++ed by:
ZMUGHAL MOCNII TOBYINK THALJEF FUKAI

23 PAUSE users
13 non-PAUSE users.

Mario Roy
and 1 contributors

NAME

MCE::Queue - Hybrid (normal and priority) queues for Many-Core Engine

VERSION

This document describes MCE::Queue version 1.608

SYNOPSIS

   use MCE;
   use MCE::Queue;

   my $F = MCE::Queue->new(fast => 1);
   my $consumers = 8;

   my $mce = MCE->new(

      task_end => sub {
         my ($mce, $task_id, $task_name) = @_;

         $F->enqueue((undef) x $consumers)
            if $task_name eq 'dir';
      },

      user_tasks => [{
         max_workers => 1, task_name => 'dir',

         user_func => sub {
            ## Create a "standalone queue" only accessable to this worker.
            ## See included examples for running with multiple workers.
            my $D = MCE::Queue->new(queue => [ MCE->user_args->[0] ]);

            while (defined (my $dir = $D->dequeue_nb)) {
               my (@files, @dirs); foreach (glob("$dir/*")) {
                  if (-d $_) { push @dirs, $_; next; }
                  push @files, $_;
               }
               $D->enqueue(@dirs ) if scalar @dirs;
               $F->enqueue(@files) if scalar @files;
            }
         }
      },{
         max_workers => $consumers, task_name => 'file',

         user_func => sub {
            while (defined (my $file = $F->dequeue)) {
               MCE->say($file);
            }
         }
      }]

   )->run({ user_args => [ $ARGV[0] || '.' ] });

   __END__

   Results from files_mce.pl and files_thr.pl; included with MCE.
   Usage:
      time ./files_mce.pl /usr 0 | wc -l
      time ./files_mce.pl /usr 1 | wc -l
      time ./files_thr.pl /usr   | wc -l

   Darwin (OS)    /usr:    216,271 files
      MCE::Queue, fast => 0 :    4.17s
      MCE::Queue, fast => 1 :    2.62s
      Thread::Queue         :    4.14s

   Linux (VM)     /usr:    186,154 files
      MCE::Queue, fast => 0 :   12.57s
      MCE::Queue, fast => 1 :    3.36s
      Thread::Queue         :    5.91s

   Solaris (VM)   /usr:    603,051 files
      MCE::Queue, fast => 0 :   39.04s
      MCE::Queue, fast => 1 :   18.08s
      Thread::Queue      * Perl not built to support threads

DESCRIPTION

This module provides a queue interface supporting normal and priority queues and utilizing the IPC engine behind MCE. Data resides under the manager process. MCE::Queue also allows for a worker to create any number of queues locally not available to other workers including the manager process. Think of a CPU having L3 (shared) and L1 (local) cache.

IMPORT

Three options are available for overriding the default value for new queues. The porder option applies to priority queues only.

   use MCE::Queue porder => $MCE::Queue::HIGHEST,
                  type   => $MCE::Queue::FIFO,
                  fast   => 0;

   use MCE::Queue;                # Same as above

   ## Possible values

   porder => $MCE::Queue::HIGHEST # Highest priority items dequeue first
             $MCE::Queue::LOWEST  # Lowest priority items dequeue first

   type   => $MCE::Queue::FIFO    # First in, first out
             $MCE::Queue::LIFO    # Last in, first out
             $MCE::Queue::LILO    # (Synonym for FIFO)
             $MCE::Queue::FILO    # (Synonym for LIFO)

THREE RUN MODES

MCE::Queue can be utilized under the following conditions:

    A) use MCE;           B) use MCE::Queue;    C) use MCE::Queue;
       use MCE::Queue;       use MCE;
A) MCE is included prior to inclusion of MCE::Queue

The dequeue method blocks for the manager process including workers. All data resides under the manager process. Workers send/request data via IPC.

Creating a queue from within the worker process will cause the queue to run in local mode (C). The data resides under the worker process and not available to other workers including the manager process.

B) MCE::Queue is included prior to inclusion of MCE

Queues behave as if running in local mode for the manager and worker processes for the duration of the script. I cannot think of a use-case for this, but mentioning the behavior in the event MCE::Queue is included before MCE.

C) MCE::Queue without inclusion of MCE

The dequeue method is non-blocking. Queues behave similarly to local queuing. This mode is efficient due to minimum overhead and zero IPC behind the scene. Hence, MCE is not required to use MCE::Queue.

API DOCUMENTATION

MCE::Queue->new ( [ queue => \@array, fast => 1 ] )

This creates a new queue. Available options are queue, porder, type, fast, and gather. The gather option is mainly for running with MCE and wanting to pass item(s) to a callback function for appending to the queue.

The 'fast' option speeds up ->dequeue ops and not enabled by default. It is beneficial for queues not calling ->clear or ->dequeue_nb and not altering the optional count value while running; e.g. ->dequeue($count). Basically, do not enable 'fast' if varying $count dynamically.

   use MCE;
   use MCE::Queue;

   my $q1 = MCE::Queue->new();
   my $q2 = MCE::Queue->new( queue => [ 0, 1, 2 ] );

   my $q3 = MCE::Queue->new( porder => $MCE::Queue::HIGHEST );
   my $q4 = MCE::Queue->new( porder => $MCE::Queue::LOWEST  );

   my $q5 = MCE::Queue->new( type => $MCE::Queue::FIFO );
   my $q6 = MCE::Queue->new( type => $MCE::Queue::LIFO );

   my $q7 = MCE::Queue->new( fast => 1 );

Multiple queues may point to the same callback function. The first argument for the callback is the queue object.

   sub _append {
      my ($q, @items) = @_;
      $q->enqueue(@items);
   }

   my $q7 = MCE::Queue->new( gather => \&_append );
   my $q8 = MCE::Queue->new( gather => \&_append );

   ## Items are diverted to the callback function, not the queue.
   $q7->enqueue( 'apple', 'orange' );

The gather option allows one to store items temporarily while ensuring output order. Although a queue object is not required, this is simply a demonstration of the gather option in the context of a queue.

   use MCE;
   use MCE::Queue;

   sub preserve_order {
      my %tmp; my $order_id = 1;

      return sub {
         my ($q, $chunk_id, $data) = @_;
         $tmp{$chunk_id} = $data;

         while (1) {
            last unless exists $tmp{$order_id};
            $q->enqueue( delete $tmp{$order_id++} );
         }

         return;
      };
   }

   my @squares; my $q = MCE::Queue->new(
      queue => \@squares, gather => preserve_order
   );

   my $mce = MCE->new(
      chunk_size => 1, input_data => [ 1 .. 100 ],
      user_func => sub {
         $q->enqueue( MCE->chunk_id, $_ * $_ );
      }
   );

   $mce->run;

   print "@squares\n";

$q->clear ( void )

Clears the queue of any items. This has the effect of nulling the queue and the socket used for blocking.

   my @a; my $q = MCE::Queue->new( queue => \@a );

   @a = ();     ## bad, the blocking socket may become out of sync
   $q->clear;   ## ok

$q->enqueue ( $item [, $item, ... ] )

Appends a list of items onto the end of the normal queue.

$q->enqueuep ( $p, $item [, $item, ... ] )

Appends a list of items onto the end of the priority queue with priority.

$q->dequeue ( [ $count ] )

Returns the requested number of items (default 1) from the queue. Priority data will always dequeue first before any data from the normal queue.

The method will block if the queue contains zero items. If the queue contains fewer than the requested number of items, the method will not block, but return the remaining items and undef for up to the count requested.

The $count, used for requesting the number of items, is beneficial when workers are passing parameters through the queue. For this reason, always remember to dequeue using the same multiple for the count. This is unlike Thread::Queue which will block until the requested number of items are available.

$q->dequeue_nb ( [ $count ] )

Returns the requested number of items (default 1) from the queue. Like with dequeue, priority data will always dequeue first. This method is non-blocking and will return undef in the absence of data from the queue.

$q->insert ( $index, $item [, $item, ... ] )

Adds the list of items to the queue at the specified index position (0 is the head of the list). The head of the queue is that item which would be removed by a call to dequeue.

   $q = MCE::Queue->new( type => $MCE::Queue::FIFO );
   $q->enqueue(1, 2, 3, 4);
   $q->insert(1, 'foo', 'bar'); 
   # Queue now contains: 1, foo, bar, 2, 3, 4

   $q = MCE::Queue->new( type => $MCE::Queue::LIFO );
   $q->enqueue(1, 2, 3, 4);
   $q->insert(1, 'foo', 'bar'); 
   # Queue now contains: 1, 2, 3, 'foo', 'bar', 4

$q->insertp ( $p, $index, $item [, $item, ... ] )

Adds the list of items to the queue at the specified index position with priority. The behavior is similarly to insert otherwise.

$q->pending ( void )

Returns the number of items in the queue. The count includes both normal and priority data.

   $q = MCE::Queue->new();
   $q->enqueuep(5, 'foo', 'bar');
   $q->enqueue('sunny', 'day');

   print $q->pending(), "\n";
   # Output: 4

$q->peek ( [ $index ] )

Returns an item from the normal queue, at the specified index, without dequeuing anything. It defaults to the head of the queue if index is not specified. The head of the queue is that item which would be removed by a call to dequeue. Negative index values are supported, similarly to arrays.

   $q = MCE::Queue->new( type => $MCE::Queue::FIFO );
   $q->enqueue(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);

   print $q->peek(1), ' ', $q->peek(-2), "\n";
   # Output: 2 4

   $q = MCE::Queue->new( type => $MCE::Queue::LIFO );
   $q->enqueue(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);

   print $q->peek(1), ' ', $q->peek(-2), "\n";
   # Output: 4 2

$q->peekp ( $p [, $index ] )

Returns an item from the queue with priority, at the specified index, without dequeuing anything. It defaults to the head of the queue if index is not specified. The behavior is similarly to peek otherwise.

$q->peekh ( [ $index ] )

Returns an item from the heap, at the specified index.

   $q = MCE::Queue->new( porder => $MCE::Queue::HIGHEST );
   $q->enqueuep(5, 'foo');
   $q->enqueuep(6, 'bar');
   $q->enqueuep(4, 'sun');

   print $q->peekh(0), "\n";
   # Output: 6

   $q = MCE::Queue->new( porder => $MCE::Queue::LOWEST );
   $q->enqueuep(5, 'foo');
   $q->enqueuep(6, 'bar');
   $q->enqueuep(4, 'sun');

   print $q->peekh(0), "\n";
   # Output: 4

$q->heap ( void )

Returns an array containing the heap data. Heap data consists of priority numbers, not the data.

   @h = $q->heap;   # $MCE::Queue::HIGHEST
   # Heap contains: 6, 5, 4
   
   @h = $q->heap;   # $MCE::Queue::LOWEST
   # Heap contains: 4, 5, 6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

POE::Queue::Array

Two if statements were adopted for checking if the item belongs at the end or head of the queue.

List::BinarySearch

The bsearch_num_pos method was helpful for accommodating the highest and lowest order in MCE::Queue.

List::Priority

MCE::Queue supports both normal and priority queues.

Thread::Queue

Thread::Queue is used as a template for identifying and documenting the methods. MCE::Queue is not fully compatible due to supporting normal and priority queues simultaneously; e.g.

   $q->enqueuep( $p, $item [, $item, ... ] );    ## Priority queue
   $q->enqueue( $item [, $item, ... ] );         ## Normal queue

   $q->dequeue( [ $count ] );      ## Priority data dequeues first
   $q->dequeue_nb( [ $count ] );   ## Behavior is not the same

   $q->pending();                  ## Counts both normal/priority data
                                   ## in the queue
Parallel::DataPipe

The recursion example, in the sysopsis above, was largely adopted from this module.

INDEX

MCE

AUTHOR

Mario E. Roy, <marioeroy AT gmail DOT com>