Brian Kelly
and 1 contributors

NAME

Net::FullAuto - Fully Automate ANY Process with *Persistent* SSH/SFTP from One Host

NOTE TO USERS

Please contact me or my team at the following email addresses -

  • Brian.Kelly@fullauto.com or team@fullauto.com

and let us know of any and all bugs, issues, problems, questions as well as suggestions for improvements to both the documentation and module itself. We will make every effort to get back to you quickly.

Update the module from CPAN *often* - as we anticipate adding documentation and fixing bugs and making improvements often.

THANKS - and GOOD LUCK with your Net::FullAuto project(s)!

Brian Kelly, April 11, 2015

DISCLAIMER

 Beware that this software is provided "as is", and comes
 with no warranty of any kind, either express or implied.
 If you use the contents of this distribution, you do so
 at your own risk, and you agree to free the author(s) of
 any consequences arising from such use, either intended
 or otherwise.

SSH SYNOPSIS

  •    use Net::FullAuto;
    
       #  IMPORTANT! => FullAuto was designed to be a framework, and as such
       #                is better utilized as a stand-alone application rather
       #                than as a traditional Perl module as it is shown in
       #                this synopsis. You can certainly use it as a module in
       #                your perl scripts, with confidence, but best practices
       #                and better security and utility are reasons to consider
       #                porting your scripts to a FullAuto Instruction Set and
       #                invoking them with the fullauto (or fa) command.
    
       my $ip_or_hostname = $ARGV[0] || 'localhost';
       my $username       = $ARGV[1] || getlogin || getpwuid($<);
       my $identity_file  = $ARGV[2] || ''; # required unless password or
                                            # or key-based login
       my $password       = $ARGV[3] || ''; # required unless identity file
                                            # or key-based login
    
       my $remote_host_block={
    
          Label => 'Remote Host',
          HostName => $ip_or_hostname,
          LoginID => $username,
          identity_file => $identity_file, # can leave out if password or
                                           # or key-based login
          password => $password,           # can leave out if identity file
                                           # or key-based login
          #debug => 1,
          #quiet => 1,
    
       };
    
       my ($remote_host_handle,$error)=('','');   # Define and scope variables
    
       ($remote_host_handle,$error)=connect_ssh($remote_host_block);
       die "Connect_SSH ERROR!: $error\n" if $error;
    
       my ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=('','',''); # Define and scope variables
    
       ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$remote_host_handle->cmd('hostname');
       die $stderr if $stderr;
    
       print "REMOTE HOSTNAME IS: $stdout\n";
    
       ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$remote_host_handle->cwd('/');
       die $stderr if $stderr;
    
       ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$remote_host_handle->cmd('pwd');
       die $stderr if $stderr;
    
       print "CURRENT DIRECTORY IS: $stdout\n";
    
       #$remote_host_handle->close(); # Use this -OR- cleanup method
       cleanup; # Use this routine for faster cleanup

SFTP SYNOPSIS

  •    use Net::FullAuto;
    
       my $ip_or_hostname = $ARGV[0] || 'localhost';
       my $username       = $ARGV[1] || getlogin || getpwuid($<);
       my $identity_file  = $ARGV[2] || ''; # required unless password or
                                            # or key-based login
       my $password       = $ARGV[3] || ''; # required unless identity file
                                            # or key-based login
    
       my $remote_host_block={
    
          Label => 'Remote Host',
          HostName => $ip_or_hostname,
          LoginID => $username,
          identity_file => $identity_file, # can leave out if password or
                                           # or key-based login
          password => $password,           # can leave out if identity file
                                           # or key-based login
          #debug => 1,
          #quiet => 1,
    
       };
    
       ($remote_host_handle,$error)=connect_sftp($remote_host_block);
       die "Connect_SFTP ERROR!: $error\n" if $error;
    
       my ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=('','',''); # Define and scope variables
    
       ($stdout,$stderr)=$remote_host_handle->cmd('pwd');
       die $stderr if $stderr;
    
       print "REMOTE DIRECTORY IS: $stdout\n";
    
       ($stdout,$stderr)=$remote_host_handle->cwd('/');
       die $stderr if $stderr;
    
       ($stdout,$stderr)=$remote_host_handle->cmd('pwd');
       die $stderr if $stderr;
    
       print "CURRENT DIRECTORY IS: $stdout\n";
    
       #$remote_host_handle->close(); # Use this -OR- cleanup method
       cleanup; # Use this routine for faster cleanup

see METHODS section below

DESCRIPTION

Net::FullAuto (aka FullAuto) is a Perl module and automation framework that transforms Perl into a true multi-host scripting language. It accomplishes this with multiple *PERSISTENT* SSH and SFTP connections to multiple hosts simultaneously. With FullAuto entire hosts are encapsulated in a single filehandle. Think of each filehandle as an always available SSH client (like PuTTY) and SFTP client (like WinSCP) that is available progammatically to the script.

The importance of PERSISTENT connections when attempting to programmatically control remote hosts cannot be over stated. Essentially, it means that FullAuto can automate almost EVERYTHING.

Think about that for a moment.

Talk is cheap. SEEING is believing. To see FullAuto in action, please download and explore the "Self Service Demonstration" at http://sourceforge.net/projects/fullauto. The demo contains an embedded YouTube video (https://youtu.be/gRwa1QoOS7M) explaining and showing the entire automated process of setting up a complex multi-host infrastructure in the Amazon EC2 Cloud. After watching or while watching the video, you can run the demo and standup your own clould infrastructure in just a few minutes. The Hadoop demo is particularly interesting and timely given the recent explosion of BIG DATA and the need to access it more powerfully.

Imagine a scripting language that can turn an entire network of hosts into a virtual single host? This is precisely what FullAuto does.

How is FullAuto different from programs like Chef (http://www.chef.io) and Puppet (http://www.puppetlabs.com) and Ansible (http://www.ansible.com) and Salt (http://www.saltstack.com)? All of which essentially claim the same ability and functionality?

Chef and Puppet and Salt require the use of agents on remote hosts. FullAuto has no such dependency as it is agent-less. It works against any ssh server implementation on any operating system. Ansible claims to be "agent-less" but actually has a dependency on the Python scripting language being available on the remote host, as well as requiring that the OpenSSH daemon on remote nodes be configured to utilize the ControlPersist feature. FullAuto has no such dependency (FullAuto does not even require Perl on the remote nodes!), and if any manual terminal program or utility can connect to a device via ssh or sftp or scp or even telnet or ftp, FullAuto can connect as well - persistently!

FullAuto utilizes ssh and sftp (can also use telnet and ftp, though for security reasons, this is NOT recommended) to bring the command enviroments of any number of remote computers (OS of remote computer does not matter), together in one convenient scripting space. With FullAuto, you write code once, on one computer, and have it execute on multiple computers simultaneously, in an interactive dynamic fashion, as if the many computers were truly one.

FullAuto is powerful. FullAuto can be run by a user in a Menu driven, interactive mode (using the Term::Menus module - also written by Brian Kelly), or via UNIX or Linux cron or Windows Scheduler or Cygwin cron in a fully automated (and secure) fashion.

Example: A user needs to pull data from a database, put it in a text file, zip and encrypt it, and then transfer that file to another computer on the other side of the world via the internet - in one step, and in a secure fashion.

FullAuto is the answer. Assume FullAuto is installed on computer one, the database is on computer two, and the remote computer in China is computer three. When the user starts the script using Net::FullAuto, FullAuto will connect via ssh and sftp (simultaneously) to computer two, and via sftp to computer three. Using a sql command utility on computer two, data can be extracted and piped to a text file on computer two. Then, FullAuto will run the command for a zip utility over ssh on computer two to compress the file. Next (assume the encryption software is on computer one) FullAuto will transfer this file to computer one, where it can be encrypted with licensed encryption software, and then finally, the encrypted file can be transferred to computer three via sftp. Email and pager software can be used for automated notification as well.

Example: The same process above needs to run at 2:00am unattended.

A script using FullAuto can be run via cron (or any other scheduler) to perform the same actions above without user involvement.

FullAuto is reliable and fault tolerant. Each individual command run on a remote computer returns to FullAuto BOTH stdout (output) and stderr (error messages). With this feature, users and programmers can write code to essentially trap remote errors "locally" and respond with any number of error recovery approaches. Everything from sending an e-mail, to re-running the command, to switching remote computers and much more is available as error handling options. The only limits are the skills and ingenuity of the programmers and administrators using FullAuto. If FullAuto loses a connection to a remote host, automatic attempts will be made to re-connect seemlessly - with errors reported when the configured number of attempts fail.

FullAuto is easy. FullAuto uses a mix of traditional and object-oriented features to maximize ease of use and maintenance. Due to the unique nature of distributed computing, combined with the need for ease of maintaining a lot of configuration information (i.e. ip addresses, host names, login ID's, passwords, etc), along with any number of routines or processes, as well as the need for robust security, FullAuto has a unique layout and architechture. Normally in perl, programmers segregate functional code in separate script files or perl modules or packages. FullAuto supports this as well, but advocates keeping process code confined to a single routine in a kind of "process library" file. This is in order that FullAuto can provide additional built-in features like a command-handle to the local machine without having to explicitly create it. Or, being able to connect to a remote host with syntax as simple as:

 $computer_one=connect_ssh('COMPUTER_ONE');

Commands also are easy:

 ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$computer_one->cmd('ls -l');

And no cleanup is necessary - FullAuto handles this AUTOMATICALLY.

This is a complete routine or process:

 sub ls_one {

    my ($computer_one,$stdout,$stderr,$exitcode); # Scope Variables

    $computer_one=connect_ssh('COMPUTER_ONE');      # Connect to Remote Host

    ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$computer_one->cmd('ls -l');  # Run Command

    if ($stderr) {                                  # Check Results
       print "We Have and ERROR! : $stderr\n";
    } else {
       print "Output of ls command from Computer One:\n\n$stdout\n\n";
    }
 }                                                  # DONE!! 

As with most things in life, what many or most consider a blessing, others consider a curse. Perl's motto is "There's more than one way to do it." (TIMTOWTDI) Not everyone thinks this is utopia. Perl also attempts "to make easy tasks easy and difficult tasks possible." FullAuto - written in Perl - *IS* Perl. It is essentially a Perl extension and therefore adheres to the same goals as Perl itself: i.e. - there's no "one" correct way to use FullAuto.

FullAuto is secure. It uses ssh and sftp for communication accross hosts and devices. FullAuto uses password-less key exchange, but also uses powerful encryption to store passwords to remote resources, when key exchange is not available.

When using passwords with FullAuto (again - password-less key exchange is ALWAYS recommended as it is more secure, passwords should only be used when key exchange is not available), a user on the first iteration of a process will be prompted to enter a password for each and every remote resource (or even local resource, since FullAuto can and does use ssh to acquire enhanced user-rights on the local computer.) Every following iteration will then prompt for a password only once (or a password can even be passed in via command line or method argument) with every other needed password retrieved from an encrypted datafile which utilizes the user's main login password as the "salt" (not to be confused with the program Salt mentioned earlier).

For added security, and enhanced user functionality, FullAuto can be installed on UNIX and Linux based hosts to use setuid. (Windows/Cygwin does not support "setuid" - so this feature is not available on Windows computers. This is the ONLY Windows limitation.) With FullAuto setup to use setuid, users can be configured to run complex distributed processes in a secure fashion without the permissions actually needed by the remote (or even local) resources. On top of that, it is possible to create a process administered by numerous individuals such that no one person knows or has access to all passwords. For example, a database administrator on a remote computer can "loan" his username and password to drop a table (for instance) for a process that will be run by another user remotely. During the first iteration, after the user enters her/his password, the DB can then (when prompted), enter his/her password which will then be encrypted locally with the user's password as the salt. With the encrypted datafile and perl code protected from user write (or even read) access via setuid on UNIX and Linux hosts (setup and administered by yet another individual or group - such as the root user), there is no way for either the DB to discover the user's password, or the user to discover the DB's password. Even the root user of the local computer running FullAuto will not be able to discover these passwords. (When setuid is setup and used properly). This setup will allow users to run FullAuto processes without access to the passwords controlling remote access, or for that matter, the code running those processes.

Reasons to use this module are:

  • You want the output of the ps -e command from a remote UNIX computer. Example:

    • In the file fa_hosts.pm add the connection information for the remote computer (This will suffice for all following examples):

             {
                'Label'         => 'COMPUTER_ONE',
                'IP'            => '10.200.210.37',
                'HostName'      => 'compter_one.w2k.fullauto.com',
                'Login'         => 'bkelly',
                'LogFile'       => "/cygdrive/d/fullauto/logs/FAlog${$}d".
                                   "${FA_Core::invoked[2]}".
                                   "${FA_Core::invoked[3]}.txt",
             },

      In the file fa_code.pm add the *process* subroutine code:

             sub ps_one {
      
                my ($computer_one,$stdout,$stderr,$exitcode); # Scope Variables
      
                $computer_one=connect_ssh('COMPUTER_ONE'); # Connect to
                                                           # Remote Host via
                                                           # ssh only
      
                ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=
                   $computer_one->cmd('ps -e'); # Run Command
      
                if ($stderr) {                             # Check Results
                   print "We have an ERROR! : $stderr\n";
                } else {
                   print "Output of ps -e command from Computer One:".
                         "\n\n$stdout\n\n";
                }
      
             }

      Run script using FullAuto (Hint: the --<...>-- line are instructions and are not displayed when the program actually runs)

      --< 1 >-<Type Command and <ENTER> >---------------------------

             fullauto  --code  ps_one

      --< The user sees: >------------------------------------------

       STARTING FULLAUTO on Wed Jun  6 12:27:08 2007
      
        Starting fullauto . . .
      
      
      
        Running in TEST mode
      
        computer_one Login <bkelly> :

      --< 2 >-<ENTER>-(Hint: since 'Login' was specified in fa_hosts.pm 'bkelly' appears as the default)-

        Password:

      --< 3 >-<Type Password and <ENTER> >--------------------------

      --> Logging into localhost via ssh . . .

              Logging into computer_one.w2k.fullauto.com via ssh  . . .
      
       Output of ps -e command from Computer One:
      
         PID TTY          TIME CMD
           1 ?        00:00:03 init
           2 ?        00:00:00 migration/0
           3 ?        00:00:00 ksoftirqd/0
          80 ?        00:00:00 aio/0
        2805 ?        00:00:08 syslogd
        2820 ?        00:00:00 irqbalance
        2839 ?        00:00:00 portmap
        2859 ?        00:00:00 rpc.statd
        2891 ?        00:00:00 rpc.idmapd
        2949 ?        00:00:00 ypbind
        2969 ?        00:00:45 nscd
        2987 ?        00:00:01 smartd
        2997 ?        00:00:00 acpid
        3059 ?        00:00:00 xinetd
        3072 ?        00:00:14 ntpd
        3092 ?        00:00:19 sendmail
        3111 ?        00:00:00 gpm
        3121 ?        00:00:03 crond
        3153 ?        00:00:00 xfs
        3172 ?        00:00:00 atd
        3188 ?        00:00:00 dbus-daemon-1
        3201 ?        00:05:09 hald
        3210 tty1     00:00:00 mingetty
        1432 ?        00:02:34 rvd
       14675 ?        00:00:00 kdbd
       17052 ?        00:00:00 postmaster
       24389 ?        00:00:00 chatserv_d
       16463 ?        00:00:06 java
       11700 ?        00:04:48 cmefx
         905 ?        00:00:00 automount
         563 ?        00:00:00 sshd
         564 pts/30   00:00:00 bash
         641 pts/30   00:00:00 ps
         642 pts/30   00:00:00 sed
      
       FULLAUTO COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY on Wed Jun  6 12:28:30 2007
  • You want to zip and transfer a remote file from COMPUTER_ONE to your local computer and then unzip it:

       In the file "fa_code.pm" add the *process* subroutine code:
    
           sub get_file_from_one {
    
              my ($computer_one,$stdout,$stderr,$exitcode); # Scope Variables
    
              $computer_one=connect_host('COMPUTER_ONE'); # Connect to
                                                          # Remote Host via
                                                          # ssh *and* sftp
    
              ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$computer_one->cmd(
                                'echo test > test.txt');  # Run Remote Command
    
              ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$computer_one->cmd(
                                'zip test test.txt');     # Run Remote Command
    
              if ($stderr) {                              # Check Results
                 print "We Have and ERROR! : $stderr\n";
              } else {
                 print "Output of zip command from Computer One:".
                       "\n\n$stdout\n\n";
              }
    
              ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$computer_one->get(
                                'test.zip');              # Get the File
    
              if ($stderr) {                              # Check Results
                 print "We Have and ERROR! : $stderr\n";
              } else {
                 print "Output of zip command from Computer One:".
                       "\n\n$stdout\n\n";
              }
    
              ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$localhost->cmd(
                                'unzip test.zip');        # Run Local Command
    
           }

    Run script using FullAuto (Hint: the --< # >-- line are instructions and are not displayed when the program actually runs)

    --< 1 >-<Type Command and <ENTER> >---------------------------

           fullautoS<  >--codeS<  >get_file_from_one

    --< The user sees: >------------------------------------------

     STARTING FULLAUTO on Wed Jun  6 12:27:08 2007
    
      Starting fullauto . . .
    
    
    
      Running in TEST mode
    
      computer_one Login <bkelly> :

    --< 2 >-<ENTER>-(Hint: since 'Login' was specified in fa_hosts.pm 'bkelly' appears as the default)-

      Password:

    --< 3 >-<Type Password and <ENTER> >--------------------------

     --> Logging into localhost via ssh  . . .
    
    
            Logging into localhost via ssh  . . .
    
    
            Logging into computer_one.w2k.fullauto.com via sftp  . . .
    
    
            Logging into computer_one.w2k.fullauto.com via ssh  . . .
    
    
     Output of zip command from Computer One:
    
     updating: test.txt (stored 0%)
    
     get "/tmp/test.zip"
    
    
     Fetching /tmp/test.zip to test.zip
     /tmp/test.zip                                   0%    0     0.0KB/s   --:-- ETA
     /tmp/test.zip                                 100%  153     0.2KB/s   00:00
    
     Output of zip command from Computer One:
    
     Fetching /tmp/test.zip to test.zip
     /tmp/test.zip                                 100%  153     0.2KB/s   00:00

SETUP

Net::FullAuto requires some preliminary setup before it can be used.

Setup Checklist

  • Setup for UNIX OS's (like Linux)

  • 1. Check for a Perl 5+ installation

    Net::FullAuto requires a local installation of perl5. To test for perl, type perl -v at the UNIX/Linux command prompt:

      $ perl -v
    
      This is perl, v5.8.7 built for x86_64-linux-thread-multi 
    
      Copyright 1987-2005, Larry Wall
    
      Perl may be copied only under the terms of either the Artistic License or the
      GNU General Public License, which may be found in the Perl 5 source kit.
    
      Complete documentation for Perl, including FAQ lists, should be found on
      this system using `man perl' or `perldoc perl'.  If you have access to the
      Internet, point your browser at http://www.perl.org/, the Perl Home Page.
    2. Check for a working CPAN utility

    Net::FullAuto is easiest to set up with a working CPAN utility. To test for cpan, type cpan -v at the UNIX/Linux command prompt:

      $ cpan -v
      /usr/bin/cpan script version 1.9, CPAN.pm version 1.9402

    If you don't have a working cpan, then perhaps you can find some assistance here:

      http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2008/09/how-to-install-perl-modules-manually-and-using-cpan-command/
    3. Check for a working C compiler

    Net::Fullauto requires IO::Pty, and this module needs to be compiled locally with a C compiler. Check for an installation of cc or gcc .

       $ gcc --version
       gcc (GCC) 4.5.3
       Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
       warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
    4. Via cpan, install Net::FullAuto.
       $ cpan
    
       cpan shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.9402)
       Enter 'h' for help.
    
       cpan[1]> install Net::FullAuto
    5. Create or modify fa_hosts.pm file.

    See the fa_hosts.pm Setup and Location section below.

    6. Create or modify fa_code.pm file.

    See the fa_code.pm Setup and Location section below.

  • Setup for Windows OS's (like XP and Higher)

Setup Components

  • fa_hosts.pm Setup and Location

  • In order to manage connection configuration information in the easiest way possible, all host information must be stored in anonymous hash blocks in a file named fa_hosts.pm. This file can be located in one of two places. There is a default fa_hosts.pm file included with the distribution, and you can locate it wherever Net::FullAuto was installed. Usually this is in the /lib directory under /usr or /usr/local/. A typical location would be /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8/Net/FullAuto/fa_hosts.pm. Hosts blocks can be added directly to this file (provided that file is given write permissions: i.e. chmod u+w fa_hosts.pm)

  • fa_code.pm Setup and Location

  • In order to create the most flexibility, power and convencience, Net::FullAuto requires the use of a fa_code.pm module file. This file can be located in one of two places. There is a default fa_code.pm file included with the distribution, and you can locate it wherever Net::FullAuto was installed. Usually this is in the /lib directory under /usr or /usr/local/. A typical location would be /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8/Net/FullAuto/fa_hosts.pm. Custom subroutines can be added directly to this file (provided that file is given write permissions: i.e. chmod u+w fa_code.pm)

  • Setting the $fa_hosts location variable

  • You can (and should) define where you wish to store custom fa_hosts.pm files with the $fa_hosts variable.

    IMPORTANT! - Be sure that this variable is defined in your invoking script. IT MUST BE PLACED IN A BEGIN {} block BEFORE the use Net::FullAuto; line:

              BEGIN { our $fa_hosts='/home/user/my_hosts.pm' }
              use Net::FullAuto;
              . . . 
  • Setting the $fa_code location variable

  • You can (and should) define where you wish to store custom fa_code.pm files with the $fa_code variable.

    IMPORTANT! - Be sure that this variable is defined in your invoking script. IT MUST BE PLACED IN A BEGIN {} block BEFORE the use Net::FullAuto; line:

              BEGIN { our $fa_code='/home/user/my_code.pm' }
              use Net::FullAuto;
              . . .
  • NOTE: An 'fa_hosts' configuration module file does NOT need to be named fa_hosts.pm . Any name can be used, so long as the internal package name is the same as the file name. For example, a file named host_blocks.pm needs to have the line package host_blocks; as the first line of the file.

NOTE: It is common to use BOTH location variables together:

        BEGIN { our $fa_code='/home/user/my_code.pm';
                our $fa_hosts='/home/user/my_hosts.pm' }
        use Net::FullAuto;
        . . . 
  • Typical fa_hosts.pm File Contents

  • The following is typical contents of a fa_hosts.pm showing two host blocks with minimal configuration:

        package fa_hosts;

        require Exporter;
        use warnings;
        our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
        our @EXPORT = qw(@Hosts);

        @Hosts=(
        #################################################################
        ##  Do NOT alter code ABOVE this block.
        #################################################################
        ## -------------------------------------------------------------
        ##  ADD HOST BLOCKS HERE:
        ## -------------------------------------------------------------

           {
               Label     => 'REMOTE COMPUTER ONE',
               IP        => '198.201.10.01',
               Hostname  => 'Linux_Host_One',
           },
           {
               Label     => 'REMOTE COMPUTER TWO',
               IP        => '198.201.10.02',
               Hostname  => 'Linux_Host_Two',
           },

        #################################################################
        ##  Do NOT alter code BELOW this block.
        #################################################################
        );

        ## Important! The '1' at the Bottom is NEEDED!
        1
  • Typical fa_code.pm File Contents

  • The following is typical contents of a fa_code.pm showing two simple subroutines:

        package fa_code;

        require Exporter;
        use warnings;
        our @ISA = qw(Exporter Net::FullAuto::FA_Core);
        use Net::FullAuto::FA_Core;

        #################################################################
        ##  Do NOT alter code ABOVE this block.
        #################################################################

        sub hello_world {

            print $localhost->cmd('echo "hello world"');

        }

        sub remote_hostname {

            my ($computer_one,$stdout,$stderr,$exitcode);   # Scope Variables

            $computer_one=connect_ssh('REMOTE COMPUTER ONE'); # Connect to
                                                     # Remote Host via ssh

            ($stdout,$stderr,$exitcode)=$computer_one->cmd('hostname');

            print "REMOTE ONE HOSTNAME=$stdout\n";

        }

        ########### END OF SUBS ########################

        #################################################################
        ##  Do NOT alter code BELOW this block.
        #################################################################

        ## Important! The '1' at the Bottom is NEEDED!
        1 

fa_hosts.pm HOST BLOCK KEY ELEMENTS

  • Key Elements

      Label - string to identify host block (This is a REQUIRED Element)

      Label => 'Any_Unique_String',

    The Label Key Element is the method by which Net::FullAuto locates the connection information in the fa_hosts.pm file.

  • IP - ip address of remote host (Either an IP address or Hostname Element is REQUIRED)

    IP => '198.201.10.01',

  • Hostname - hostname of remote host (Either an IP address or Hostname Element is REQUIRED)

    Hostname => 'Remote_Host_One',

  • LoginID - optional login id for remote host

    LoginID =>'Username'

The LoginID Key Element is optional because Net::FullAuto defaults to use the login id of the current user running fullauto (or script using the Net::FullAuto.pm  module). The password associated with ALL login ids - either default or indicated with this key element - are protected in an encrypted password file, and added and retrieved automatically when fullauto is run. If the password associated with the host and login id cannot be located in the password file, the user will be prompted to add it.

  • LogFile - optional log file name and location

    LogFile => "/tmp/FAlog${$}d" . "$Net::FullAuto::FA_Core::invoked[2]" . "$Net::FullAuto::FA_Core::invoked[3].txt",

fa_code.pm METHODS

  • Create New Host Objects

    connect_secure - connect to remote host via ssh & sftp

    • ($secure_host_object,$error) = connect_secure('HOSTLABEL');

    All Connect Methods return a host object if connection is successful, or error message(s)
    in the error variable if the method is requested to return a list. Otherwise, if the method is
    requested to only return a scalar:

    • $secure_host_object = connect_secure('HOSTLABEL');

    Any connection errors will result in complete termination of the process.

    The $secure_host_object represents both ssh AND sftp connections together in ONE
    object. The HOSTLABEL tag is a label to an anonymous hash block defined in the file fa_hosts.pm.
    (See the fa_hosts section for instructions on configuring host connection information.)

    The important thing to understand, is that there is no other code needed to connect to remote
    hosts. Net::FullAuto handles all connection details, such as dynamic remote-prompt discovery,
    AUTOMATICALLY. No need to define or even know what the remote prompt is. This feature
    'alone' is a major departure from most other scriptable remote command and file transfer utilities.

    • THIS IS THE RECOMMENDED BEST METHOD for CONNECTING.

    connect_ssh - connect to remote host via ssh

    • ($ssh_host_object,$error) = connect_ssh('HOSTLABEL');

      $ssh_host_object = connect_ssh('HOSTLABEL');

    This method returns an ssh connection only - any attempt to use file-transfer features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need file-transfer capability in your process.

    connect_sftp - connect to remote host via sftp

    • ($sftp_host_object,$error) = connect_sftp('HOSTLABEL');

      $sftp_host_object = connect_sftp('HOSTLABEL');

    This method returns an sftp connection only - any attempt to use remote command-line features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need remote command-line capability in your process.

    connect_host - connect to remote host via ssh OR telnet and sftp OR ftp

    • ($host_object,$error) = connect_host('HOSTLABEL');

      $host_object = connect_host('HOSTLABEL');

    This method is the most powerful of all the connect methods. When this method is used, it will first attempt to
    connect to the remote host via ssh and sftp. However, if for any reason either or both ssh and sftp fail to connect,
    then it will attempt to connect via telnet and/or ftp. (Use connect_reverse for the opposite behavior.)
    This method returns either a ssh or telnet connection and either a sftp or ftp connection. (Note: you could get a connection that is telnet/sftp or ssh/ftp)

    Note: This is the most powerful method, but not the most secure, becasue it's possible to connect with telnet and/or ftp. Use this when process completion is more important than having optimum connection security.

    connect_insecure - connect to remote host via telnet & ftp

    • ($insecure_host_object,$error) = connect_insecure('HOSTLABEL');

    All Connect Methods return a host object if connection is successful, or error message(s)
    in the error variable if the method is requested to return a list. Otherwise, if the method is
    requested to only return a scalar:

    • $insecure_host_object = connect_insecure('HOSTLABEL');

    Any connection errors will result in complete termination of the process.

    The $insecure_host_object represents both telnet AND ftp connections together in ONE
    object. The HOSTLABEL tag is a label to an anonymous hash block defined in the file fa_hosts.pm.
    (See the fa_hosts section for instructions on configuring host connection information.)

    • THIS METHOD IS *NOT* RECOMMENDED for CONNECTING - use connect_secure() whenever possible.

    connect_telnet - connect to remote host via telnet

    • ($ssh_host_object,$error) = connect_telnet('HOSTLABEL');

      $ssh_host_object = connect_telnet('HOSTLABEL');

    This method returns a telnet connection only - any attempt to use file-transfer features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need file-transfer capability in your process.

    • THIS METHOD IS *NOT* RECOMMENDED for CONNECTING - use connect_ssh() whenever possible.

    connect_ftp - connect to remote host via ftp

    • ($ftp_host_object,$error) = connect_ftp('HOSTLABEL');

      $ftp_host_object = connect_ftp('HOSTLABEL');

    This method returns an ftp connection only - any attempt to use remote command-line features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need remote command-line capability in your process.

    • THIS METHOD IS *NOT* RECOMMENDED for CONNECTING - use connect_sftp() whenever possible.

    connect_ssh_telnet - connect to remote host via ssh OR telnet

    • ($host_object,$error) = connect_ssh_telnet('HOSTLABEL');

      $host_object = connect_ssh_telnet('HOSTLABEL');

    When this method is used, it will first attempt to
    connect to the remote host via ssh. However, if for any reason ssh fails to connect,
    then it will attempt to connect via telnet. (Use connect_telnet_ssh for the opposite behavior.)
    This method returns either a ssh or telnet connection.

    Note: This is a powerful method, but not the most secure, becasue it's possible to connect with telnet. Use this when process completion is more important than having optimum connection security.

    This method returns a remote command-line connection only - any attempt to use file-transfer features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need file-transfer capability in your process.

    connect_telnet_ssh - connect to remote host via telnet OR ssh

    • ($host_object,$error) = connect_telnet_ssh('HOSTLABEL');

      $host_object = connect_telnet_ssh('HOSTLABEL');

    When this method is used, it will first attempt to
    connect to the remote host via telnet. However, if for any reason telnet fails to connect,
    then it will attempt to connect via ssh. (Use connect_ssh_telnet for the opposite behavior.)
    This method returns either a telnet or ssh connection.

    Note: This is a powerful method, but not the most secure, becasue it's possible to connect with telnet. Use this when process completion is more important than having optimum connection security. Also, this method will return a telnet connection FIRST if available. Use this if connection reliability is important, but performance is more important than security.

    This method returns a remote command-line connection only - any attempt to use file-transfer features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need file-transfer capability in your process.

    • THIS METHOD IS *NOT* RECOMMENDED for CONNECTING - use connect_ssh() whenever possible.

    connect_sftp_ftp - connect to remote host via sftp OR ftp

    • ($host_object,$error) = connect_sftp_ftp('HOSTLABEL');

      $host_object = connect_sftp_ftp('HOSTLABEL');

    When this method is used, it will first attempt to
    connect to the remote host via sftp. However, if for any reason telnet fails to connect,
    then it will attempt to connect via ftp. (Use connect_ftp_sftp for the opposite behavior.)
    This method returns either a sftp or ftp connection.

    Note: This is a powerful method, but not the most secure, becasue it's possible to connect with ftp. Use this when process completion is more important than having optimum connection security.

    This method returns a file-transfer connection only - any attempt to use remote command-line features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need remote command-line capability in your process.

    connect_ftp_sftp - connect to remote host via ftp OR sftp

    • ($host_object,$error) = connect_ftp_sftp('HOSTLABEL');

      $host_object = connect_ftp_sftp('HOSTLABEL');

    When this method is used, it will first attempt to
    connect to the remote host via ftp. However, if for any reason sftp fails to connect
    then it will attempt to connect via sftp. (Use connect_sftp_ftp for the opposite behavior.)
    This method returns either a ftp or sftp connection.

    Note: This is a powerful method, but not the most secure, because it's possible to connect with ftp. Use this when process completion is more important than having optimum connection security. Also, this method will return a ftp connection FIRST if available. Use this if connection reliability is important, but performance is more important than security.

    This method returns an file-transfer connection only - any attempt to use remote command-line features with this object
    will throw an error.

    Use this method if you don't need remote command-line capability in your process.

    • THIS METHOD IS *NOT* RECOMMENDED for CONNECTING - use connect_sftp() whenever possible.

    connect_reverse - connect to remote host via telnet OR ssh and ftp OR sftp

    • ($connect_reverse_object,$error) = connect_reverse('HOSTLABEL');

      $connect_reverse_object = connect_reverse('HOSTLABEL');

    When this method is used, it will first attempt to
    connect to the remote host via ssh and sftp. However, if for any reason either or both telnet and ftp fail to connect,
    then it will attempt to connect via ssh and/or sftp. (Use connect_host for the opposite behavior.)
    This method returns either a telnet or ssh connection and either a ftp or sftp connection. (Note: you could get a connection that is telnet/sftp or ssh/ftp)

    Note: This is a powerful method, but not the most secure, because it's possible to connect with telnet and/or ftp. Use this when process completion is more important than having optimum connection security. Also, this method will return a telnet/ftp connection FIRST if available. Use this if connection reliability is important, but performance is more important than security.

  • Host Object Methods

    cmd - run command line commands on the remote host

    • ($cmd_output,$error) = $connect_secure_object->cmd('hostlabel');

    There is a cmd method available with every connect_object. For all objects that contain both remote command-line and file-transfer connections, the cmd method gives access ONLY to the remote command-line feature. To access the ftp cmd options, use the following syntax:

    • ($ftp_cmd_output,$error) = $connect_secure_object->{_ftp_handle}->cmd('help');

    For all objects that contain only a file-transfer connection, the cmd method gives access ONLY to the file-transfer command-line feature.

    • ($sftp_cmd_output,$error) = $connect_sftp_object->cmd('help');

EXAMPLES

AUTHOR

Brian M. Kelly <Brian.Kelly@fullauto.com>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2000-2015

by Brian M. Kelly.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License. (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/agpl.html).