++ed by:
ETHER VEESH
2 non-PAUSE users
Author image Paul Evans

NAME

List::Keywords - a selection of list utility keywords

SYNOPSIS

   use List::Keywords 'any';

   my @boxes = ...;

   if( any { $_->size > 100 } @boxes ) {
      say "There are some large boxes here";
   }

DESCRIPTION

This module provides keywords that behave (almost) identically to familiar functions from List::Util, but implemented as keyword plugins instead of functions. As a result these run more efficiently, especially in small code cases.

Blocks vs Anonymous Subs

In the description above the word "almost" refers to the fact that as this module provides true keywords, the code blocks to them can be parsed as true blocks rather than anonymous functions. As a result, both caller and return will behave rather differently here.

For example,

   use List::Keywords 'any';

   sub func {
      any { say "My caller is ", caller; return "ret" } 1, 2, 3;
      say "This is never printed";
   }

Here, the caller will see func as its caller, and the return statement makes the entire containing function return, so the second line is never printed. The same example written using List::Util will instead print the List::Util::any function as being the caller, before making just that one item return the value, then the message on the second line is printed as normal.

In regular operation where the code is just performing some test on each item, and does not make use of caller or return, this should not cause any noticable differences.

Performance

The following example demonstrates a simple case and shows how the performance differs.

   my @nums = (1 .. 100);

   my $ret = any { $_ > 50 } @nums;

When run for 5 seconds each, the following results were obtained on my machine:

   List::Util::any      648083/s
   List::Keyword/any    816135/s

The List::Keyword version here ran 26% faster.

KEYWORDS

first

   $val = first { CODE } LIST

Repeatedly calls the block of code, with $_ locally set to successive values from the given list. Returns the value and stops at the first item to make the block yield a true value. If no such item exists, returns undef.

any

   $bool = any { CODE } LIST

Repeatedly calls the block of code, with $_ locally set to successive values from the given list. Returns true and stops at the first item to make the block yield a true value. If no such item exists, returns false.

all

   $bool = all { CODE } LIST

Repeatedly calls the block of code, with $_ locally set to successive values from the given list. Returns false and stops at the first item to make the block yield a false value. If no such item exists, returns true.

none

notall

   $bool = none { CODE } LIST
   $bool = notall { CODE } LISt

Same as "any" and "all" but with the return value inverted.

reduce

   $final = reduce { CODE } INITIAL, LIST

Repeatedly calls a block of code, using the $a package lexical as an accumulator and setting $b to each successive value from the list in turn. The first value of the list sets the initial value of the accumulator, and each returned result from the code block gives its new value. The final value of the accumulator is returned.

TODO

More functions from List::Util:

   reductions
   pairfirst pairgrep pairmap

Maybe also consider some from List::UtilsBy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

With thanks to Matthew Horsfall (alh) for much assistance with performance optimizations.

AUTHOR

Paul Evans <leonerd@leonerd.org.uk>