++ed by:
1 non-PAUSE user
Author image Randy Stauner ⛰
and 1 contributors


Parse::ANSIColor::Tiny - Determine attributes of ANSI-Colored string


version 0.601


  # output from some command
  my $output = "foo\e[31mbar\e[00m";

  my $ansi = Parse::ANSIColor::Tiny->new();
  my $marked = $ansi->parse($output);

      [ [], 'foo' ],
      [ ['red'], 'bar' ],
    'parse colored string';

  # don't forget to html-encode the string!
  my $html = join '',
    (map { '<span class="' . join(' ', @{ $_->[0] }) . '">' . h($_->[1]) . '</span>' } @$marked),

  is $html,
    '<div><span class="">foo</span><span class="red">bar</span></div>',
    'turned simple ansi into html';


Parse a string colored with ANSI escape sequences into a structure suitable for reformatting (into HTML, for example).

The output of terminal commands can be marked up with colors and formatting that in some instances you'd like to preserve.

This module is essentially the inverse of Term::ANSIColor. The array refs returned from "parse" can be passed back in to Term::ANSIColor::colored. The strings may not match exactly due to different ways the attributes can be specified, but the end result should be colored the same.

This is a ::Tiny module... it attempts to be correct for most cases with a small amount of code. It may not be 100% correct, especially in complex cases. It only handles the m escape sequence (\033[0m) which produces colors and simple attributes (bold, underline) (like what can be produced with Term::ANSIColor). Other escape sequences are removed by default but you can disable this by passing remove_escapes => 0 to the constructor.

If you do find bugs please submit tickets (with patches, if possible).




Takes a hash or hash ref of arguments:

  • auto_reverse - Automatically invert colors when reverse is present; Disabled by default.

  • background - Color to assume as background; Black by default. Currently used by "process_reverse".

  • foreground - Color to assume as foreground; White by default. Currently used by "process_reverse".

  • remove_escapes - Remove other terminal escape sequences (not related to color). Passes strings through "remove_escape_sequences" before parsing.


Returns a list of the base color names (in numeric escape sequence order).


Returns a list of the foreground colors (in numeric escape sequence order).

This includes the base colors, their bright_ variants, and the names from the 256 palette (prefixes of ansi, rgb, and grey).


Returns a list of the background colors (in numeric escape sequence order).

This includes the on_ and on_bright_ variants of the base colors and the on_ names for the 256 palette.


  my @names = $parser->identify('1;31');
    # or $parser->identify('1', '31');
  # returns ('bold', 'red')

Identifies attributes by their number; Returns a list of names.

This is similar to uncolor() in Term::ANSIColor.

Unknown codes will be ignored (remove from the output):

  $parser->identify('33', '52');
  # returns ('yellow') # drops the '52'


  my @norm = $parser->normalize(@attributes);

Takes a list of named attributes (like those returned from "identify") and reduces the list to only those that would have effect.

  • Duplicates will be removed

  • a foreground color will overwrite any previous foreground color (and the previous ones will be removed)

  • same for background colors

  • clear will remove all previous attributes

  my @norm = $parser->normalize(qw(red bold green));
  # returns ('bold', 'green');


  my $marked = $parser->parse($output);

Parse the provided string and return an array ref of array refs describing the formatting:

  # [
  #   [ [], 'plain words' ],
  #   [ ['red'], 'colored words' ],
  # [

These array refs are consistent with the arguments to colored() in Term::ANSIColor:

  Term::ANSIColor::colored( ['red'], 'colored words' );


Performs post-processing on the provided attributes.

This currently includes "process_reverse" if auto_reverse is enabled.


  my @attr = $parser->process_reverse( $parser->normalize( '31;42;7' ) );

Translates a normalized set of attributes into something easier to process. This is called internally when auto_reverse is configured.

If reverse is included in the attributes it should invert the foreground and background colors.

This method makes the attributes more straight forward and likely easier for other things to process:

  my @norm = $parser->normalize( '1;31;42;7' );
  # returns qw( bold red on_green reverse );

  my @attr = $parser->process_reverse( @norm );
  # returns qw( bold on_red green );

This extra step is necessary to maintain state and properly handle reverse/reverse_off since two reverses do not cancel each other, but rather the second should be ignored.

If no foreground or background color is currently active then the colors specified as foreground and background will be included (and reversed).

  my @attr = $parser->process_reverse( qw( bold reverse ) );
  # returns qw( bold on_white black );

  my @attr = $parser->process_reverse( qw( bold reverse red ) );
  # returns qw( bold on_red   black );

This is consistent with the way it is drawn in the terminal. Explicitly specifying both colors should make it easy for anything downstream to process and display as intended.


  my $clean = $parser->remove_escape_sequences( $string );

Strip other terminal escape sequences (those not relating to color) from the string to avoid unexpected characters in the output. This method is called from "parse" if remove_escapes is enabled.



Function wrapped around "identify".


Function wrapped around "normalize".


Function wrapped around "parse".


Everything listed in "FUNCTIONS" is also available for export upon request.




You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

  perldoc Parse::ANSIColor::Tiny


The following websites have more information about this module, and may be of help to you. As always, in addition to those websites please use your favorite search engine to discover more resources.

Bugs / Feature Requests

Please report any bugs or feature requests by email to bug-parse-ansicolor-tiny at rt.cpan.org, or through the web interface at https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Bug/Report.html?Queue=Parse-ANSIColor-Tiny. You will be automatically notified of any progress on the request by the system.

Source Code


  git clone https://github.com/rwstauner/Parse-ANSIColor-Tiny.git


Randy Stauner <rwstauner@cpan.org>


Dmitry Fedin <dmitry.fedin@gmail.com>


This software is copyright (c) 2011 by Randy Stauner.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.