target = (a=>1, b=>2);
 merge_hash_subset(\%target, {foo=>1, bar=>2, baz=>3}, qr/ba/); # %target becomes (a=>1, b=>2, bar=>2, baz=>3)
 merge_hash_subset_without(\%target, {foo=>1, bar=>2, baz=>3}, qr/ba/); # %target becomes (a=>1, b=>2, foo=>1)

DESCRIPTION

Keywords: hash arguments, hash picking, hash grep, hash filtering, hash merging

FUNCTIONS

None exported by default.

hash_subset

Usage:

 my %subset  = hash_subset   (\%hash, @keys_srcs);
 my $subset  = hashref_subset(\%hash, @keys_srcs);

Where each @keys_src element can either be an arrayref, a hashref, a Regexp object, or a coderef. Coderef will be called with args($key, $value) and return true when key should be included.

Produce subset of %hash, returning the subset hash (or hashref, in the case of hashref_subset function).

Perl lets you produce a hash subset using the hash slice notation:

 my %subset = %hash{"b","c","d"};

The difference with hash_subset is: 1) hash slice is only available since perl 5.20 (in previous versions, only array slice is available); 2) when the key does not exist in the array, perl will create it for you with undef as the value:

 my %hash   = (a=>1, b=>2, c=>3);
 my %subset = %hash{"b","c","d"}; # => (b=>2, c=>3, d=>undef)

So basically hash_subset is equivalent to:

 my %subset = %hash{grep {exists $hash{$_}} "b","c","d"}; # => (b=>2, c=>3)

and available for perl earlier than 5.20. In addition to that, hash_subset() accepts arrayref & Regexp object as well as hashref/coderef, and several of them.

hashref_subset

See "hash_subset".

hash_subset_without

Like "hash_subset", but reverses the logic: will create subset that only includes keys not in the specified arrays/hashes/Regexps/coderefs.

hashref_subset_without

See "hash_subset_without".

merge_hash_subset

Usage:

  merge_hash_subset          (\%h1, \%h2, @keys_src);
  merge_overwrite_hash_subset(\%h1, \%h2, @keys_src);
  merge_ignore_hash_subset   (\%h1, \%h2, @keys_src);

merge_hash_subset selects a subset of hash %h2 (using @keys_src, just like in "hash_subset") and merge the subset to hash %h1. This is basically a convenience shortcut for:

 my %subset = hash_subset(\%h2, @keys_src);
 for my $key (keys %subset) {
     die "Duplicate key when merging subset: $key" if exists $h1{$key];
     $h1{$key} = $subset{$key};
 }

while merge_overwrite_hash_subset does something like this:

 my %subset = hash_subset(\%h2, @keys_src);
 for my $key (keys %subset) {
     $h1{$key} = $subset{$key};
 }

and merge_ignore_hash_subset does something like this:

 my %subset = hash_subset(\%h2, @keys_src);
 for my $key (keys %subset) {
     next if exists $h1{$key};
     $h1{$key} = $subset{$key};
 }

merge_overwrite_hash_subset

See "merge_hash_subset".

merge_ignore_hash_subset

See "merge_hash_subset".

merge_hash_subset_without

Usage:

  merge_hash_subset_without          (\%h1, \%h2, @keys_src);
  merge_overwrite_hash_subset_without(\%h1, \%h2, @keys_src);
  merge_ignore_hash_subset_without   (\%h1, \%h2, @keys_src);

These are like "merge_hash_subset", "merge_overwrite_hash_subset", and "merge_ignore_hash_subset" except these routines will merge subset from %h2 that do not contain keys specified by @keys_src.

merge_overwrite_hash_subset_without

See "merge_hash_subset_without".

merge_ignore_hash_subset_without

See "merge_hash_subset_without".

HOMEPAGE

Please visit the project's homepage at https://metacpan.org/release/Hash-Subset.

SOURCE

Source repository is at https://github.com/perlancar/perl-Hash-Subset.

SEE ALSO

Hash::MoreUtils provides various ways to create hash subset ("slice") through its slice_* functions. It does not provide way to specify subset keys via the keys of %another_hash, but that can be done trivially using keys %another_hash. Hash::Subset is currently more lightweight than Hash::MoreUtils.

Tie::Subset::Hash to create a tied version of a hash subset (a "view" of a subset of a hash).

Hash::Util::Pick also allows you to create a hash subset by specifying the wanted keys in a list or via filtering using a coderef. This XS module should perhaps be preferred over Hash::Subset for its performance, but there are some cases where you cannot use XS modules.

See some benchmarks in Bencher::Scenarios::HashPicking.

AUTHOR

perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>

CONTRIBUTING

To contribute, you can send patches by email/via RT, or send pull requests on GitHub.

Most of the time, you don't need to build the distribution yourself. You can simply modify the code, then test via:

 % prove -l

If you want to build the distribution (e.g. to try to install it locally on your system), you can install Dist::Zilla, Dist::Zilla::PluginBundle::Author::PERLANCAR, and sometimes one or two other Dist::Zilla plugin and/or Pod::Weaver::Plugin. Any additional steps required beyond that are considered a bug and can be reported to me.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2022, 2020, 2019 by perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Hash-Subset

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.