Kevin Cody-Little
and 1 contributors

NAME

IPC::Shm - Easily store variables in SysV shared memory.

SYNOPSIS

 use IPC::Shm;
 our %variable : shm;

Then, just use it like any other variable.

EXPLANATION

The "shm" variable attribute confers two properties to a package variable:

1. The variable will persist beyond the program's end.
2. All simultaneous processes will see the same value.

Scalars, hashes, and arrays are supported. Filehandles and code are not.

Storing references is legal; however, the target of the reference will itself be moved into its own anonymous shared memory segment with contents preserved. That is to say, the original variable the reference points at gets tied, and its contents restored. Thus, any other Perlish reference copying will behave as expected.

Blessed references might work but are entirely untested.

LEXICALS

 use IPC::Shm;
 my $lexical1 : shm;
 my $lexical2 : shm = 'foo';

Lexical variables are supported, and have slightly different semantics. The properties conferred by the "shm" attribute are:

1. The variable will only persist beyond the program's end if another shared variable contains a reference to it.
2. The parent and all children will see the same value. Unrelated programs only have access if a reference is stored via some shared package variable.
3. They will automatically disappear from the system when all copies have gone out of scope and no reference exists in another shared variable.

LOCKING

If you need the state of the variable to remain unchanged between two or more operations, the calling program should assert a lock thus:

 my $obj = tied %variable;
 my $locked = $obj->writelock; # or readlock, if no changes will be made

 $variable{foo} = "bar";
 $variable{bar} = $variable{foo};

 $obj->unlock if $locked;      # don't forget

If a lock is already held by another process, newer locks will block and wait. However, if the same process is asking for the same lock, it will return zero. This allows pseudo nested locking.

To summarize the locking behavior, reads are prohibited while a writelock is in effect (and only one writelock may be held), and writes are prohibited while one or more readlocks are in effect.

If the process exits, any held locks are released, assuming the exit was sufficiently clean to allow destructors to run. Something more severe, such as a segmentation fault, would leave stale locks.

CACHING

To avoid excessive serialization and deserialization, the underlying IPC::Shm::Simple class provides a serial number that automatically increments during writes. Perl uses this to indicate when a change has been made by another process, and otherwise the in-process cached copy is trusted.

ATOMICITY

Perl will read and write the entire variable at once, whether it be a scalar, array, or hash. At the lowest level, a C implementation just sees the serialized string. Updates can be considered atomic as reads are locked out during writes, and vice versa, using a SysV semaphore array.

PERMISSIONS

SysV shared memory segments have only a user ownership. The group bits of its UNIX permissions refer to the owner's primary group.

Currently, all users see the same shared memory namespace. This may change in future versions.

See below for how to influence the permission bits.

CLEANING UP

If you wish to remove all IPC::Shm segments from the system, do this:

 use IPC::Shm;
 IPC::Shm->cleanup;

Accessing shared variables is not valid after calling this, so you should probably only call it from an END block.

IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS

One SysV shared memory segment and one SysV semaphore array for locking are created for each Perl variable, named or anonymous.

Only one segment, containing %IPC::Shm::NAMEVARS, uses an IPCKEY. It is currently defaulted to 0xdeadbeef, and will likely change in the future. One possible path would be to relate the IPCKEY to the effective userid.

By default, segments are created with 4096 bytes and 0660 permissions. To change that, you'd need to change the default before the variables are created:

 sub BEGIN {
        IPC::Shm::Tied->Size( 8192 );
        IPC::Shm::Tied->Mode( 0600 );
 }

Storable freeze() and thaw() are used for serialization and deserialization, respectively.

Variables are mapped using a hash table. When the next process starts, it attaches to that first hash table using a four byte IPCKEY. All other variables are mentioned directly or indirectly in that table, allowing transparent reconnection.

CURRENT STATUS

This is alpha code. There are no doubt many bugs.

In particular, the multiple simultaneous process use case has not been tested.

Also, the garbage collection is a bit tenative, and removing named segments causes them to be cleared immediately rather than during global destruction.

AUTHOR

Kevin Cody-Little <kcody@cpan.org>