NAME

Math::Decimal128 - perl interface to C's _Decimal128 operations.

DEPENDENCIES

   In order to compile this module, a C compiler that provides
   the _Decimal128 type is needed.

DESCRIPTION

   Math::Decimal128 supports up to 34 decimal digits of significand
   (mantissa) and an exponent range of -6143 to +6144.
   The smallest expressable value is
     -9.999999999999999999999999999999999e6144 which is also
   equivalent to
     -9.999999999999999999999999999999999e6111.
   The largest expressable value is
     9.999999999999999999999999999999999e6144 which is also
   equivalent to
     9.999999999999999999999999999999999e6111.
   The closest we can get to zero is (plus or minus) 1e-6176
   (which is also equivalent to
     1000000000000000000000000000000000e-6209).

   This module allows decimal floating point arithmetic via
   operator overloading - see "OVERLOADING".

   In the documentation that follows, "$mantissa" is a perl scalar
   holding a string of up to 34 decimal digits, optionally prefixed
   with a '+' or '-' sign:
    $mantissa = '1234';
    $mantissa = '1234567890123456';

SYNOPSIS

   use Math::Decimal128 qw(:all);

   my $d128_1 = MEtoD128('9927', -2); # the decimal 99.27
   my $d128_2 = MEtoD128('3', 0);     # the decimal 3.0
   $d128_1 /= $d128_2;
   print $d128_1; # prints 3309e-2 (33.09)

OVERLOADING

   The following operations are overloaded:
    + - * /
    += -= *= /=
    != == <= >= <=> < >
    ++ --
    =
    abs bool int print

    Arguments to the overloaded operations must be Math::Decimal128
    objects or integer (IV/UV) values or string (PV) values.
    Strings can match /^(\-|\+)?(nan|inf)/i or be in floating point,
    scientific notation or integer formats. Eg '113', '12.34', '12e-9',
    '-12.34e+106', '-9E8', '-NaN', 'inf' are all valid strings.

     $d128_2 = $d128_1 + $d128_0; #ok
     $d128_2 = $d128_1 + 15;      # ok

     $d128_2 = $d128_1 + 3.1;     # Error.
     If you really want to add the NV 3.1 you need to:
     $d128_2 = $d128_1 + NVtoD128(3.1);

     If you instead wish to add the decimal value 3.1:
     $d128_2 = $d128_1 + '3.1';

    Overloading of floats (NV values) will probably never be enabled
    as that would make it very easy to inadvertently introduce a value
    that was not intended.

CREATION & ASSIGNMENT FUNCTIONS

    The following create and assign a new Math::Decimal128 object.

     ##################################
     # Create, and assign from a string
     $d128 = PVtoD128($string);

      eg: $d128 = PVtoD128('-9427199254740993');
          $d128 = PVtoD128('-930719925474.0993e-15');
          $d128 = Math::Decimal128->new('-978719925474.0993e-20');
          $d128 = Math::Decimal128->new('-9307199254740993e-23');

      If the string arg contains characters that (according to perl's
      looks_like_number API function) don't make sense in numeric
      context, then a global non-numeric flag which was initialised to
      0 is incremented - and the value assigned is in accordance with
      perl's usual rules. If $Math::Decimal128::NNW (0 by default)
      is set to 1, then a non-numeric warning is also issued whenever
      the non-numeric flag is incremented. The arg can be in either
      integer format, scientific notation, float format or (+-)inf/nan.
      Doing Math::Decimal128->new($string) will also create and assign
      using PVtoD128().
      The nnumflag function returns the current value of the global.
      It can be cleared to 0 by running clear_nnum() and set to x with
      set_nnum(x).
      PVtoD128 is now a much improved way of creating and assigning - so
      much so that I'm now recommending it as the preferred way of
      creating a Math::Decimal128 object.
      If you have a ($mantissa, $exponent) pair as your value and you
      wish to create a Math::Decimal128 object using PVtoD128 you can do:
       $d128 = PVtoD128(MEtoPVl($mantissa, $exponent));
       or simply:
       $d128 = PVtoD128($mantissa . 'e' . $exponent);

     ###############################################
     # Create, and assign from mantissa and exponent
     $d128 = MEtoD128($mantissa, $exponent);

      eg: $d128 = MEtoD128('12345', -3); # 12.345

      It's a little kludgy, but this is a safe and sure way
      of creating the Math::Decimal128 object with the intended
      value.
      Checks are conducted to ensure that the arguments are suitable.
      The mantissa string must represent an integer. (There's an
      implicit '.0' at the end of the string.)
      Doing Math::Decimal64->new($mantissa, $exponent) will also
      create and assign using MEtoD128(), and is equally acceptable.

     ###############################################
     # Create, and assign from mantissa and exponent
     $d128 = DPDtoD128($mantissa, $exponent);

      eg: $d128 = DPDtoD128('12345', -3); # 12.345

      This is perhaps a quicker way of creating the Math::Decimal128
      object with the intended value - but works only for DPD format
      - ie only if d128_fmt() returns 'DPD'.
      The mantissa string can be 'inf' or 'nan', optionally prefixed
      with '-' or '+'. Otherwise, the mantissa string must
      represent an integer value (with implied '.0' at the end) - ie
      cannot contain a decimal point.

     #################################################
     # Create, and assign from a UV (unsigned integer)
     $d128 = UVtoD128($uv);

      eg: $d128 = UVtoD128(~0);

      Doing Math::Decimal128->new($uv) will also create and assign
      using UVtoD128().
      Assigns the UV value to the Math::Decimal128 object.

     ################################################
     # Create, and assign from an IV (signed integer)
     $d128 = IVtoD128($iv);

      eg: $d128 = IVtoD128(-15); # -15.0

      Doing Math::Decimal128->new($iv) will also create and assign
      using IVtoD128().
      Assigns the UV value to the Math::Decimal128 object.

     #############################################################
     # Create, and assign from an existing Math::Decimal128 object
     $d128 = D128toD128($d128_0);
     Also:
      $d128 = Math::Decimal128->new($d128_0);
      $d128 = $d128_0; # uses overloaded '='

     #######################################
     # Create, and assign from an NV (real))
     $d128 = NVtoD128($nv);

      eg: $d128 = NVtoD128(-3.25);

      Doing Math::Decimal128->new($nv) will also create and assign
      using NVtoD128().
      Might not always assign the value you think it does. (Eg,
      see test 5 in t/overload_cmp.t.)

     ################################
     # Create, and assign using new()
     $d128 = Math::Decimal128->new([$arg1, [$arg2]]);
      This function calls one of the above functions. It
      determines the appropriate function to call by examining
      the argument(s) provided.
      If no argument is provided, a Math::Decimal128 object
      with a value of NaN is returned.
      If 2 arguments are supplied it uses MEtoD128().
      If one argument is provided, that arg's internal flags are
      used to determine the appropriate function to call.
      Dies if that argument is an NV - allowing an NV argument makes
      it very easy to inadvertently assign an unintended value.

     ####################################
     # Create, and assign using STRtoD128
     $d128 = STRtoD128($string);
      If your C compiler provides the strtod128 function &&
      you configured the Makefile.PL to enable access to that
      function then you can use this function.
      usage is is as for PVtoD128().

     ##############################

ASSIGN A NEW VALUE TO AN EXISTING OBJECT

     #######################################
     assignMEl($d128, $mantissa, $exponent);
      Assigns the value represented by ($mantissa, $exponent)
      to the Math::Decimal128 object, $d128.

      eg: assignMEl($d128, '123459', -6); # 0.123459

     ########################################
     assignDPDl($d128, $mantissa, $exponent);
      Assigns the value represented by ($mantissa, $exponent)
      to the Math::Decimal128 object, $d128. This works more
      efficiently than assignMEl(), but works only when the
      _Decimal128 type is DPD-formatted. ($Math::Decimal128::fmt
      and the d128_fmt() function  will tell you whether the
      _Decimal128 is DPD-formatted or BID-formatted.)

      eg: assignDPDl($d128, '123459', -6); # 0.123459

     ##########################
     assignIVl ($d128, $iv);
     assignUVl ($d128, $uv);
     assignNVl ($d128, $nv);
     assignPVl ($d128, $string); # see PVtoD128 docs (above)
     assignD128($d128, $d128_0);
      Assigns the value represented by the second arg (resp. the
      IV,UV, NV,PV, Math::Decimal128 object) to the
      Math::Decimal128 object, $d128.

      eg: assignPVl($d128, '123459e-6'); # 0.123459

     ##################
     assignNaNl($d128);
      Assigns a NaN to the Math::Decimal128 object, $d128.

     #########################
     assignInfl($d128, $sign);
      Assigns an Inf to the Math::Decimal128 object, $d128.
      If $sign is negative, assigns -Inf; otherwise +Inf.

     #########################

INF, NAN and ZERO OBJECTS

     #######################
     $d128 = InfD128($sign);
      If $sign < 0, creates a new Math::Decimal128 object set to
      negative infinity; else creates a Math::Decimal128 object set
      to positive infinity.

     ##################
     $d128 = NaND128();
      Creates a new Math::Decimal128 object set to NaN.
      Same as "$d128 = Math::Decimal128->new();"

     ########################
     $d128 = ZeroD128($sign);
      If $sign < 0, creates a new Math::Decimal128 object set to
      negative zero; else creates a Math::Decimal128 object set to
      zero.

     ########################

RETRIEVAL FUNCTIONS

    The following functions provide ways of seeing the value of
    Math::Decimal128 objects.

     #############################
     $string = decode_d128($d128);
      This function calls either decode_dpd() or decode_bid(),
      depending upon the formatting used to encode the
      _Decimal128 value (as determined by the d128_fmt() sub).
      It returns the value as a string of the form (-)ME, where:
       "M" is the mantissa, containing up to 34 base 10 digits;
       "E" is the letter "e" followed by the exponent;
       A minus sign is prefixed to any -ve number (incl -0), but no
       sign at all is prefixed for +ve numbers (incl +0).
      Returns the strings '+inf', '-inf', 'nan' for (respectively)
      +infinity, -infinity, NaN.
      The value will be decoded correctly.

     ###################################
     $string = decode_dpd($d128_binary);
     $string = decode_bid($d128_binary);

      As for decode_d128(), except it takes the 128-bit binary
      representation of the _Decimal128 value as its argument. This
      argument is derived from the Math::Decimal128 object ($d128)
      by doing:
        $binary = hex2bin(d128_bytes($d128));
      DPD and BID formats will return different strings - so you
      need to know which encoding (DPD or BID) was used, and then
      call the appropriate decode_*() function for that encoding.
      $Math::Decimal128::fmt and the d128_fmt() sub will tell you
      which encoding is in use.

     #############################
     $fstring = D128toFSTR($d128);

      Returns a string in floating point format (as distinct from
      scientific notation) - ie as 0.123 instead of 123e-3.
      And, yes, (eg) the _Decimal128 value 123e201 will be returned
      as a string consisting of '123' followed by 201 zeroes.

     ######################################
     $rstring = D128toRSTR($d128, $places);
      Same as D128toFSTR() but the returned string has been rounded
      (to nearest, ties to even) to the number of decimal places
      specified by $places.
      Croaks with appropriate error message if $places < 0.

     #########################################
     ($mantissa, $exponent) = D128toME($d128);
      Returns the value of the Math::Decimal128 object as a
      mantissa (string of up to 34 decimal digits) and exponent.
      You can then manipulate those values to output the
      value in your preferred format.

     ######################
     $nv = D128toNV($d128);
      This function returns the value of the Math::Decimal128
      object to a perl scalar (NV). It will not translate the value
      accurately if the precision required to express the value
      precisely as a _Decimal128 value is greater than the precision
      provided by the NV.

     ############
     print $d128;
      Will print the value in the format (eg) -12345e-2, which
      equates to the decimal -123.45. Uses D128toME().

OTHER FUNCTIONS

     #################
     $iv = Math::Decimal128::nnumflag(); # not exported
      Returns the value of the non-numeric flag. This flag is
      initialized to zero, but incemented by 1 whenever the
      _atodecimal function (used internally by assignPV and
      PVtoD128) is handed a string containing non-numeric
      characters. The value of the flag therefore tells us how
      many times _atodecimal() was handed such a string. The flag
      can be reset to 0 by running clear_nnum().

     ##############
     Math::Decimal128::set_nnum($iv); # not exported
      Resets the global non-numeric flag to the value specified by
      $iv.

     #############
     Math::Decimal128::clear_nnum(); # not exported
      Resets the global non-numeric flag to 0.(Essentially the same
      as running set_nnum(0).)

     ################################
     ($man, $exp) = PVtoMEl($string);
      $string is a string representing a floating-point value - eg
      'inf', '+nan', '123.456', '-1234.56e-1', or '12345.6E-2'.
      The function returns an array of (mantissa, exponent), where
      the mantissa is a string of base 10 digits (prefixed with a
      '-' for -ve values) with an implied decimal point at the
      end of the string. For strings such as 'inf' and 'nan', the
      mantissa will be set to $string, and the exponent to 0.
      For the example strings given above, the returned arrays
      would be ('inf', 0), ('+nan', 0), ('123456', -3), ('-123456',
      -3) and ('123456', -3) respectively.

     ########################################
     $string = MEtoPVl($mantissa, $exponent);
      If $mantissa =~ /inf|nan/i returns $mantissa.
      Else returns $mantissa . 'e' . $exponent.

     ##################
     $fmt = d128_fmt();
      Returns either 'DPD' or 'BID', depending upon whether the
      (internal) _Decimal128 values are encoded using the 'Densely
      Packed Decimal' format or the 'Binary Integer Decimal'
      format.

     #########################
     $hex = d128_bytes($d128);
      Returns the hex representation of the _Decimal128 value
      as a string of 32 hex characters.

     #############################
     $binary = hex2bin($d128_hex);
      Takes the string returned by d128_bytes (above) and
      rewrites it in binary form - ie as a string of 128 base 2
      digits.

     ###################
     $d128 = DEC128_MAX; # 9999999999999999999999999999999999e6111
     $d128 = DEC128_MIN; # 1e-6176
      DEC128_MAX is the largest positive finite representable
      _Decimal128 value.
      DEC128_MIN is the smallest positive non-zero representable
      _Decimal128 value.
      Multiply these by -1 to get their negative counterparts.

     #####################
     $d128 = Exp10l($pow);
      Returns a Math::Decimal128 object with a value of
      10 ** $pow.

     #########################
     $bool = have_strtod128();
      Returns true if, when building Math::Decimal128,
      the Makefile.PL was configured to make the STRtoD128()
      function available for your build of Math::Decimal128. Else
      returns false.
      (No use making this function available if your compiler's
      C library doesn't provide the strtod128 function.)

     ###########################
     $test = is_ZeroD128($d128);
      Returns:
       -1 if $d128 is negative zero;
        1 if $d128 is a positive zero;
        0 if $d128 is not zero.

     ##########################
     $test = is_InfD128($d128);
      Returns:
       -1 if $d128 is negative infinity;
        1 if $d128 is positive infinity;
        0 if $d128 is not infinity.

     ##########################
     $bool = is_NaND128($d128);
      Returns:
        1 if $d128 is a NaN;
        0 if $d128 is not a NaN.

     #########################
     $sign = get_signl($d128);
      Returns the sign ('+' or '-') of $d128.

     #######################
     $exp = get_expl($d128);
      Returns the exponent of $d128. This is the value that's
      stored internally within the encapsulated _Decimal128 value;
      it may differ from the value that you assigned. For example,
      if you've assigned the value MEtoD128('100', 0) it will
      probably be held internally as '1e2', not '100e0'.

     #######################

LICENSE

    This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or
    modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
    Copyright 2014-17 Sisyphus

AUTHOR

    Sisyphus <sisyphus at(@) cpan dot (.) org>