- NAME
- VERSION
- boxfunc2.c
- FUNCTIONS
- boxRotateOrth
- boxTransform
- boxTransformOrdered
- boxaBinSort
- boxaEncapsulateAligned
- boxaExtractAsNuma
- boxaExtractAsPta
- boxaGetMedian
- boxaGetRankSize
- boxaRotateOrth
- boxaSort
- boxaSort2d
- boxaSort2dByIndex
- boxaSortByIndex
- boxaTransform
- boxaTransformOrdered
- boxaaAlignBox
- boxaaFlattenAligned
- boxaaFlattenToBoxa
- boxaaGetExtent

- AUTHOR
- COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

# NAME

Image::Leptonica::Func::boxfunc2

# VERSION

version 0.04

`boxfunc2.c`

```
boxfunc2.c
Boxa/Box transform (shift, scale) and orthogonal rotation
BOXA *boxaTransform()
BOX *boxTransform()
BOXA *boxaTransformOrdered()
BOX *boxTransformOrdered()
BOXA *boxaRotateOrth()
BOX *boxRotateOrth()
Boxa sort
BOXA *boxaSort()
BOXA *boxaBinSort()
BOXA *boxaSortByIndex()
BOXAA *boxaSort2d()
BOXAA *boxaSort2dByIndex()
Boxa statistics
BOX *boxaGetRankSize()
BOX *boxaGetMedian()
Boxa array extraction
l_int32 boxaExtractAsNuma()
l_int32 boxaExtractAsPta()
Other Boxaa functions
l_int32 boxaaGetExtent()
BOXA *boxaaFlattenToBoxa()
BOXA *boxaaFlattenAligned()
BOXAA *boxaEncapsulateAligned()
l_int32 boxaaAlignBox()
```

# FUNCTIONS

## boxRotateOrth

BOX * boxRotateOrth ( BOX *box, l_int32 w, l_int32 h, l_int32 rotation )

```
boxRotateOrth()
Input: box
w, h (of image in which the box is embedded)
rotation (0 = noop, 1 = 90 deg, 2 = 180 deg, 3 = 270 deg;
all rotations are clockwise)
Return: boxd, or null on error
Notes:
(1) Rotate the image with the embedded box by the specified amount.
(2) After rotation, the rotated box is always measured with
respect to the UL corner of the image.
```

## boxTransform

BOX * boxTransform ( BOX *box, l_int32 shiftx, l_int32 shifty, l_float32 scalex, l_float32 scaley )

```
boxTransform()
Input: box
shiftx, shifty
scalex, scaley
Return: boxd, or null on error
Notes:
(1) This is a very simple function that first shifts, then scales.
(2) If the box is invalid, a new invalid box is returned.
```

## boxTransformOrdered

BOX * boxTransformOrdered ( BOX *boxs, l_int32 shiftx, l_int32 shifty, l_float32 scalex, l_float32 scaley, l_int32 xcen, l_int32 ycen, l_float32 angle, l_int32 order )

```
boxTransformOrdered()
Input: boxs
shiftx, shifty
scalex, scaley
xcen, ycen (center of rotation)
angle (in radians; clockwise is positive)
order (one of 6 combinations: L_TR_SC_RO, ...)
Return: boxd, or null on error
Notes:
(1) This allows a sequence of linear transforms, composed of
shift, scaling and rotation, where the order of the
transforms is specified.
(2) The rotation is taken about a point specified by (xcen, ycen).
Let the components of the vector from the center of rotation
to the box center be (xdif, ydif):
xdif = (bx + 0.5 * bw) - xcen
ydif = (by + 0.5 * bh) - ycen
Then the box center after rotation has new components:
bxcen = xcen + xdif * cosa + ydif * sina
bycen = ycen + ydif * cosa - xdif * sina
where cosa and sina are the cos and sin of the angle,
and the enclosing box for the rotated box has size:
rw = |bw * cosa| + |bh * sina|
rh = |bh * cosa| + |bw * sina|
where bw and bh are the unrotated width and height.
Then the box UL corner (rx, ry) is
rx = bxcen - 0.5 * rw
ry = bycen - 0.5 * rh
(3) The center of rotation specified by args @xcen and @ycen
is the point BEFORE any translation or scaling. If the
rotation is not the first operation, this function finds
the actual center at the time of rotation. It does this
by making the following assumptions:
(1) Any scaling is with respect to the UL corner, so
that the center location scales accordingly.
(2) A translation does not affect the center of
the image; it just moves the boxes.
We always use assumption (1). However, assumption (2)
will be incorrect if the apparent translation is due
to a clipping operation that, in effect, moves the
origin of the image. In that case, you should NOT use
these simple functions. Instead, use the functions
in affinecompose.c, where the rotation center can be
computed from the actual clipping due to translation
of the image origin.
```

## boxaBinSort

BOXA * boxaBinSort ( BOXA *boxas, l_int32 sorttype, l_int32 sortorder, NUMA **pnaindex )

```
boxaBinSort()
Input: boxa
sorttype (L_SORT_BY_X, L_SORT_BY_Y, L_SORT_BY_WIDTH,
L_SORT_BY_HEIGHT, L_SORT_BY_PERIMETER)
sortorder (L_SORT_INCREASING, L_SORT_DECREASING)
&naindex (<optional return> index of sorted order into
original array)
Return: boxad (sorted version of boxas), or null on error
Notes:
(1) For a large number of boxes (say, greater than 1000), this
O(n) binsort is much faster than the O(nlogn) shellsort.
For 5000 components, this is over 20x faster than boxaSort().
(2) Consequently, boxaSort() calls this function if it will
likely go much faster.
```

## boxaEncapsulateAligned

BOXAA * boxaEncapsulateAligned ( BOXA *boxa, l_int32 num, l_int32 copyflag )

```
boxaEncapsulateAligned()
Input: boxa
num (number put into each boxa in the baa)
copyflag (L_COPY or L_CLONE)
Return: baa, or null on error
Notes:
(1) This puts @num boxes from the input @boxa into each of a
set of boxa within an output baa.
(2) This assumes that the boxes in @boxa are in sets of @num each.
```

## boxaExtractAsNuma

l_int32 boxaExtractAsNuma ( BOXA *boxa, NUMA **pnax, NUMA **pnay, NUMA **pnaw, NUMA **pnah, l_int32 keepinvalid )

```
boxaExtractAsNuma()
Input: boxa
&nax (<optional return> array of x locations)
&nay (<optional return> array of y locations)
&naw (<optional return> array of w locations)
&nah (<optional return> array of h locations)
keepinvalid (1 to keep invalid boxes; 0 to remove them)
Return: 0 if OK, 1 on error
```

## boxaExtractAsPta

l_int32 boxaExtractAsPta ( BOXA *boxa, PTA **pptal, PTA **pptat, PTA **pptar, PTA **pptab, l_int32 keepinvalid )

```
boxaExtractAsPta()
Input: boxa
&ptal (<optional return> array of left locations vs. index)
&ptat (<optional return> array of top locations vs. index)
&ptar (<optional return> array of right locations vs. index)
&ptab (<optional return> array of bottom locations vs. index)
keepinvalid (1 to keep invalid boxes; 0 to remove them)
Return: 0 if OK, 1 on error
```

## boxaGetMedian

BOX * boxaGetMedian ( BOXA *boxa )

```
boxaGetMedian()
Input: boxa
Return: box (with median values for x, y, w, h), or null on error
or if the boxa is empty.
Notes:
(1) See boxaGetRankSize()
```

## boxaGetRankSize

BOX * boxaGetRankSize ( BOXA *boxa, l_float32 fract )

```
boxaGetRankSize()
Input: boxa
fract (use 0.0 for smallest, 1.0 for largest)
Return: box (with rank values for x, y, w, h), or null on error
or if the boxa is empty (has no valid boxes)
Notes:
(1) This function does not assume that all boxes in the boxa are valid
(2) The four box parameters are sorted independently.
For rank order, the width and height are sorted in increasing
order. But what does it mean to sort x and y in "rank order"?
If the boxes are of comparable size and somewhat
aligned (e.g., from multiple images), it makes some sense
to give a "rank order" for x and y by sorting them in
decreasing order. But in general, the interpretation of a rank
order on x and y is highly application dependent. In summary:
- x and y are sorted in decreasing order
- w and h are sorted in increasing order
```

## boxaRotateOrth

BOXA * boxaRotateOrth ( BOXA *boxas, l_int32 w, l_int32 h, l_int32 rotation )

```
boxaRotateOrth()
Input: boxa
w, h (of image in which the boxa is embedded)
rotation (0 = noop, 1 = 90 deg, 2 = 180 deg, 3 = 270 deg;
all rotations are clockwise)
Return: boxad, or null on error
Notes:
(1) See boxRotateOrth() for details.
```

## boxaSort

BOXA * boxaSort ( BOXA *boxas, l_int32 sorttype, l_int32 sortorder, NUMA **pnaindex )

```
boxaSort()
Input: boxa
sorttype (L_SORT_BY_X, L_SORT_BY_Y,
L_SORT_BY_RIGHT, L_SORT_BY_BOT,
L_SORT_BY_WIDTH, L_SORT_BY_HEIGHT,
L_SORT_BY_MIN_DIMENSION, L_SORT_BY_MAX_DIMENSION,
L_SORT_BY_PERIMETER, L_SORT_BY_AREA,
L_SORT_BY_ASPECT_RATIO)
sortorder (L_SORT_INCREASING, L_SORT_DECREASING)
&naindex (<optional return> index of sorted order into
original array)
Return: boxad (sorted version of boxas), or null on error
```

## boxaSort2d

BOXAA * boxaSort2d ( BOXA *boxas, NUMAA **pnaad, l_int32 delta1, l_int32 delta2, l_int32 minh1 )

```
boxaSort2d()
Input: boxas
&naa (<optional return> numaa with sorted indices
whose values are the indices of the input array)
delta1 (min overlap that permits aggregation of a box
onto a boxa of horizontally-aligned boxes; pass 1)
delta2 (min overlap that permits aggregation of a box
onto a boxa of horizontally-aligned boxes; pass 2)
minh1 (components less than this height either join an
existing boxa or are set aside for pass 2)
Return: baa (2d sorted version of boxa), or null on error
Notes:
(1) The final result is a sort where the 'fast scan' direction is
left to right, and the 'slow scan' direction is from top
to bottom. Each boxa in the baa represents a sorted set
of boxes from left to right.
(2) Three passes are used to aggregate the boxas, which can correspond
to characters or words in a line of text. In pass 1, only
taller components, which correspond to xheight or larger,
are permitted to start a new boxa. In pass 2, the remaining
vertically-challenged components are allowed to join an
existing boxa or start a new one. In pass 3, boxa whose extent
is overlapping are joined. After that, the boxes in each
boxa are sorted horizontally, and finally the boxa are
sorted vertically.
(3) If delta1 < 0, the first pass allows aggregation when
boxes in the same boxa do not overlap vertically.
The distance by which they can miss and still be aggregated
is the absolute value |delta1|. Similar for delta2 on
the second pass.
(4) On the first pass, any component of height less than minh1
cannot start a new boxa; it's put aside for later insertion.
(5) On the second pass, any small component that doesn't align
with an existing boxa can start a new one.
(6) This can be used to identify lines of text from
character or word bounding boxes.
```

## boxaSort2dByIndex

BOXAA * boxaSort2dByIndex ( BOXA *boxas, NUMAA *naa )

```
boxaSort2dByIndex()
Input: boxas
naa (numaa that maps from the new baa to the input boxa)
Return: baa (sorted boxaa), or null on error
```

## boxaSortByIndex

BOXA * boxaSortByIndex ( BOXA *boxas, NUMA *naindex )

```
boxaSortByIndex()
Input: boxas
naindex (na that maps from the new boxa to the input boxa)
Return: boxad (sorted), or null on error
```

## boxaTransform

BOXA * boxaTransform ( BOXA *boxas, l_int32 shiftx, l_int32 shifty, l_float32 scalex, l_float32 scaley )

```
boxaTransform()
Input: boxa
shiftx, shifty
scalex, scaley
Return: boxad, or null on error
Notes:
(1) This is a very simple function that first shifts, then scales.
```

## boxaTransformOrdered

BOXA * boxaTransformOrdered ( BOXA *boxas, l_int32 shiftx, l_int32 shifty, l_float32 scalex, l_float32 scaley, l_int32 xcen, l_int32 ycen, l_float32 angle, l_int32 order )

```
boxaTransformOrdered()
Input: boxa
shiftx, shifty
scalex, scaley
xcen, ycen (center of rotation)
angle (in radians; clockwise is positive)
order (one of 6 combinations: L_TR_SC_RO, ...)
Return: boxd, or null on error
Notes:
(1) This allows a sequence of linear transforms on each box.
the transforms are from the affine set, composed of
shift, scaling and rotation, and the order of the
transforms is specified.
(2) Although these operations appear to be on an infinite
2D plane, in practice the region of interest is clipped
to a finite image. The center of rotation is usually taken
with respect to the image (either the UL corner or the
center). A translation can have two very different effects:
(a) Moves the boxes across the fixed image region.
(b) Moves the image origin, causing a change in the image
region and an opposite effective translation of the boxes.
This function should only be used for (a), where the image
region is fixed on translation. If the image region is
changed by the translation, use instead the functions
in affinecompose.c, where the image region and rotation
center can be computed from the actual clipping due to
translation of the image origin.
(3) See boxTransformOrdered() for usage and implementation details.
```

## boxaaAlignBox

l_int32 boxaaAlignBox ( BOXAA *baa, BOX *box, l_int32 delta, l_int32 *pindex )

```
boxaaAlignBox()
Input: baa
box (to be aligned with the bext boxa in the baa, if possible)
delta (amount by which consecutive components can miss
in overlap and still be included in the array)
&index (of boxa with best overlap, or if none match,
this is the index of the next boxa to be generated)
Return: 0 if OK, 1 on error
Notes:
(1) This is not greedy. It finds the boxa whose vertical
extent has the closest overlap with the input box.
```

## boxaaFlattenAligned

BOXA * boxaaFlattenAligned ( BOXAA *baa, l_int32 num, BOX *fillerbox, l_int32 copyflag )

```
boxaaFlattenAligned()
Input: baa
num (number extracted from each)
fillerbox (<optional> that fills if necessary)
copyflag (L_COPY or L_CLONE)
Return: boxa, or null on error
Notes:
(1) This 'flattens' the baa to a boxa, taking the first @num
boxes from each boxa.
(2) In each boxa, if there are less than @num boxes, we preserve
the alignment between the input baa and the output boxa
by inserting one or more fillerbox(es) or, if @fillerbox == NULL,
one or more invalid placeholder boxes.
```

## boxaaFlattenToBoxa

BOXA * boxaaFlattenToBoxa ( BOXAA *baa, NUMA **pnaindex, l_int32 copyflag )

```
boxaaFlattenToBoxa()
Input: baa
&naindex (<optional return> the boxa index in the baa)
copyflag (L_COPY or L_CLONE)
Return: boxa, or null on error
Notes:
(1) This 'flattens' the baa to a boxa, taking the boxes in
order in the first boxa, then the second, etc.
(2) If a boxa is empty, we generate an invalid, placeholder box
of zero size. This is useful when converting from a baa
where each boxa has either 0 or 1 boxes, and it is necessary
to maintain a 1:1 correspondence between the initial
boxa array and the resulting box array.
(3) If &naindex is defined, we generate a Numa that gives, for
each box in the baa, the index of the boxa to which it belongs.
```

## boxaaGetExtent

l_int32 boxaaGetExtent ( BOXAA *baa, l_int32 *pw, l_int32 *ph, BOX **pbox, BOXA **pboxa )

```
boxaaGetExtent()
Input: baa
&w (<optional return> width)
&h (<optional return> height)
&box (<optional return>, minimum box containing all boxa
in boxaa)
&boxa (<optional return>, boxa containing all boxes in each
boxa in the boxaa)
Return: 0 if OK, 1 on error
Notes:
(1) The returned w and h are the minimum size image
that would contain all boxes untranslated.
(2) Each box in the returned boxa is the minimum box required to
hold all the boxes in the respective boxa of baa.
(3) If there are no valid boxes in a boxa, the box corresponding
to its extent has all fields set to 0 (an invalid box).
```

# AUTHOR

Zakariyya Mughal <zmughal@cpan.org>

# COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2014 by Zakariyya Mughal.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.