Ben Bullock
and 4 contributors

NAME

Net::IPv6Addr - Check and manipulate IPv6 addresses

VERSION

This documents version 0.96 of Net::IPv6Addr corresponding to git commit 64f42c10634b707ccd482644a0fae855d488d5d6 released on Sat Oct 6 15:05:27 2018 +0900.

SYNOPSIS

    use Net::IPv6Addr;
    my $addr = "dead:beef:cafe:babe::f0ad";
    Net::IPv6Addr::ipv6_parse($addr);
    my $x = Net::IPv6Addr->new($addr);
    print $x->to_string_preferred(), "\n";

produces output

    dead:beef:cafe:babe:0:0:0:f0ad

(This example is included as synopsis.pl in the distribution.)

DESCRIPTION

Net::IPv6Addr can check whether strings contain valid IPv6 addresses, and convert them into various formats.

All of "new", "is_ipv6", and "ipv6_parse" can process the following formats:

Preferred form: x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x

2001:db8:0:0:0:ff00:42:8329

This is the form described as the "preferred form" in section 2.2 of "RFC1884" et al. Output with "to_string_preferred".

Compressed form with double colon: x::x etc.

2001:db8::ff00:42:8329

This is the "canonical text representation format" of "RFC5952". Output with "to_string_compressed".

Mixed IPv4/IPv6 format: x:x:x:x:x:x:d.d.d.d

2001:db8:0:0:0:ff00:0.66.131.41

Output with "to_string_ipv4".

Mixed IPv4/IPv6 with compression: x::x:d.d.d.d, etc.

2001:db8::ff00:0.66.131.41

Output with "to_string_ipv4_compressed".

Base-85-encoded: [0-9A-Za-z!#$%&()*+;<=>?@^_`{|}~-]{20}

9R}vSQ9RqiCvG6zn?Zyh

This encoding was given in "RFC1924" as an April Fool's joke. Output with "to_string_base85".

In addition, the following formats can be output:

Big integers

An IPv6 can be changed to a Math::BigInt object or a digit string using "to_bigint". Big integers can also be input with "from_bigint".

Arrays

An IPv6 can be processed into its component pieces with "to_array" or "to_intarray".

Reverse-address pointer

An IPv6 can be processed into its reverse-address pointer, as defined by "RFC1886", using "to_string_ip6_int".

METHODS AND FUNCTIONS

All of the following except "new" serve as both object methods and standalone functions.

new

    my $ni = Net::IPv6Addr->new ('dead:beef:cafe:babe::f0ad');

Create a new Net::IPv6Addr object from a string. Internally, the object is a blessed array reference containing the eight parts of the address as integers.

Parameters

A string to be interpreted as an IPv6 address.

Returns

A Net::IPv6Addr object if successful.

Notes

Throws an exception if the string isn't a valid address.

ipv6_parse

    my ($ni, $pl) = ipv6_parse ('dead:beef:cafe:babe::f0ad');

Parameters

Either a string containing an IPv6 address string, which may also include a / character and a numeric prefix length,

    my ($x, $y) = ipv6_parse ("a::/24");

or an IPv6 address string, with an optional second argument consisting of a numeric prefix length:

    my ($x, $y) = ipv6_parse('a::', '24');

Returns

Called in array context, the return value is a list consisting of the address string and the prefix, if it parses correctly. Called in scalar context, the address and prefix are concatenated with "/".

Notes

Throws an exception on malformed input.

is_ipv6

    my $niok = is_ipv6 ('dead:beef:cafe:babe::f0ad');

Parameters

Identical to "ipv6_parse".

Returns

This returns the return value of "ipv6_parse", called in scalar context, if it does parse out correctly, otherwise it returns undef. Unlike "ipv6_parse", is_ipv6 does not throw exceptions.

ipv6_chkip

    my $niok = ipv6_chkip ('dead:beef:cafe:babe::f0ad');

Parameters

An IPv6 address string, without a prefix.

Returns

A true value if it's a valid address; a false value if not.

to_string_preferred

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'to_string_preferred';
    print to_string_preferred ('dead:beef:cafe:babe::f0ad');

produces output

    dead:beef:cafe:babe:0:0:0:f0ad

(This example is included as preferred.pl in the distribution.)

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

The IPv6 address, formatted in the "preferred" way (as detailed by "RFC1884" et al).

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

to_string_compressed

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'to_string_compressed';
    print to_string_compressed ('dead:beef:0000:0000:0000:0000:cafe:babe');

produces output

    dead:beef::cafe:babe

(This example is included as compressed.pl in the distribution.)

This provides the "canonical text representation format" of "RFC5952".

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

The IPv6 address in the "compressed" ("RFC1884" et al.) or "canonical" ("RFC5952") format. Hexadecimal numbers are reduced to lower case, consecutive zero elements are reduced to double colons, and leading zeros are removed from strings of hexadecimal digits. All treatment of ambiguities is as per RFC5952. (See t/rfc5952.t for tests.)

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

to_string_ipv4

    use Net::IPv6Addr ':all';
    print to_string_ipv4_compressed ('dead:beef:0:3:2:1:cafe:babe');

produces output

    dead:beef::3:2:1:202.254.186.190

(This example is included as to-string-ipv4.pl in the distribution.)

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

The IPv6 address in the IPv4 format detailed by "RFC1884" et al.

Notes

When used as a subroutine, invalid input will generate an exception.

From version "0.95", this allows any IPv6 address to be produced, not just the restricted forms allowed previously.

to_string_ipv4_compressed

    use Net::IPv6Addr ':all';
    print to_string_ipv4_compressed ('dead:beef:0:3:2:1:cafe:babe');

produces output

    dead:beef::3:2:1:202.254.186.190

(This example is included as to-string-ipv4-comp.pl in the distribution.)

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

The IPv6 address in the compressed IPv4 format detailed by "RFC1884" et al.

Notes

When used as a subroutine, invalid input will generate an exception.

From version "0.95", this allows any IPv6 address to be produced, not just the restricted forms allowed previously.

to_string_base85

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

The IPv6 address in the style detailed by "RFC1924".

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

The base 85 encoding described in "RFC1924" was an April Fool's joke.

to_bigint

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'to_bigint';
    my $int = to_bigint ('dead::beef');
    my $ipobj = Net::IPv6Addr->new ('dead::beef');
    my $int2 = $ipobj->to_bigint ();
    print "$int\n$int2\n";

produces output

    295986882420777848964380943247191621359
    295986882420777848964380943247191621359

(This example is included as bigint.pl in the distribution.)

Convert an IPv6 address into a Math::BigInt object containing the IP address as a single number.

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

The BigInt representation of the given IPv6 address.

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

See also "from_bigint", "to_intarray" and "to_array".

to_array

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'to_array';
    my @int = to_array ('dead::beef');
    my $ipobj = Net::IPv6Addr->new ('dead::beef');
    my @int2 = $ipobj->to_array ();
    print "@int\n@int2\n";

produces output

    dead 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 beef
    dead 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 beef

(This example is included as array.pl in the distribution.)

Convert an IPv6 address into an array of eight hexadecimal numbers.

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

An array [0..7] of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers (strings).

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

See also "to_intarray" and "to_bigint".

to_intarray

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'to_array';
    my @int = to_array ('dead::beef');
    my $ipobj = Net::IPv6Addr->new ('dead::beef');
    my @int2 = $ipobj->to_array ();
    print "@int\n@int2\n";

produces output

    dead 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 beef
    dead 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 beef

(This example is included as array.pl in the distribution.)

Convert an IPv6 address into an array of eight integer numbers.

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

An array [0..7] of numbers.

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

See also "to_array" and "to_bigint".

to_string_ip6_int

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'to_string_ip6_int';
    my $s = to_string_ip6_int ('dead::beef');
    my $ipobj = Net::IPv6Addr->new ('dead::beef');
    my $s2 = $ipobj->to_string_ip6_int ();
    print "$s\n$s2\n";

produces output

    f.e.e.b.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.d.a.e.d.IP6.INT.
    f.e.e.b.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.d.a.e.d.IP6.INT.

(This example is included as string-ip6-int.pl in the distribution.)

Parameters

If used as an object method, none; if used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format.

Returns

The reverse-address pointer as defined by "RFC1886".

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

The reverse process of converting these into Net::IPv6Addr objects is not supported.

in_network_of_size

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'in_network_of_size';
    my $obj = in_network_of_size ('dead:beef:cafe:babe:dead:beef:cafe:babe', 42);
    print $obj->to_string_compressed ();

produces output

    dead:beef:cac0::

(This example is included as inos.pl in the distribution.)

Given an input IPv6 address $x, this returns the $n most-significant bits of $x as a new Net::IPv6Addr object.

Parameters

If used as an object method, network size in bits:

    my $obj = $x->in_network_of_size (64);

If used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format and a network size in bits:

    my $obj = in_network_of_size ($addr, 64);

Network size may also be given with / notation:

    my $obj = in_network_of_size ("$addr/64");

Returns

The $n most-significant bits of $x as a new Net::IPv6Addr object.

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

Prior to version "0.9", this did not work correctly unless the net size was a multiple of sixteen.

in_network

    use Net::IPv6Addr;
    my $obj = Net::IPv6Addr->new ('dead:beef:cafe:babe:dead:beef:cafe:babe');
    if ($obj->in_network ('dead:beef:ca0::/21')) {
        print $obj->to_string_compressed, " is in network.\n";
    }
    
    

produces output

    dead:beef:cafe:babe:dead:beef:cafe:babe is in network.

(This example is included as inet.pl in the distribution.)

Parameters

If used as an object method, a network and its size in bits

    my $ok = $x->in_network ("aa:bb:cc:dd::", 64);

If used as a subroutine, an IPv6 address string in any format, followed by a network address string and its size in bits.

    my $addr = 'fd00::54:20c:29fe:fe14:ab4b';
    my $ok = Net::IPv6Addr::in_network ($addr, "aa:bb:cc:dd::", 64);

The network size may also be given with the / notation after the network address string:

    my $ok = $x->in_network("aa:bb:cc:dd::/64");

Returns

A true value if the address $x is a member of the network given as the argument, or false otherwise.

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

Prior to version "0.9", this did not work correctly unless the net size was a multiple of sixteen.

from_bigint

    use Net::IPv6Addr 'from_bigint';
    print from_bigint ('12345678901234567890')->to_string_compressed ();
    

produces output

    ::ab54:a98c:eb1f:ad2

(This example is included as from-bigint.pl in the distribution.)

Given a string or a Math::BigInt object containing a number, this converts it into a Net::IPv6Addr object.

Parameters

A string or a Math::BigInt object. If the input is a scalar, it's converted into a Math::BigInt object.

Returns

A Net::IPv6Addr object

Notes

Invalid input will generate an exception.

This function was added in "0.95".

EXPORTS

As of version 0.96, "from_bigint", "in_network", "in_network_of_size", "ipv6_chkip", "ipv6_parse", "is_ipv6", "to_array", "to_bigint", "to_intarray", "to_string_base85", "to_string_compressed", "to_string_ip6_int", "to_string_ipv4", "to_string_ipv4_compressed", "to_string_preferred" may be exported on demand. All the exported functions may be exported using

    use Net::IPv6Addr ':all';

DEPENDENCIES

Net::IPv4Addr

This is used to parse IPv4 addresses.

Math::Base85

This is used to parse "RFC1924" (April Fool's) addresses.

Math::BigInt

This is used by the "RFC1924" (April Fool's) address routines and by "to_bigint" and "from_bigint".

Reverse dependencies

Search grep.cpan.me for uses of this module

SEE ALSO

RFCs

The following RFCs (requests for comment, internet standards documentation) contain information on IPv6.

Addressing Architecture series

These are all the same standard, with updates. The most recent one is the active one.

RFC1884

IPv6 Addressing Architecture - December 1995

RFC2373

IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture - July 1998

RFC3513

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture - April 2003

RFC4291

IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture - February 2006

Other

RFC1886

DNS Extensions to support IP version 6 - December 1995

RFC1924

A Compact Representation of IPv6 Addresses - 1 April 1996

This was an April Fool's joke.

RFC5952

A Recommendation for IPv6 Address Text Representation - August 2010

This contains a "recommendation for a canonical text representation format of IPv6 addresses" which corresponds to the output of "to_string_compressed" in this module.

The links go to the plain text online versions of the RFCs.

Other CPAN modules

There are a very large number of CPAN modules which deal with IPv6 addresses. The following list gives all the ones I know about which overlap with this module, in alphabetical order.

Data::Validate::IP

This module uses Socket to validate IP addresses. It offers a number of facilities for special-purpose sub networks, like is_discard_ipv6, which are not offered in Net::IPv6Addr.

IPv6::Address

Its description says "A pure Perl IPv6 address manipulation library. Emphasis on manipulation of prefixes and addresses."

It insists on having a prefix with the IP address, so

    my $ipv6 = IPv6::Address->new ('2001:0:0:1:0:0:0:1');

actually fails, you have to use

    my $ipv6 = IPv6::Address->new ('2001:0:0:1:0:0:0:1/64');
Net::IP

Features binary IPs (strings like '101001'), etc.

Net::IP::Minimal

It's a simplified version of "Net::IP".

Net::IPAddress::Util

It's a "Version-agnostic representation of an IP address". I have not tried this module.

Net::IPv6Address

This module is broken and strongly not recommended.

NetAddr::IP
NetAddr::IP::Lite

These are two things in the same distribution. The documentation is quite offputting, but there are a lot of users of the module and stars on metacpan.

Regexp::IPv6

This module consists of a regex for validating IPv6s. Because this module had a lot more and better tests than Net::IPv6Addr, I included the tests and one regex from Regexp::IPv6 in this module. (See t/Regexp-IPv6.t) Unlike Net::IPv6Addr, Regexp::IPv6 disallows ::, "the unspecified addresses". See the module's documentation for details.

Other

Online validator

https://www.helpsystems.com/intermapper/ipv6-test-address-validation

HISTORY

This module was originally written by Tony Monroe in 2001 to simplify the task of maintaining DNS records after he set himself up with Freenet6.

In 2017 the module was adopted by Ben Bullock with the help of Neil Bowers as part of "CPAN day". Significant changes to the module since then include the following:

0.8

Exporting of some functions was added. Prior to this, everything had to be done fully-qualified, as in Net::IPv6Addr::to_string_compressed.

0.9

"in_network" and "in_network_of_size" were fixed to allow more kinds of previxes.

0.92

The valid format consisting of a compressed-but-non-zero six-element IPv6 followed by an IPv4, such as fe80::204:61ff:254.157.241.86, is accepted by the module.

0.95

The "from_bigint" method was added and the documentation updated to reflect the current internet standards.

The restriction on mixed address inputs removed in "0.92" was also removed in the output routines "to_string_ipv4" and "to_string_ipv4_compressed".

AUTHOR

Tony Monroe(*)

The module's interface resembles Net::IPv4Addr by Francis J. Lacoste <francis dot lacoste at iNsu dot COM>.

Some fixes and subroutines from Jyrki Soini <jyrki dot soini at sonera dot com>.

(*) The current module maintainer (BKB) does not have any contact information for Tony Monroe. Those wishing to contact him can do so via Neil Bowers (see his CPAN user page for contact details).

LICENSE

This distribution is copyright (c) 2001-2002 Tony Monroe. All rights reserved. This software is distributed under the same license terms as Perl itself. This software comes with NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, express, implied, or otherwise.