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Mojo::SQLite - A tiny Mojolicious wrapper for SQLite


  use Mojo::SQLite;

  # Select the library version
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('sqlite:test.db');
  say $sql->db->query('select sqlite_version() as version')->hash->{version};

  # Use migrations to create a table
  -- 1 up
  create table names (id integer primary key autoincrement, name text);
  -- 1 down
  drop table names;

  # Use migrations to drop and recreate the table

  # Get a database handle from the cache for multiple queries
  my $db = $sql->db;

  # Use SQL::Abstract to generate simple CRUD queries for you
  $db->insert('names', {name => 'Isabel'});
  my $id = $db->select('names', ['id'], {name => 'Isabel'})->hash->{id};
  $db->update('names', {name => 'Bel'}, {id => $id});
  $db->delete('names', {name => 'Bel'});

  # Insert a few rows in a transaction with SQL and placeholders
  eval {
    my $tx = $db->begin;
    $db->query('insert into names (name) values (?)', 'Sara');
    $db->query('insert into names (name) values (?)', 'Stefan');
  say $@ if $@;

  # Insert another row with SQL::Abstract and return the generated id
  say $db->insert('names', {name => 'Daniel'})->last_insert_id;
  # JSON roundtrip
  say $db->query('select ? as foo', {json => {bar => 'baz'}})
    ->expand(json => 'foo')->hash->{foo}{bar};

  # Select one row at a time
  my $results = $db->query('select * from names');
  while (my $next = $results->hash) {
    say $next->{name};

  # Select all rows with SQL::Abstract
  say $_->{name} for $db->select('names')->hashes->each;


Mojo::SQLite is a tiny wrapper around DBD::SQLite that makes SQLite a lot of fun to use with the Mojolicious real-time web framework. Use all SQL features SQLite has to offer, generate CRUD queries from data structures, and manage your database schema with migrations.


Database and statement handles are cached automatically, so they can be reused transparently to increase performance. And you can handle connection timeouts gracefully by holding on to them only for short amounts of time.

  use Mojolicious::Lite;
  use Mojo::SQLite;

  helper sqlite => sub { state $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('sqlite:test.db') };

  get '/' => sub ($c) {
    my $db = $c->sqlite->db;
    $c->render(json => $db->query(q{select datetime('now','localtime') as now})->hash);


In this example application, we create a sqlite helper to store a Mojo::SQLite object. Our action calls that helper and uses the method "db" in Mojo::SQLite to dequeue a Mojo::SQLite::Database object from the connection pool. Then we use the method "query" in Mojo::SQLite::Database to execute an SQL statement, which returns a Mojo::SQLite::Results object. And finally we call the method "hash" in Mojo::SQLite::Results to retrieve the first row as a hash reference.

All I/O and queries are performed synchronously, and SQLite's default journal mode only supports concurrent reads from multiple processes while the database is not being written. The "Write-Ahead Log" journal mode allows multiple processes to read and write concurrently to the same database file (but only one can write at a time). WAL mode is enabled by the wal_mode option, currently enabled by default, and persists when opening that same database in the future.

  # Performed concurrently (concurrent with writing only with WAL journaling mode)
  my $pid = fork || die $!;
  say $sql->db->query(q{select datetime('now','localtime') as time})->hash->{time};
  exit unless $pid;

The no_wal option prevents WAL mode from being enabled in new databases but doesn't affect databases where it has already been enabled. wal_mode may not be set by default in a future release. See and "journal_mode" in DBD::SQLite for more information.

The double-quoted string literal misfeature is disabled for all connections since Mojo::SQLite 3.003; use single quotes for string literals and double quotes for identifiers, as is normally recommended.

All cached database handles will be reset automatically if a new process has been forked, this allows multiple processes to share the same Mojo::SQLite object safely.

Any database errors will throw an exception as RaiseError is automatically enabled, so use eval or Try::Tiny to catch them. This makes transactions with "begin" in Mojo::SQLite::Database easy.

While passing a file path of :memory: (or a custom "dsn" with mode=memory) will create a temporary database, in-memory databases cannot be shared between connections, so subsequent calls to "db" may return connections to completely different databases. For a temporary database that can be shared between connections and processes, pass a file path of :temp: to store the database in a temporary directory (this is the default), or consider constructing a temporary directory yourself with File::Temp if you need to reuse the filename. A temporary directory allows SQLite to create additional temporary files safely.

  use File::Spec::Functions 'catfile';
  use File::Temp;
  use Mojo::SQLite;
  my $tempdir = File::Temp->newdir; # Deleted when object goes out of scope
  my $tempfile = catfile $tempdir, 'test.db';
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->from_filename($tempfile);


This distribution also contains a well-structured example blog application you can use for inspiration. This application shows how to apply the MVC design pattern in practice.


Mojo::SQLite inherits all events from Mojo::EventEmitter and can emit the following new ones.


  $sql->on(connection => sub ($sql, $dbh) {
    $dbh->do('pragma journal_size_limit=1000000');

Emitted when a new database connection has been established.


Mojo::SQLite implements the following attributes.


  my $abstract = $sql->abstract;
  $sql         = $sql->abstract(SQL::Abstract->new);

SQL::Abstract object used to generate CRUD queries for Mojo::SQLite::Database, defaults to a SQL::Abstract::Pg object with name_sep set to . and quote_char set to ".

  # Generate WHERE clause and bind values
  my($stmt, @bind) = $sql->abstract->where({foo => 'bar', baz => 'yada'});

SQL::Abstract::Pg provides additional features to the SQL::Abstract query methods in Mojo::SQLite::Database such as -json and limit/offset. The for feature is not applicable to SQLite queries.

  $sql->db->select(['some_table', ['other_table', foo_id => 'id']],
    ['foo', [bar => 'baz'], \q{datetime('now') as dt}],
    {foo => 'value'},
    {order_by => 'foo', limit => 10, offset => 5, group_by => ['foo'], having => {baz => 'value'}});

  # Upsert supported since SQLite 3.24.0
  $sql->db->insert('some_table', {name => $name, value => $value},
    {on_conflict => [name => {value => \'"excluded"."value"'}]});


  my $bool = $sql->auto_migrate;
  $sql     = $sql->auto_migrate($bool);

Automatically migrate to the latest database schema with "migrations", as soon as "db" has been called for the first time.


  my $class = $sql->database_class;
  $sql      = $sql->database_class('MyApp::Database');

Class to be used by "db", defaults to Mojo::SQLite::Database. Note that this class needs to have already been loaded before "db" is called.


  my $dsn = $sql->dsn;
  $sql    = $sql->dsn('dbi:SQLite:uri=file:foo.db');

Data source name, defaults to dbi:SQLite:dbname= followed by a path to a temporary file.


  my $max = $sql->max_connections;
  $sql    = $sql->max_connections(3);

Maximum number of idle database handles to cache for future use, defaults to 1.


  my $migrations = $sql->migrations;
  $sql           = $sql->migrations(Mojo::SQLite::Migrations->new);

Mojo::SQLite::Migrations object you can use to change your database schema more easily.

  # Load migrations from file and migrate to latest version


  my $options = $sql->options;
  $sql        = $sql->options({AutoCommit => 1, RaiseError => 1});

Options for database handles, defaults to setting sqlite_string_mode to DBD_SQLITE_STRING_MODE_UNICODE_FALLBACK, setting AutoCommit, AutoInactiveDestroy and RaiseError, and deactivating PrintError. Note that AutoCommit and RaiseError are considered mandatory, so deactivating them would be very dangerous. See "ATTRIBUTES COMMON TO ALL HANDLES" in DBI and "DRIVER PRIVATE ATTRIBUTES" in DBD::SQLite for more information on available options.


  my $parent = $sql->parent;
  $sql       = $sql->parent(Mojo::SQLite->new);

Another Mojo::SQLite object to use for connection management, instead of establishing and caching our own database connections.


Mojo::SQLite inherits all methods from Mojo::EventEmitter and implements the following new ones.


  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new;
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('file:test.db);
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new('sqlite:test.db');
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new(Mojo::SQLite->new);

Construct a new Mojo::SQLite object and parse connection string with "from_string" if necessary.

  # Customize configuration further
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->dsn('dbi:SQLite:dbname=test.db');
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->dsn('dbi:SQLite:uri=file:test.db?mode=memory');

  # Pass filename directly
  my $sql = Mojo::SQLite->new->from_filename($filename);


  my $db = $sql->db;

Get a database object based on "database_class" (which is usually Mojo::SQLite::Database) for a cached or newly established database connection. The DBD::SQLite database handle will be automatically cached again when that object is destroyed, so you can handle problems like connection timeouts gracefully by holding on to it only for short amounts of time.

  # Add up all the money
  say $sql->db->select('accounts')
    ->hashes->reduce(sub { $a->{money} + $b->{money} });


  $sql = $sql->from_filename('C:\\Documents and Settings\\foo & bar.db', $options);

Parse database filename directly. Unlike "from_string", the filename is parsed as a local filename and not a URL. A hashref of "options" may be passed as the second argument.

  # Absolute filename

  # Relative to current directory

  # Temporary file database (default)

  # In-memory temporary database (single connection only)
  my $db = $sql->from_filename(':memory:')->db;

  # Additional options
  $sql->from_filename($filename, { PrintError => 1 });
  # Readonly connection without WAL mode
  $sql->from_filename($filename, { ReadOnly => 1, no_wal => 1 });
  # Strict unicode strings and WAL mode
  use DBD::SQLite::Constants ':dbd_sqlite_string_mode';
  $sql->from_filename($filename, { sqlite_string_mode => DBD_SQLITE_STRING_MODE_UNICODE_STRICT, wal_mode => 1 });


  $sql = $sql->from_string('test.db');
  $sql = $sql->from_string('file:test.db');
  $sql = $sql->from_string('file:///C:/foo/bar.db');
  $sql = $sql->from_string('sqlite:C:%5Cfoo%5Cbar.db');
  $sql = $sql->from_string(Mojo::SQLite->new);

Parse configuration from connection string or use another Mojo::SQLite object as "parent". Connection strings are parsed as URLs, so you should construct them using a module like Mojo::URL, URI::file, or URI::db. For portability on non-Unix-like systems, either construct the URL with the sqlite scheme, or use "new" in URI::file to construct a URL with the file scheme. A URL with no scheme will be parsed as a file URL, and file URLs are parsed according to the current operating system. If specified, the hostname must be localhost. If the URL has a query string, it will be parsed and applied to "options".

  # Absolute filename

  # Relative to current directory

  # Connection string must be a valid URL
  $sql->from_string(URI::db->new->Mojo::Base::tap(engine => 'sqlite')->Mojo::Base::tap(dbname => $filename));

  # Temporary file database (default)

  # In-memory temporary database (single connection only)
  my $db = $sql->from_string(':memory:')->db;

  # Additional options
  $sql->from_string(Mojo::URL->new->scheme('sqlite')->path($filename)->query(sqlite_see_if_its_a_number => 1));
  $sql->from_string(URI::file->new($filename)->Mojo::Base::tap(query_form => {PrintError => 1}));

  # Readonly connection without WAL mode

  # String unicode strings and WAL mode
  use DBD::SQLite::Constants ':dbd_sqlite_string_mode';
    ->query(sqlite_string_mode => DBD_SQLITE_STRING_MODE_UNICODE_STRICT, wal_mode => 1));


You can set the DBI_TRACE environment variable to get some advanced diagnostics information printed by DBI.



This is the class hierarchy of the Mojo::SQLite distribution.


Report any issues on the public bugtracker.


Dan Book,


Sebastian Riedel, author of Mojo::Pg, which this distribution is based on.


Copyright 2015, Dan Book.

This library is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the Artistic License version 2.0.


Mojolicious, Mojo::Pg, DBD::SQLite