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Philip R Brenan
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Name

  Math::Algebra::Symbols

Synopsis

  Symbolic Algebra in Pure Perl

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols hyper=>1;
  use Test::Simple tests=>5;

  ($n, $x, $y) = symbols(qw(n x y));

  $a     += ($x**8 - 1)/($x-1);
  $b     +=  sin($x)**2 + cos($x)**2;
  $c     += (sin($n*$x) + cos($n*$x))->d->d->d->d / (sin($n*$x)+cos($n*$x));
  $d      =  tanh($x+$y) == (tanh($x)+tanh($y))/(1+tanh($x)*tanh($y));
  ($e,$f) =  @{($x**2 eq 5*$x-6) > $x};

  print "$a\n$b\n$c\n$d\n$e,$f\n";

  ok("$a"    eq '$x+$x**2+$x**3+$x**4+$x**5+$x**6+$x**7+1');
  ok("$b"    eq '1');
  ok("$c"    eq '$n**4');
  ok("$d"    eq '1');
  ok("$e,$f" eq '2,3');

  The focii to locus round trip of an ellipse has a length of twice the
  major radius:

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::More tests => 1;
  my ($R, $f, $x, $i) = symbols(qw(R f x i)); # Major radius, focii

  my $y  = sqrt($R*$R-$f*$f - $x*$x +$f*$f*$x*$x / ($R*$R));  # Ellipse: rr=RR-ff
  my $a = $x+$i*$y - $f;            # Vector from focus1 to a point on the locus
  my $b = $x+$i*$y + $f;            # Vector from focus2 to same point on the locus

  ok(abs($a) + abs($b) ==  2*$R, 'Focus trip is constant 2R');

  Floating point calculations on a triangle with angles of 22.5, 45, 112.5
  degrees to determine whether two of the diameters of the nine point circle
  are at right angles yield (on my computer) the following inconclusive result
  when the dot product between the diameters is formed numerically:

  my $o = 1;
  my $a = sqrt($o/2);                              # X position of apex
  my $b = $o - $a;                                 # Y position of apex
  my $s = ($a*$a+$b*$b-$a)/2/$b;
  my ($nx, $ny) = ($o/4 + $a/2, $b/2 - $s/2);      # Nine point centre
  my ($px, $py) = ($o/2, 0);                       # Diameter from mid point
  my ($qx, $qy) = ($o/2 + $a/2, $b/2);             # Diameter from mid point

  my $d = ($px-$nx)*($qx-$nx)+($py-$ny)*($qy-$ny); # Dot product should be zero
  print +($d == 0)||0, "\n$d\n";                   # Definitively zero if 1

  # 0                                              # Not exactly zero
  # -6.93889390390723e-18                          # Is this significant or not?

  By contrast with Math::Algebra::Symbols I get the much more convincing:

  my ($o, $i) = symbols(qw(1 i));                  # Units in x,y
  my $a = sqrt($o/2);                              # X position of apex
  my $b = $o - $a;                                 # Y position of apex
  my $s = ($a*$a+$b*$b-$a)/2/$b;
  my $n = $o/4 + $a/2 +$i*($b/2 - $s/2);           # Nine point centre
  my $p = $o/2;                                    # Diameter from mid point
  my $q = $o/2 + $a/2 +$i* $b/2;                   # Diameter from mid point

  my $d = (($p-$n) ^ ($q-$n));                     # Dot product should be zero
  print +($d == 0)||0, "\n$d\n";                   # Definitively zero if 1

  # 1
  # 17/32/(-2*sqrt(1/2)+3/2)-3/4/(-2*sqrt(1/2)+3/2)*sqrt(1/2)-7/16/(-sqrt(1/2)+1)
  # +5/8/(-sqrt(1/2)+1)*sqrt(1/2)-1/8*sqrt(1/2)+1/16

Description

  This package supplies a set of functions and operators to manipulate operator
  expressions algebraically using the familiar Perl syntax.

  These expressions are constructed from L</Symbols>, L</Operators>, and
  L</Functions>, and processed via L</Methods>.  For examples, see:
  L</Examples>.

Symbols

  Symbols are created with the exported B<symbols()> constructor routine:

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>1;

  my ($x, $y, $i, $o, $pi) = symbols(qw(x y i 1 pi));

  ok( "$x $y $i $o $pi"   eq   '$x $y i 1 $pi'  );

  The B<symbols()> routine constructs references to symbolic variables and
  symbolic constants from a list of names and integer constants.

  It is often useful to declare a variable B<$o> to contain the unit B<1> with
  which to start symbolic expressions, thus:

  $o/2 is a symbolic expression for one half where-as:

  1/2 == 0.5 is merely the numeric representation of one half.

  The special symbol B<i> is recognized as the square root of B<-1>.

  The special symbol B<pi> is recognized as the smallest positive real that
  satisfies:

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($i, $pi) = symbols(qw(i pi));

  ok(  exp($i*$pi)  ==   -1  );
  ok(  exp($i*$pi) <=>  '-1' );

Constructor Routine Name

  If you wish to use a different name for the constructor routine, say
  B<S>:

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols symbols=>'S';
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($i, $pi) = S(qw(i pi));

  ok(  exp($i*$pi)  ==   -1  );
  ok(  exp($i*$pi) <=//>  '-1' );

Big Integers

  Symbols automatically uses big integers if needed.

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>1;

  my $z = symbols('1234567890987654321/1234567890987654321');

  ok( eval $z eq '1');

Operators

  L</Symbols> can be combined with L</Operators> to create symbolic
  expressions:

Arithmetic operators

Arithmetic Operators: + - * / **

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my ($x, $y) = symbols(qw(x y));

  ok(  ($x**2-$y**2)/($x-$y)  ==  $x+$y  );
  ok(  ($x**2-$y**2)/($x-$y)  !=  $x-$y  );
  ok(  ($x**2-$y**2)/($x-$y) <=> '$x+$y' );

  The operators: B<+=> B<-=> B<*=> B</=> are overloaded to work symbolically
  rather than numerically. If you need numeric results, you can always
  B<eval()> the resulting symbolic expression.

Square root Operator: sqrt

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($x, $i) = symbols(qw(x i));

  ok(  sqrt(-$x**2)  ==  $i*$x  );
  ok(  sqrt(-$x**2)  <=> 'i*$x' );

  The square root is represented by the symbol B<i>, which allows complex
  expressions to be processed by Math::Complex.

Exponential Operator: exp

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($x, $i) = symbols(qw(x i));

  ok(   exp($x)->d($x)  ==   exp($x)  );
  ok(   exp($x)->d($x) <=>  'exp($x)' );

  The exponential operator.

Logarithm Operator: log

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>1;

  my ($x) = symbols(qw(x));

  ok(   log($x) <=>  'log($x)' );

  Logarithm to base B<e>.

  Note: the above result is only true for x > 0.  B<Symbols> does not include
  domain and range specifications of the functions it uses.

Sine and Cosine Operators: sin and cos

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my ($x) = symbols(qw(x));

  ok(  sin($x)**2 + cos($x)**2  ==  1  );
  ok(  sin($x)**2 + cos($x)**2  !=  0  );
  ok(  sin($x)**2 + cos($x)**2 <=> '1' );

  This famous trigonometric identity is not preprogrammed into B<Symbols> as it
  is in commercial products.

  Instead: an expression for B<sin()> is constructed using the complex
  exponential: L</exp>, said expression is algebraically multiplied out to
  prove the identity. The proof steps involve large intermediate expressions in
  each step, as yet I have not provided a means to neatly lay out these
  intermediate steps and thus provide a more compelling demonstration of the
  ability of B<Symbols> to verify such statements from first principles.

Relational operators

Relational operators: ==, !=

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my ($x, $y) = symbols(qw(x y));

  ok(  ($x**2-$y**2)/($x-$y)  ==  $x+$y  );
  ok(  ($x**2-$y**2)/($x-$y)  !=  $x-$y  );
  ok(  ($x**2-$y**2)/($x-$y) <=> '$x+$y' );

  The relational equality operator B<==> compares two symbolic expressions and
  returns TRUE(1) or FALSE(0) accordingly. B<!=> produces the opposite result.

Relational operator: eq

  my ($x, $v, $t) = symbols(qw(x v t));

  ok(  ($v eq $x / $t)->solve(qw(x in terms of v t))  ==  $v*$t  );
  ok(  ($v eq $x / $t)->solve(qw(x in terms of v t))  !=  $v+$t  );
  ok(  ($v eq $x / $t)->solve(qw(x in terms of v t)) <=> '$t*$v' );

  The relational operator B<eq> is a synonym for the minus B<-> operator, with
  the expectation that later on the L<solve()|/Solving equations> function will
  be used to simplify and rearrange the equation. You may prefer to use B<eq>
  instead of B<-> to enhance readability, there is no functional difference.

Complex operators

Complex operators: the dot operator: ^

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my ($a, $b, $i) = symbols(qw(a b i));

  ok(  (($a+$i*$b)^($a-$i*$b))  ==  $a**2-$b**2  );
  ok(  (($a+$i*$b)^($a-$i*$b))  !=  $a**2+$b**2  );
  ok(  (($a+$i*$b)^($a-$i*$b)) <=> '$a**2-$b**2' );

  Please note the use of brackets:  The B<^> operator has low priority.

  The B<^> operator treats its left hand and right hand arguments as complex
  numbers, which in turn are regarded as two dimensional vectors to which the
  vector dot product is applied.

Complex operators: the cross operator: x

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my ($x, $i) = symbols(qw(x i));

  ok(  $i*$x x $x  ==  $x**2  );
  ok(  $i*$x x $x  !=  $x**3  );
  ok(  $i*$x x $x <=> '$x**2' );

  The B<x> operator treats its left hand and right hand arguments as complex
  numbers, which in turn are regarded as two dimensional vectors defining the
  sides of a parallelogram. The B<x> operator returns the area of this
  parallelogram.

  Note the space before the B<x>, otherwise Perl is unable to disambiguate the
  expression correctly.

Complex operators: the conjugate operator: ~

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my ($x, $y, $i) = symbols(qw(x y i));

  ok(  ~($x+$i*$y)  ==  $x-$i*$y  );
  ok(  ~($x-$i*$y)  ==  $x+$i*$y  );
  ok(  (($x+$i*$y)^($x-$i*$y)) <=> '$x**2-$y**2' );

  The B<~> operator returns the complex conjugate of its right hand side.

Complex operators: the modulus operator: abs

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my ($x, $i) = symbols(qw(x i));

  ok(  abs($x+$i*$x)  ==  sqrt(2*$x**2)  );
  ok(  abs($x+$i*$x)  !=  sqrt(2*$x**3)  );
  ok(  abs($x+$i*$x) <=> 'sqrt(2*$x**2)' );

  The B<abs> operator returns the modulus (length) of its right hand side.

Complex operators: the unit operator: !

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>4;

  my ($i) = symbols(qw(i));

  ok(  !$i      == $i                         );
  ok(  !$i     <=> 'i'                        );
  ok(  !($i+1) <=>  '1/(sqrt(2))+i/(sqrt(2))' );
  ok(  !($i-1) <=> '-1/(sqrt(2))+i/(sqrt(2))' );

  The B<!> operator returns a complex number of unit length pointing in the
  same direction as its right hand side.

Equation Manipulation Operators

Equation Manipulation Operators: Simplify operator: +=

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($x) = symbols(qw(x));

  ok(  ($x**8 - 1)/($x-1)  ==  $x+$x**2+$x**3+$x**4+$x**5+$x**6+$x**7+1  );
  ok(  ($x**8 - 1)/($x-1) <=> '$x+$x**2+$x**3+$x**4+$x**5+$x**6+$x**7+1' );

  The simplify operator B<+=> is a synonym for the
  L<simplify()|/"simplifying_equations:_simplify()"> method, if and only if,
  the target on the left hand side initially has a value of undef.

  Admittedly this is very strange behaviour: it arises due to the shortage of
  over-ride-able operators in Perl: in particular it arises due to the shortage
  of over-ride-able unary operators in Perl. Never-the-less: this operator is
  useful as can be seen in the L<Synopsis|/"synopsis">, and the desired
  pre-condition can always achieved by using B<my>.

Equation Manipulation Operators: Solve operator: >

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($t) = symbols(qw(t));

  my $rabbit  = 10 + 5 * $t;
  my $fox     = 7 * $t * $t;
  my ($a, $b) = @{($rabbit eq $fox) > $t};

  ok( "$a" eq  '1/14*sqrt(305)+5/14'  );
  ok( "$b" eq '-1/14*sqrt(305)+5/14'  );

  The solve operator B<E<gt>> is a synonym for the
  L<solve()|/"Solving_equations:_solve()"> method.

  The priority of B<E<gt>> is higher than that of B<eq>, so the brackets around
  the equation to be solved are necessary until Perl provides a mechanism for
  adjusting operator priority (cf. Algol 68).

  If the equation is in a single variable, the single variable may be named
  after the B<E<gt>> operator without the use of [...]:

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;

  my $rabbit  = 10 + 5 * $t;
  my $fox     = 7 * $t * $t;
  my ($a, $b) = @{($rabbit eq $fox) > $t};

  print "$a\n";

  # 1/14*sqrt(305)+5/14

  If there are multiple solutions, (as in the case of polynomials), B<E<gt>>
  returns an array of symbolic expressions containing the solutions.

  This example was provided by Mike Schilli m@perlmeister.com.

Functions

  Perl operator overloading is very useful for producing compact
  representations of algebraic expressions. Unfortunately there are only a
  small number of operators that Perl allows to be overloaded. The following
  functions are used to provide capabilities not easily expressed via Perl
  operator overloading.

  These functions may either be called as methods from symbols constructed by
  the L</Symbols> construction routine, or they may be exported into the user's
  name space as described in L</EXPORT>.

Trigonometric and Hyperbolic functions

Trigonometric functions

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>1;

  my ($x, $y) = symbols(qw(x y));

  ok( (sin($x)**2 == (1-cos(2*$x))/2) );

  The trigonometric functions B<cos>, B<sin>, B<tan>, B<sec>, B<csc>, B<cot>
  are available, either as exports to the caller's name space, or as methods.

Hyperbolic functions

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols hyper=>1;
  use Test::Simple tests=>1;

  my ($x, $y) = symbols(qw(x y));

  ok( tanh($x+$y)==(tanh($x)+tanh($y))/(1+tanh($x)*tanh($y)));

  The hyperbolic functions B<cosh>, B<sinh>, B<tanh>, B<sech>, B<csch>, B<coth>
  are available, either as exports to the caller's name space, or as methods.

Complex functions

Complex functions: re and im

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($x, $i) = symbols(qw(x i));

  ok( ($i*$x)->re   <=>  0    );
  ok( ($i*$x)->im   <=>  '$x' );

  The B<re> and B<im> functions return an expression which represents the real
  and imaginary parts of the expression, assuming that symbolic variables
  represent real numbers.

Complex functions: dot and cross

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my $i = symbols(qw(i));

  ok( ($i+1)->cross($i-1)   <=>  2 );
  ok( ($i+1)->dot  ($i-1)   <=>  0 );

  The B<dot> and B<cross> operators are available as functions, either as
  exports to the caller's name space, or as methods.

Complex functions: conjugate, modulus and unit

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>3;

  my $i = symbols(qw(i));

  ok( ($i+1)->unit      <=>  '1/(sqrt(2))+i/(sqrt(2))' );
  ok( ($i+1)->modulus   <=>  'sqrt(2)'                 );
  ok( ($i+1)->conjugate <=>  '1-i'                     );

  The B<conjugate>, B<abs> and B<unit> operators are available as functions:
  B<conjugate>, B<modulus> and B<unit>, either as exports to the caller's name
  space, or as methods. The confusion over the naming of: the B<abs> operator
  being the same as the B<modulus> complex function; arises over the limited
  set of Perl operator names available for overloading.

Methods

Methods for manipulating Equations

Simplifying equations: simplify()

Example t/simplify2.t

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($x) = symbols(qw(x));

  my $y  = (($x**8 - 1)/($x-1))->simplify();  # Simplify method
  my $z +=  ($x**8 - 1)/($x-1);               # Simplify via +=

  ok( "$y" eq '$x+$x**2+$x**3+$x**4+$x**5+$x**6+$x**7+1' );
  ok( "$z" eq '$x+$x**2+$x**3+$x**4+$x**5+$x**6+$x**7+1' );

  B<Simplify()> attempts to simplify an expression. There is no general
  simplification algorithm: consequently simplifications are carried out on
  ad-hoc basis. You may not even agree that the proposed simplification for a
  given expressions is indeed any simpler than the original. It is for these
  reasons that simplification has to be explicitly requested rather than being
  performed auto-magically.

  At the moment, simplifications consist of polynomial division: when the
  expression consists, in essence, of one polynomial divided by another, an
  attempt is made to perform polynomial division, the result is returned if
  there is no remainder.

  The B<+=> operator may be used to simplify and assign an expression to a Perl
  variable. Perl operator overloading precludes the use of B<=> in this manner.

Substituting into equations: sub()

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests=>2;

  my ($x, $y) = symbols(qw(x y));

  my $e  = 1+$x+$x**2/2+$x**3/6+$x**4/24+$x**5/120;

  ok(  $e->sub(x=>$y**2, z=>2)  <=> '$y**2+1/2*$y**4+1/6*$y**6+1/24*$y**8+1/120*$y**10+1'  );
  ok(  $e->sub(x=>1)            <=>  '163/60');

  The B<sub()> function example on line B<#1> demonstrates replacing variables
  with expressions. The replacement specified for B<z> has no effect as B<z> is
  not present in this equation.

  Line B<#2> demonstrates the resulting rational fraction that arises when all
  the variables have been replaced by constants. This package does not convert
  fractions to decimal expressions in case there is a loss of accuracy,
  however:

  my $e2 = $e->sub(x=>1);
  $result = eval "$e2";

  or similar will produce approximate results.

  At the moment only variables can be replaced by expressions. Mike Schilli,
  m@perlmeister.com, has proposed that substitutions for expressions should
  also be allowed, as in:

  $x/$y => $z

Solving equations: solve()

   use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
   use Test::Simple tests=>3;

   my ($x, $v, $t) = symbols(qw(x v t));

   ok(   ($v eq $x / $t)->solve(qw(x in terms of v t))  ==  $v*$t  );
   ok(   ($v eq $x / $t)->solve(qw(x in terms of v t))  !=  $v/$t  );
   ok(   ($v eq $x / $t)->solve(qw(x in terms of v t)) <=> '$t*$v' );

  B<solve()> assumes that the equation on the left hand side is equal to zero,
  applies various simplifications, then attempts to rearrange the equation to
  obtain an equation for the first variable in the parameter list assuming that
  the other terms mentioned in the parameter list are known constants. There
  may of course be other unknown free variables in the equation to be solved:
  the proposed solution is automatically tested against the original equation
  to check that the proposed solution removes these variables, an error is
  reported via B<die()> if it does not.

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::Simple tests => 2;

  my ($x) = symbols(qw(x));

  my  $p = $x**2-5*$x+6;        # Quadratic polynomial
  my ($a, $b) = @{($p > $x )};  # Solve for x

  print "x=$a,$b\n";            # Roots

  ok($a == 2);
  ok($b == 3);

  If there are multiple solutions, (as in the case of polynomials), B<solve()>
  returns an array of symbolic expressions containing the solutions.

Methods for performing Calculus

Differentiation: d()

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;
  use Test::More tests => 5;

  $x = symbols(qw(x));

  ok(  sin($x)    ==  sin($x)->d->d->d->d);
  ok(  cos($x)    ==  cos($x)->d->d->d->d);
  ok(  exp($x)    ==  exp($x)->d($x)->d('x')->d->d);
  ok( (1/$x)->d   == -1/$x**2);
  ok(  exp($x)->d->d->d->d <=> 'exp($x)' );

  B<d()> differentiates the equation on the left hand side by the named
  variable.

  The variable to be differentiated by may be explicitly specified, either as a
  string or as single symbol; or it may be heuristically guessed as follows:

  If the equation to be differentiated refers to only one symbol, then that
  symbol is used. If several symbols are present in the equation, but only one
  of B<t>, B<x>, B<y>, B<z> is present, then that variable is used in honour of
  Newton, Leibnitz, Cauchy.

Example of Equation Solving: the focii of a hyperbola:

  use Math::Algebra::Symbols;

  my ($a, $b, $x, $y, $i, $o) = symbols(qw(a b x y i 1));

  print
  "Hyperbola: Constant difference between distances from focii to locus of y=1/x",
  "\n  Assume by symmetry the focii are on ",
  "\n    the line y=x:                     ",  $f1 = $x + $i * $x,
  "\n  and equidistant from the origin:    ",  $f2 = -$f1,
  "\n  Choose a convenient point on y=1/x: ",  $a = $o+$i,
  "\n        and a general point on y=1/x: ",  $b = $y+$i/$y,
  "\n  Difference in distances from focii",
  "\n    From convenient point:            ",  $A = abs($a - $f2) - abs($a - $f1),
  "\n    From general point:               ",  $B = abs($b - $f2) + abs($b - $f1),
  "\n\n  Solving for x we get:            x=", ($A - $B) > $x,
  "\n                         (should be: sqrt(2))",
  "\n  Which is indeed constant, as was to be demonstrated\n";

  This example demonstrates the power of symbolic processing by finding the
  focii of the curve B<y=1/x>, and incidentally, demonstrating that this curve
  is a hyperbola.

Exports

 use Math::Algebra::Symbols
   symbols=>'s',
   trig   => 1,
   hyper  => 1,
   complex=> 1;
symbols=>'s'
  Create a function with name B<s()> in the callers name space to create new
  symbols. The default is B<symbols()>.
trig=>0
  The default, do not export trigonometric functions.
trig=>1
  Export trigonometric functions: B<tan>, B<sec>, B<csc>, B<cot> to the
  caller's name space. B<sin>, B<cos> are created by default by overloading the
  existing Perl B<sin> and B<cos> operators.
trigonometric
  Alias of B<trig>
hyperbolic=>0
  The default, do not export hyperbolic functions.
hyper=>1
  Export hyperbolic functions: B<sinh>, B<cosh>, B<tanh>, B<sech>,
  B<csch>, B<coth> to the caller's name space.
hyperbolic
  Alias of B<hyper>
complex=>0
  The default, do not export complex functions
complex=>1
  Export complex functions: B<conjugate>, B<cross>, B<dot>, B<im>, B<modulus>,
  B<re>, B<unit> to the caller's name space.

Packages

  The B<Symbols> packages manipulate a sum of products representation of an
  algebraic equation. The B<Symbols> package is the user interface to the
  functionality supplied by the B<Symbols::Sum> and B<Symbols::Term> packages.

Math::Algebra::Symbols::Term

  B<Symbols::Term> represents a product term. A product term consists of the
  number B<1>, optionally multiplied by:
Variables
  Any number of variables raised to integer powers.
Coefficient
  An integer coefficient optionally divided by a positive integer divisor, both
  represented as BigInts if necessary.
Sqrt
  The sqrt of of any symbolic expression representable by the B<Symbols>
  package, including minus one: represented as B<i>.
Reciprocal
  The multiplicative inverse of any symbolic expression representable by the
  B<Symbols> package: i.e. a B<SymbolsTerm> may be divided by any symbolic
  expression representable by the B<Symbols> package.
Exp
  The number B<e> raised to the power of any symbolic expression representable
  by the B<Symbols> package.
Log
  The logarithm to base B<e> of any symbolic expression representable by the
  B<Symbols> package.
  Thus B<SymbolsTerm> can represent expressions like:

    2/3*$x**2*$y**-3*exp($i*$pi)*sqrt($z**3) / $x

  but not:

    $x + $y

  for which package B<Symbols::Sum> is required.

Math::Algebra::Symbols::Sum

  B<Symbols::Sum> represents a sum of product terms supplied by
  B<Symbols::Term> and thus behaves as a polynomial. Operations such as
  equation solving and differentiation are applied at this level.

Installation

 Standard Module::Build process for building and installing modules:

   perl Build.PL
   ./Build
   ./Build test
   ./Build install

Copyright

  Philip R Brenan at B<PhilipRBrenan@gmail.com> 2004-2016

License

  Perl License.